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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300698/antibacterial-screening-of-rumex-species-native-to-the-carpathian-basin-and-bioactivity-guided-isolation-of-compounds-from-rumex-aquaticus
#1
Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Erika Liktor-Busa, Norbert Kúsz, Dóra Stefkó, Edit Urbán, Judit Hohmann, Andrea Vasas
Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R...
March 11, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268024/presence-distribution-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-from-medical-personnel-of-intensive-care-units-in-tianjin-china-2007-2015
#2
H Liu, C N Fei, Y Zhang, G W Liu, J Liu, J Dong
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). AIMS: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of MDRGNB isolated from medical personnel (MP) and non-medical personnel (NMP) at 69 ICUs in Tianjin, China. METHODS: From April 2007 to October 2015, 2636 nasal and hand swab samples from 1185 MP and 133 NMP were cultured for GNB (including MDRGNB), meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264613/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ceftobiprole-for-the-treatment-of-mrsa
#3
Karolyn S Horn, Larry H Danziger, Keith A Rodvold, Robert C Glowacki
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while decreasing in overall incidence, is still a prominent concern world-wide. New agents coming to market in the last 10 years allow practitioners to optimize treatment for MRSA infections. Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin agent with MRSA activity, currently approved in selected countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Areas covered: Relevant literature regarding spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trials will be discussed...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257904/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-comparator-agents-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-clinical-isolates-from-cancer-patients
#4
Kenneth V I Rolston, Mohamed A Jamal, Lior Nesher, Samuel A Shelburne, Issam Raad, Randall A Prince
Bacterial infections are common in cancer patients. Ceftaroline (CFT) is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against most Gram-positive organisms (GPOs) and many Gram-negative organisms. In this study, the in vitro activity of CFT was compared with vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin (DAP), linezolid (LZD), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (SXT) and tigecycline (TIG) against bacteria (predominantly blood culture isolates) isolated from cancer patients in 2014 and 2015. CFT was active against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251179/fluorocycline-tp-271-is-potent-against-complicated-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-pathogens
#5
Trudy H Grossman, Corey Fyfe, William O'Brien, Meredith Hackel, Mary Beth Minyard, Ken B Waites, Jacques Dubois, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, William J Weiss, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244296/bacterial-species-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-in-korean-patients-diagnosed-with-acute-otitis-media-and-otitis-media-with-effusion
#6
Sang Hoon Kim, Eun Ju Jeon, Seok Min Hong, Chang Hoon Bae, Ho Yun Lee, Moo Kyun Park, Jae Yong Byun, Myung Gu Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
Changes over time in pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity resulting from the recent overuse and misuse of antibiotics in otitis media (OM) have complicated treatment. This study evaluated changes over 5 years in principal pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity in patients in Korea diagnosed with acute OM (AOM) and OM with effusion (OME). The study population consisted of 683 patients who visited the outpatient department of otorhinolaryngology in 7 tertiary hospitals in Korea between January 2010 and May 2015 and were diagnosed with acute AOM or OME...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237739/collaboration-with-an-infection-control-team-for-patients-with-infection-after-spine-surgery
#7
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Daizo Kato, Kei Ando, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Tetsuya Yagi, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
BACKGROUND: The risk of infection, including surgical site infection (SSI), after spine surgery has increased due to aging and more immunocompromised hosts. An infection control team (ICT) is responsible for management of health care-associated infections at our institution. METHODS: The study subjects were 40 patients (18 men and 22 women with an average age of 54 years) referred to the ICT after spine surgery since 2010. Pathogenic bacteria and treatment in these cases were reviewed...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236797/community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-critically-ill-patients-systematic-review
#8
Nuria Carballo, Marta De Antonio-Cuscó, Daniel Echeverría-Esnal, Sonia Luque, Esther Salas, Santiago Grau
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224769/increasing-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-fluoroquinolone-and-carbapenem-in-gram-negative-bacilli-and-the-emergence-of-carbapenem-non-susceptibility-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-analysis-of-korean-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-karms
#9
Dokyun Kim, Ji Young Ahn, Chae Hoon Lee, Sook Jin Jang, Hyukmin Lee, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: Of the KARMS participants, 16 secondary or tertiary hospitals consecutively reported antimicrobial resistance rates from 2013 to 2015. Data from duplicate isolates and institutions with fewer than 20 isolates were excluded...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216018/prospective-randomised-controlled-study-evaluating-early-modification-of-oral-microbiota-following-admission-to-the-intensive-care-unit-and-oral-hygiene-with-chlorhexidine
#10
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Oleg Gavrilko, Saulo de Almeida, Eigi Ricardo Sumi, Thiago Alberto, Jaime Luis Rocha, Edvaldo Antonio Rosa
OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214232/new-nitrofurans-amenable-by-isocyanide-multicomponent-chemistry-are-active-against-multidrug-resistant-and-poly-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Mikhail Krasavin, Vladislav Parchinsky, Grigory Kantin, Olga Manicheva, Marine Dogonadze, Tatiana Vinogradova, Bianka Karge, Mark Brönstrup
A set of structurally diverse N-amino δ-lactams decorated with a 5-nitro-2-furyl moiety was synthesized using isocyanide-based multicomponent chemistry and evaluated for antibacterial activity. Three compounds displayed a selective and potent (MIC 22-33μM) inhibition of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain growth, while other Gram-positive (MRSA and E. faecium) or Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae) pathogens were not affected. The compounds also displayed moderate-low cytotoxicity, as demonstrated in cell line viability assays...
February 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207269/a-biocompatible-injectable-hydrogel-with-potent-wound-healing-and-antibacterial-properties
#12
Jiaul Hoque, Relekar G Prakash, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Bibek R Shome, Jayanta Haldar
Two component injectable hydrogels that cross-link in-situ have been used as non-invasive wound-filling devices, i.e., sealants. These materials carry a variety of functions at the wound sites such as seal leaks, cease unwanted bleeding, bind tissues together, and assist in wound healing process. However, commonly used sealants typically lack antibacterial properties. Since bacterial infection at the wound site is very common, bioadhesive materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties are urgently required...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207234/potassium-iodide-potentiates-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-using-photofrin
#13
Liyi Huang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
It is known that noncationic porphyrins such as Photofrin (PF) are effective in mediating antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of Gram-positive bacteria or fungi. However, the aPDI activity of PF against Gram-negative bacteria is accepted to be extremely low. Here we report that the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide (KI) at a concentration of 100 mM when added to microbial cells (10(8)/mL) + PF (10 μM hematoporphyrin equivalent) + 415 nm light (10 J/cm(2)) can eradicate (>6 log killing) five different Gram-negative species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Acinetobacter baumannii), whereas no killing was obtained without KI...
February 23, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203096/burden-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-among-hospitalized-patients-in-lebanon-and-saudi-arabia
#14
Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi, Madonna J Matar, Rima Moghnieh, Adel F Alothman, Thamer H Alenazi, Fayssal Farahat, Shelby Corman, Caitlyn T Solem, Nirvana Raghubir, Cynthia Macahilig, Seema Haider, Jennifer M Stephens
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011-2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#15
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187785/longevity-and-gender-as-the-risk-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-southern-poland
#16
Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Anna Różańska, Joanna Natkaniec, Barbara Gryglewska, Anna Szczypta, Mirosława Dzikowska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The proportion of older people among the general population has risen. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) constitutes a significant problem. Underlying disease and functional debility, predispose the older adult to staphylococcal carriage and infection, specially bloodstream infection and pneumonia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of older patients with SA infections. We analyzed a database containing the results of laboratory cultures from patients treated in 2013 for SA infections and selected 613 hospitalized and non-hospitalized people aged ≥60 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179245/ceftaroline-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#17
Bryan Pinckney White, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
PURPOSE: The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. SUMMARY: Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169482/using-diphenylphosphoryl-azide-dppa-for-the-facile-synthesis-of-biodegradable-antiseptic-random-copolypeptides
#18
Yuji Pu, Yu Du, Mya Mya Khin, Vikashini Ravikumar, Scott A Rice, Hongwei Duan, Mary B Chan-Park
A facile method has been developed for the large-scale synthesis of random copolypeptides composed of multiple (i.e., cationic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic) amino acids and their relative ratios have been optimized for broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. The copolypeptides obtained have measured compositions close to the design ratios in spite of the differing reactivities of the different amino acids. An optimized random copolypeptide of lysine, leucine, and serine (denoted as KLS-3) mimicking the composition of LL-37 host defense peptide gives broad spectrum antibacterial activity against clinically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32-64 μg mL(-1) , as well as good MICs against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria of Escherichia coli EC 958 (64 μg mL(-1) ) and Klebseilla pneumoniae PTR3 (128 μg mL(-1) )...
February 7, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#19
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167542/in-vitro-activity-of-delafloxacin-when-tested-against-contemporary-bacterial-pathogens-from-the-united-states-and-europe-2014
#20
M A Pfaller, H S Sader, P R Rhomberg, R K Flamm
The in vitro activities of delafloxacin and comparator antimicrobial agents were tested against 6,485 bacterial isolates from medical centers in Europe (EU) and the United States (US) in 2014. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), MRSA, Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci and had activity similar to that of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Overall the broadest coverage of tested pathogens (Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli) was observed with meropenem and tigecycline in both EU and US...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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