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natural products pharmaceutical microbiology

Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
Aneta M Białkowska
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising bulk chemical with a potentially wide range of applications e.g., in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, synthetic rubber, fumigants, antifreeze agents, fuel additives, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. Its high heating value and ability to increase the octane number of fuels make 2,3-BD a promising drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), which is considered an effective liquid fuel additive. After combination with MEK and hydrogenation reaction, 2,3-BD can be converted to octane, which is used to produce high-quality aviation fuel...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Simona Arena, Giovanni Renzone, Chiara D'Ambrosio, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni
Heating of milk and dairy products is done using various technological processes with the aim of preserving microbiological safety and extending shelf-life. These treatments result in chemical modifications in milk proteins, mainly generated as a result of the Maillard reaction. Recently, different bottom-up proteomic methods have been applied to characterize the nature of these structural changes and the modified amino acids in model protein systems and/or isolated components from thermally-treated milk samples...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Piotr Jarocki, Marcin Podleśny, Elwira Komoń-Janczara, Jagoda Kucharska, Agnieszka Glibowska, Zdzisław Targoński
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are anaerobic Gram-positive Actinobacteria, which are natural inhabitants of human and animal gastrointestinal tract. Certain bifidobacteria are frequently used as food additives and probiotic pharmaceuticals, because of their various health-promoting properties. Due to the enormous demand on probiotic bacteria, manufacture of high-quality products containing living microorganisms requires rapid and accurate identification of specific bacteria...
July 22, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Dong Wang, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang
Plant-derived natural products (PNPs) have been widely used in pharmaceutical and nutritional fields. So far, the main method to produce PNPs is extracting them from their original plants, however, there remains lots of problems. With the concept of synthetic biology, construction of yeast cell factories for production of PNPs provides an alternative way. In this review, we will focus on PNPs' market and application, research progress for production of artemisinin, research progress for production of terpenes, alkaloids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and recent technology development to give a brief introduction of construction of yeast cells for production of PNPs...
March 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Maria R Prado, Lina Marcela Blandón, Luciana P S Vandenberghe, Cristine Rodrigues, Guillermo R Castro, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Carlos R Soccol
In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Ratajczak, M M Kubicka, D Kamińska, P Sawicka, J Długaszewska
In microbiological terms, pharmaceutical products can be divided into two groups: sterile and non-sterile. Non-sterile drugs must satisfy the appropriate microbiological purity criteria which are included in pharmacopoeial monographs. Pharmacopoeial studies are prepared specifically with a view to ensuring that the medicinal product is therapeutically effective and safe for the patient. The analysis comprised the results of microbiological purity tests performed before the products are marketed. Total of 1285 samples of non-sterile drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical plants in Polish were taken into study...
July 2015: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
N Vassilev, M Vassileva, A Lopez, V Martos, A Reyes, I Maksimovic, B Eichler-Löbermann, E Malusà
The massive application of chemical fertilizers to support crop production has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution at a global scale. In the same time, this situation escalated consumers' concerns regarding quality and safety of food production which, due to increase of fertilizer prices, have provoked corresponding price increase of food products. It is widely accepted that the only solution is to boost exploitation of plant-beneficial microorganisms which in conditions of undisturbed soils play a key role in increasing the availability of minerals that otherwise are inaccessible to plants...
June 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hendrik Schewe, Marco Antonio Mirata, Jens Schrader
Isoprenoids represent a natural product class essential to living organisms. Moreover, industrially relevant isoprenoid molecules cover a wide range of products such as pharmaceuticals, flavors and fragrances, or even biofuels. Their often complex structure makes chemical synthesis a difficult and expensive task and extraction from natural sources is typically low yielding. This has led to intense research for biotechnological production of isoprenoids by microbial de novo synthesis or biotransformation. Here, metabolic engineering, including synthetic biology approaches, is the key technology to develop efficient production strains in the first place...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Pradeepraj Durairaj, Sailesh Malla, Saravanan Prabhu Nadarajan, Pyung-Gang Lee, Eunok Jung, Hyun Ho Park, Byung-Gee Kim, Hyungdon Yun
BACKGROUND: Omega hydroxy fatty acids (ω-OHFAs) are multifunctional compounds that act as the basis for the production of various industrial products with broad commercial and pharmaceutical implications. However, the terminal oxygenation of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids for the synthesis of ω-OHFAs is intricate to accomplish through chemocatalysis, due to the selectivity and controlled reactivity in C-H oxygenation reactions. Cytochrome P450, the ubiquitous enzyme is capable of catalyzing the selective terminal omega hydroxylation naturally in biological kingdom...
2015: Microbial Cell Factories
Simon Janocha, Daniela Schmitz, Rita Bernhardt
Terpenoids comprise a highly diverse group of natural products. In addition to their basic carbon skeleton, they differ from one another in their functional groups. Functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton are the basis of the terpenoids' diverse properties. Further modifications of terpene olefins include the introduction of acyl-, aryl-, or sugar moieties and usually start with oxidations catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s, CYPs). P450s are ubiquitously distributed throughout nature, involved in essential biological pathways such as terpenoid biosynthesis as well as the tailoring of terpenoids and other natural products...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Yue Hao, Patricia M Blair, Abhishek Sharma, Douglas A Mitchell, Satish K Nair
Peptide antibiotics represent a class of conformationally constrained natural products of growing pharmaceutical interest. Plantazolicin (PZN) is a linear, polyheterocyclic natural product with highly selective and potent activity against the anthrax-causing bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The bioactivity of PZN is contingent on dimethylation of its N-terminal Arg residue by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. Here, we explore the substrate tolerances of two homologous PZN methyltransferases by carrying out kinetic analyses of the enzymes against a synthetic panel of truncated PZN analogs containing the N-terminal Arg residue...
May 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Biology
Bernd Markus Lange
Monoterpenes of the p-menthane group are volatile secondary (or specialized) metabolites found across the plant kingdom. They are dominant constituents of commercially important essential oils obtained from members of the genera Mentha (Lamiaceae), Carum (Apiaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). p-Menthane monoterpenes have also attracted interest as chiral specialty chemicals, and the harvest from natural sources is therefore supplemented by chemical synthesis. More recently, microbial and plant-based platforms for the high-level accumulation of specific target monoterpenes have been developed...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Kevin W George, Jorge Alonso-Gutierrez, Jay D Keasling, Taek Soon Lee
Isoprenoids have been identified and used as natural pharmaceuticals, fragrances, solvents, and, more recently, advanced biofuels. Although isoprenoids are most commonly found in plants, researchers have successfully engineered both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways to produce these valuable chemicals in microorganisms at high yields. The microbial synthesis of the precursor to artemisinin--an important antimalarial drug produced from the sweet wormwood Artemisia annua--serves as perhaps the most successful example of this approach...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Tens of thousands of terpenoid natural products have been isolated from plants and microbial sources. Higher fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are known to produce an array of well-known terpenoid natural products, including mycotoxins, antibiotics, antitumor compounds, and phytohormones. Except for a few well-studied fungal biosynthetic pathways, the majority of genes and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of a small number of these secondary metabolites have only been discovered and characterized in the past 5-10 years...
2015: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
A Kunicka-Styczyńska, K Śmigielski, R Prusinowska, K Rajkowska, B Kuśmider, M Sikora
UNLABELLED: The study was undertaken to verify the antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia hydrosols in moisturizing body gels. The inhibition efficacy of four lavender hydrosols (obtained from fresh or dry herbs or flowers) was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 1627, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. Although the tested hydrosols did not express any remarkable antimicrobial action when tested via the macrodilution method, they show preservative activity in cosmetic preparations...
January 2015: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yunzi Luo, Ryan E Cobb, Huimin Zhao
Natural products have been and continue to be the source and inspiration for a substantial fraction of human therapeutics. Although the pharmaceutical industry has largely turned its back on natural product discovery efforts, such efforts continue to flourish in academia with promising results. Natural products have traditionally been identified from a top-down perspective, but more recently genomics- and bioinformatics-guided bottom-up approaches have provided powerful alternative strategies. Here we review recent advances in natural product discovery from both angles, including diverse sampling and innovative culturing and screening approaches, as well as genomics-driven discovery and genetic manipulation techniques for both native and heterologous expression...
December 2014: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Jozef Hudec, Ľubomír Kobida, Margita Čanigová, Magdaléna Lacko-Bartošová, Otto Ložek, Peter Chlebo, Jana Mrázová, Ladislav Ducsay, Judita Bystrická
BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potentially bioactive component of foods and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was screen lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, and microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) from 10 different food sources for GABA production by fermentation in broth or plant and animal products. RESULTS: Under an aerobic atmosphere, very low selectivity of GABA production (from 0.8% to 1.3%) was obtained using yeast and filamentous fungi, while higher selectivity (from 6...
April 2015: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rita Sánchez-Espejo, Carola Aguzzi, Pilar Cerezo, Inmaculada Salcedo, Alberto López-Galindo, César Viseras
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clays are naturally occurring ingredients of many natural health products, being included in most of ancient Mediterranean/European medical texts and currently used to prepare therapeutic hot-muds (peloids) in several thermal stations of the Mediterranean region. Clays are included in the formulation of peloids as vehicles of the mineral-medicinal water, to obtain inorganic gels with rheological and thermal properties suitable to be topically applied. Knowledge about formulations and preparation procedures of these traditional medicines has been orally transmitted since ancient times...
August 8, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Myung Soo Park, Jonathan J Fong, Seung-Yoon Oh, Kae Kyoung Kwon, Jae Hak Sohn, Young Woon Lim
The diversity of marine-derived Penicillium from Korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and RNA polymerase subunit II gene. In addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. We tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum)...
August 2014: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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