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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661109/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infections-in-custodial-populations-a-systematic-review
#1
Leigh Haysom, Melanie Cross, Rebecca Anastasas, Elizabeth Moore, Stephen Hampton
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in prisons can result in serious morbidity and death. We reviewed rates and risk factors for MRSA infection in custody, searching Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Between 1997 and 2015, 17 studies reported MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), with four case reports of MRSA non-SSTI (necrotizing pneumonias, brain abscess, and epiduritis). Significant associations with MRSA SSTI were found: MRSA colonization, previous skin infection, sharing soap or personal items, SSTI presenting as an abscess or furuncle, younger age, non-Caucasian, overweight, communal laundering, infrequent handwashing, lower hygiene score...
April 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624479/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-anti-bacterial-efficacy-of-absorbable-barbed-polydioxanone-monofilament-tissue-control-device-with-triclosan
#2
Shubhangi Bhende, Daniel Burkley, Jesse Nawrocki
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-bacterial efficacy of STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Devices in comparison with standard absorbable polydioxanone devices lacking triclosan, utilizing challenges by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: The STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Device was tested for in vitro efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S...
April 6, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619336/risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients-with-presumed-pneumonia-is-not-impacted-by-choice-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-therapy
#3
Kelsey B Billups, Erica E Reed, Gary S Phillips, Kurt B Stevenson, Steven M Steinberg, Claire V Murphy
Background: Vancomycin and linezolid are standard treatment options for nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. While acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly attributed to vancomycin, existing data has not definitely confirmed vancomycin as an independent risk factor for AKI. Aims: This study aimed to quantify the incidence of AKI in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients receiving empiric vancomycin or linezolid for nosocomial pneumonia and to identify risk factors for AKI with a focus on MRSA antibiotic therapy...
January 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615348/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-children-in-central-taiwan
#4
Hui-Hsien Pan, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chih-Jung Chen, Fang-Liang Huang, Pei-Ju Ting, Jing-Yang Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin, Po-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes diseases ranging from mild skin infections to invasive diseases. Carriage of S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant risk factor for subsequent staphylococcal infection. Several studies discussed MRSA colonization in Taiwan, but mostly in northern Taiwan. This is the first study that estimates the prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in healthy children and identifies the potential risk factors in central Taiwan...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614973/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-bioactive-glass-s53p4-on-multiresistant-pathogens-causing-osteomyelitis-and-prosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Mateus Trinconi Cunha, Maria Aparecida Murça, Stanley Nigro, Giselle Burlamaqui Klautau, Mauro José Costa Salles
BACKGROUND: Conventional local treatment for medullary osteomyelitis (OM) includes insertion of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. Nevertheless, PMMA may delivery irregular concentration of antibiotic to surrounding tissue. We aimed to compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bioactive Glass (BAG) S53P4, which is a compound showing local antibacterial activity, to that of antibiotic-loaded PMMA against multidrug resistant bacteria from OM isolates. METHODS: We studied convenience samples of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms obtained from patients presenting OM and prosthetic joint infection (PJI)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609896/pediatric-case-of-fatal-necrotizing-pneumonia-due-to-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-spain
#6
Margarita Mosquera, Laura Montero, Francisco J Pérez-Lescure, Andrés Aragón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605887/delafloxacin-place-in-therapy-and-review-of-microbiologic-clinical-and-pharmacologic-properties
#7
REVIEW
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
March 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604581/synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-novel-bisindole-amidines-active-against-mdr-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#8
Yonghua Liu, Xinxin Hu, Yanbin Wu, Weixing Zhang, Xiaofang Chen, Xuefu You, Laixing Hu
A series of novel diamidines with N-substituents on an amidine N-atom were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity and in vitro antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Based on structure-activity relationship, N-substituents with a branched chain and a shorter carbon chain on the amidine N-atom exhibited more promising activity against Gram-negative and MDR-Gram-positive bacteria; compounds 5c and 5i were the most powerful candidate compounds. Compound 5c showed greater efficacy than levofloxacin against most drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values in the range of 2-16 μg/mL...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583108/bronchoscopic-improvement-of-tracheobronchitis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-after-aerosolized-vancomycin-a-case-series
#9
Jun Yeun Cho, Youlim Kim, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Ho Il Yoon, Jae-Joon Yim, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Young-Jae Cho
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is an important risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The efficacy of aerosolized vancomycin (AV) in treating VAT has not been clearly demonstrated. METHODS: Four mechanically ventilated patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia were treated with an additional AV. AV (250 mg twice per day) was administered through a vibrating mesh device for 5 days. All patients were receiving intravenous vancomycin and had severe tracheobronchitis, based on bronchoscopic findings before or soon after additional AV treatment...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577113/stat1-is-required-for-suppression-of-type-17-immunity-during-influenza-and-bacterial-superinfection
#10
Benjamin Lee, Radha Gopal, Michelle L Manni, Kevin J McHugh, Sivanarayana Mandalapu, Keven M Robinson, John F Alcorn
Influenza is an annual, global health care concern. Secondary bacterial pneumonia is a severe complication associated with primary influenza virus infection, often resulting in critical morbidity and mortality. Our laboratory has identified influenza-induced suppression of anti-bacterial Type 17 immunity as a mechanism for enhanced susceptibility to bacterial super-infection. We have shown that influenza-induced type I interferon impairs Type 17 activation. STAT1 is a transcription factor involved in interferon signaling, shared by type I, II, and III interferon...
August 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567889/evaluation-of-procalcitonin-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-neonatal-sepsis
#11
Marie Victor Pravin Charles, Ramakrishnan Kalaivani, Soma Venkatesh, Arunava Kali, Kunigal Srinivasiah Seetha
Context: Neonatal sepsis is an early infection occurring within 28 days of the postnatal life. It has nonspecific signs and symptoms which make the diagnosis cumbersome. It inflicts an increase in morbidity and mortality among neonates. Procalcitonin (PCT) is yet another acute phase reactant, which is synthesized by the C-cells of thyroid gland. Aims: The aim of our study is to evaluate PCT as a diagnostic marker of neonatal sepsis in comparison with C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562944/long-term-impact-of-universal-contact-precautions-on-rates-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-icus-a-comparative-effectiveness-study
#12
E Yoko Furuya, Bevin Cohen, Haomiao Jia, Elaine L Larson
OBJECTIVETo evaluate the impact of universal contact precautions (UCP) on rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in intensive care units (ICUs) over 9 yearsDESIGNRetrospective, nonrandomized observational studySETTINGAn 800-bed adult academic medical center in New York CityPARTICIPANTSAll patients admitted to 6 ICUs, 3 of which instituted UCP in 2007METHODSUsing a comparative effectiveness approach, we studied the longitudinal impact of UCP on MDRO incidence density rates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
May 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550501/antibacterial-naphthoquinone-derivatives-targeting-resistant-strain-gram-negative-bacteria-in-biofilms
#13
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549049/the-first-multi-centre-point-prevalence-survey-in-four-japanese-university-hospitals
#14
H Morioka, M Nagao, S Yoshihara, H Ohge, K Kasahara, N Shigemoto, T Kajihara, M Mori, M Iguchi, Y Tomita, S Ichiyama, T Yagi
BACKGROUND: The Japanese government adopted a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which aims to reduce drug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial use. A point-prevalence survey (PPS) is a useful surveillance method to gain information about hospital epidemiology; however, no multi-centre PPS has previously been performed in Japan. AIM: To investigate general information about hospital epidemiology, healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), and antimicrobial use in multiple Japanese university hospitals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540306/distribution-genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-clinically-important-bacteria-from-the-environment-of-a-tertiary-hospital
#15
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531872/community-acquired-pneumonia-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-patient-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-a-therapeutic-challenge
#16
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530709/predominance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-residents-and-environments-of-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan
#17
Chia-Ying Liu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Min-Chi Lu, Ling-Fang Wang, Tsai-Ling Tsai, Mei-Yu Kang, Yi-Ni Jan, Yi-Ting Lo, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hui Tseng, Chun-Ming Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study investigated the distribution and persistence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in six long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: We investigated the distribution of MDROs in residents of six LTCFs and their environments from January to December 2016 (intervention period)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529970/antibacterial-effects-of-18-medicinal-plants-used-by-the-khyang-tribe-in-bangladesh
#18
Md Shahadat Hossan, Hassan Jindal, Sarah Maisha, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Fatima Kaharudin, Lim Su Yi, Teng Jin Khoo, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Christophe Wiart
CONTEXT: The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is raising serious concern globally. Asian medicinal plants could improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infections. The antibacterial properties of medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518178/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-followed-by-oral-delafloxacin-with-vancomycin-plus-aztreonam-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-phase-3-multinational-double-blind-randomized-study
#19
William O'Riordan, Alison McManus, Juri Teras, Ivan Poromanski, Maria Cruz-Saldariagga, Megan Quintas, Laura Lawrence, ShuJui Liang, Sue Cammarata
Background: Delafloxacin is an IV/oral anionic fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive (including MRSA), Gram-negative, atypical and anaerobic organisms. It is approved in the US for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by designated susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, and is in development for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of 850 adults with ABSSSI compared delafloxacin 300 mg IV Q12h for 3 days with a switch to 450 mg oral delafloxacin, to vancomycin 15 mg/kg IV with aztreonam for 5-14 days...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510283/one-or-two-drains-for-the-treatment-of-surgical-site-infections-after-lumbar-spine-surgery
#20
Ying-Chun Chen, Lin Zhang, Er-Nan Li, Li-Xiang Ding, Gen-Ai Zhang, Yu Hou, Wei Yuan
BACKGROUND: The optimal drainage after debridement for treating postoperative SSI is still controversial. We comprehensively compared single-tube drainage method with double-tube drainage method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1125 patients with lumbar degenerative disease who received lumbar surgery. Among them, 26 patients were diagnosed as postoperative SSI and divided into two groups, including single-tube drainage group (1 drain) and double-tube drainage group (2 drains)...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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