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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#1
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216824/use-of-a-mixed-culture-strategy-to-isolate-halophilic-bacteria-with-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activity-from-the-manaure-solar-saltern-in-colombia
#2
Natalia Conde-Martínez, Alejandro Acosta-González, Luis E Díaz, Edisson Tello
BACKGROUND: Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216563/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-amino-acid-and-peptide-derivatives-of-mycophenolic-acid
#3
Agnieszka Siebert, Magdalena Wysocka, Beata Krawczyk, Grzegorz Cholewiński, Janusz Rachoń
The series of 16 novel amino acid and peptide mycophenolic acid (MPA) derivatives was obtained as potential antibacterial agents. Coupling of MPA with respective amines was optimized with condensing reagents such as EDCI/DMAP and T3P/TEA. Amino acid analogs were received both as methyl esters and also with the free carboxylic group. The biological activity of the products was tested on five references bacterial strains: Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 (ESBL), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus aureus MSSA ATCC 25923...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207567/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-a-series-of-11-12-cyclic-carbonate-azithromycin-3-o-descladinosyl-3-o-carbamoyl-glycosyl-derivatives
#4
Chao-Ming Wang, Feng-Lan Zhao, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Yun Chai, Qing-Guo Meng
A novel series of 11,12-cyclic carbonate azithromycin-3-O-descladinosyl-3-O-carbamoyl glycosyl derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro. Most of these compounds had significant antibacterial activity against seven kinds of susceptible strains. In particular, compound G1 exhibited the most potent activity against methicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae 943 (MIC: 1 μg/mL), Staphylococcus pneumoniae 746 (MIC: 2 μg/mL), Streptococcus pyogenes 447 (MIC: 8 μg/mL), and Escherichia coli 236 (MIC: 32 μg/mL), which were two-, four-, four-, four-, and eight-fold stronger activity than azithromycin, respectively...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186145/respective-impact-of-implementation-of-prevention-strategies-colonization-with-multiresistant-bacteria-and-antimicrobial-use-on-the-risk-of-early-and-late-onset-vap-an-analysis-of-the-outcomerea-network
#5
Wafa Ibn Saied, Bertrand Souweine, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Stéphane Ruckly, Michael Darmon, Sébastien Bailly, Yves Cohen, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Aguila Radjou, Hatem Kallel, Christophe Adrie, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Laurent Argaud, Guillaume Marcotte, Samir Jamali, Laurent Papazian, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Lila Bouadma, Jean-Francois Timsit
RATIONALE: The impact of prevention strategies and risk factors for early-onset (EOP) versus late-onset (LOP) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are still debated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a multicenter cohort, the risk factors for EOP and LOP, as the evolution of prevention strategies. METHODS: 7,784 patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 48 hours were selected into the multicenter prospective OUTCOMEREA database (1997-2016)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181890/acute-kidney-injury-induced-by-concomitant-use-of-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-pediatrics
#6
Manal Abouelkheir, Sarah Alsubaie
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is very commonly used in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) as an initial empiric therapy for moderate to severe infections, whenever coverage for both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required. The combination of vancomycin and PTZ in adults has recently been reported to significantly increase the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) relative to vancomycin monotherapy; such reports in pediatrics are sparse...
November 27, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175778/characterization-of-pathogens-involved-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-surgical-and-medical-intensive-care-units-a-single-center-experience
#7
Saghir Ahmad, Nafees Bacha, Jehan Bakht, Jawad Ahmed
In the present study 60 samples were collected from lower respiratory tract of patients suffering from Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) admitted in surgical and medical Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. Recovered pathogens were characterized and their susceptibility pattern against commonly used antibacterial agents investigated. Most frequent bacterial pathogen found was methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (40%) followed by members of Enterobacteriaceae (22%; of which Escherichia coli (50%), Klebsiella pneumonia (30%), Enterobacter cloacae (10%) and Citrobacter freundii (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20% and Acinetobacter baumannii 18%...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173791/new-antimicrobial-agents-for-the-treatment-of-staphylococcal-infections-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Roopali Sharma, Densley Francois, Margaret R Hammerschlag
Several new antimicrobial agents-daptomycin, ceftaroline, telavancin, dalbavancin, and-tedizolid have been approved for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in adults. Ceftaroline and daptomycin have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in children. Ceftaroline, a beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against MRSA, has been approved for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and complicated skin and skin structure infections...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160517/prevalence-and-antibiogram-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-medical-device-related-infections-a-retrospective-study-in-lahore-pakistan
#9
Muhammad Sohail, Zakia Latif
INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149185/linezolid-and-atorvastatin-impact-on-pneumonia-caused-by-staphyloccocus-aureus-in-rabbits-with-or-without-mechanical-ventilation
#10
Laure-Anne Pauchard, Mathieu Blot, Rémi Bruyere, Saber-Davide Barbar, Delphine Croisier, Lionel Piroth, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles
Pneumonia may involve methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with elevated rates of antibiotics failure. The present study aimed to assess the effect of statins given prior to pneumonia development. Spontaneously breathing (SB) or mechanically ventilated (MV) rabbits with pneumonia received atorvastatin alone, linezolid (LNZ) alone, or a combination of both (n = 5 in each group). Spontaneously breathing and MV untreated infected animals (n = 11 in each group), as well as uninfected animals (n = 5 in each group) were used as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147471/experience-with-ceftaroline-for-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-in-a-community-hospital
#11
Apurwa Karki, Craig Thurm, Kelly Cervellione
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an organism causing significant mortality and morbidity with nosocomial infections. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin antibiotic that has activity against MRSA. In the USA, this antibiotic has not been approved for use in pneumonia caused by MRSA. Objectives: To review the use of ceftaroline in MRSA pneumonia in a US hospital and evaluate its clinical success. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in an urban community hospital assessing the use of ceftaroline for MRSA pneumonia...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136469/novel-linear-lipopeptide-paenipeptins-with-potential-for-eradicating-biofilms-and-sensitizing-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-clarithromycin
#12
Sun Hee Moon, Xuan Zhang, Guangrong Zheng, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, En Huang
We report the structure-activity relationship analyses of 17 linear lipopeptide paenipeptin analogues. Analogues 7, 12, and 17 were more potent than the lead compound. Analogue 17 was active against carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-resistant pathogens. This compound at 40 μg/mL resulted in 3 log and 2.6 log reductions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, in catheter-associated biofilms in vitro. Analogue 17 showed little hemolysis at 32 μg/mL and lysed 11% of red blood cells at 64 μg/mL...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128664/intravenous-anti-mrsa-phosphatiosomes-mediate-enhanced-affinity-to-pulmonary-surfactants-for-effective-treatment-of-infectious-pneumonia
#13
Ching-Yun Hsu, Calvin T Sung, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Chun-Han Chen, Kai-Yin Hu, Jia-You Fang
The aim of this study was to develop PEGylated phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich nanovesicles (phosphatiosomes) carrying ciprofloxacin (CIPX) for lung targeting to eradicate extracellular and intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Soyaethyl morphonium ethosulfate (SME) was intercalated in the nanovesicle surface with the dual goals of achieving strengthened bactericidal activity of CIPX-loaded phosphatiosomes and delivery to the lungs. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results proved the strong association of SME phosphatiosomes with pulmonary surfactant...
November 8, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103235/validation-of-a-cross-infection-control-program-in-an-understaffed-intensive-care-unit
#14
Amit Frenkel, Abraham Borer, Aviel Roy-Shapira, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Lisa Saidel-Odes, Alir Adina, Moti Klein
BACKGROUND: The authors describe a multifaceted cross-infection control program that was implemented to contain an epidemic of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MRO) (carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis; and ‎methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a control program on the incidence of cross-infection with MRO...
October 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091141/complete-genome-sequence-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-usa400-0051-a-prototype-of-the-usa400-clone
#15
Marina Farrel Côrtes, Maiana Oc Costa, Nicholas Cb Lima, Rangel C Souza, Luiz Gp Almeida, Luciane Prioli Ciapina Guedes, Ana Tr Vasconcelos, Marisa F Nicolás, Agnes Ms Figueiredo
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, commonly referred as S. aureus, is an important bacterial pathogen frequently involved in hospital- and community-acquired infections in humans, ranging from skin infections to more severe diseases such as pneumonia, bacteraemia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and disseminated infections. Here, we report the complete closed genome sequence of a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, USA400-0051, which is a prototype of the USA400 clone.
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089242/first-description-of-a-catalase-negative-staphylococcus-aureus-from-a-healthy-carrier-with-a-novel-nonsense-mutation-in-the-kata-gene
#16
Krisztina Laub, Katalin Kristóf, Tamás Tirczka, Adrienn Tóthpál, Szilvia Kardos, Eszter Kovács, Judit Sahin-Tóth, Andrea Horváth, Orsolya Dobay
We have screened 2568 healthy individuals (mostly children) for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae nasal carriage between 2010 and 2012. Out of the isolated 751 S. aureus strains, we found one methicillin-sensitive catalase-negative S. aureus (CNSA). Our CNSA isolate possessed a novel nonsense point mutation in the katA gene leading to early truncation of the protein product. The strain was resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, but sensitive to all other tested antibiotics and carried the enterotoxin A gene...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081676/possible-involvement-of-ros-generation-in-vorinostat-pretreatment-induced-enhancement-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-ciprofloxacin
#17
Majed M Masadeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Ahlam M Al-Buhairan
The mechanism underlying ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA and, thus, the induction of double-strand breaks in DNA. It also involves elevated oxidative stress, which might contribute to bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. The current work investigated a possible interactive effect of vorinostat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923)...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077289/-predictors-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-in-community-onset-pneumonia-are-factors-considered-in-health-care-associated-pneumonia-useful-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Olga H Torres Bonafonte, Eva Gil Olivas, Estefanía Pérez Macho, Cristina Pacho Pacho, Miriam Mateo Roca, Jordi Casademont Pou, Domingo Ruiz Hidalgo
OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors related to drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in community-onset pneumonia (COP) and whether previously suggested criteria are useful in our emergency-department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective 1-year study of adults coming to the emergency department for COP. We assessed the usefulness of criteria used in health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), as well the Shorr index, the Barthel index, and clinical suspicion of resistant pathogens...
October 2017: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072532/antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-ethyl-acetate-s-metabolites-of-the-potent-halophilic-marine-bacterium-bacillus-cereus-a30-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#19
Dhayalan Arul, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Velramar Balasubramanian, Thillainathan Natarajan, Pachiappan Perumal
Bacteria are generally responsible for the prevalence of several diseases and pathogenic bacteria are showing increasing resistance to different antibacterials. During the present study an extremophilic bacterium-A30 isolated from the marine waters was characterized and evaluated against four multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens, viz; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensitivity pattern of the selected pathogens was tested with 31 antibiotics...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070498/impact-of-a-pharmacist-driven-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-surveillance-protocol
#20
Courtney Willis, Bryan Allen, Calvin Tucker, Kathleen Rottman, Kevin Epps
PURPOSE: Results of a study to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-driven methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance screening protocol are reported. METHODS: A retrospective single-center, quasi-experimental, pre-post cohort study was conducted to assess medication-use and clinical outcomes before and after implementation of a protocol allowing pharmacists to order nasal swabs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for MRSA in selected patients receiving vancomycin for pneumonia or acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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