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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749433/hbv-drug-resistance-substitutions-existed-before-the-clinical-approval-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-a-bioinformatic-analysis-by-genbank-data-mining
#1
Xizhan Xu, Kuanhui Xiang, Mingze Su, Yao Li, Wei Ji, Yutang Li, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
Naturally occurring nucleos(t)ide analogue resistance (NUCr) substitution frequencies in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were studied extensively after the clinical approval of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs; year of approval 1998). We aimed to study NUCr substitutions in HBV RT sequences obtained before 1998 and better understand the evolution of RT sequences without NUC pressures. Our strategy was to retrieve HBV sequences from GenBank deposited before 1998. The initial search used the keywords "hepatitis B virus" or "HBV" and 1139 sequences were found...
July 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748930/neuromorphic-computing-with-nanoscale-spintronic-oscillators
#2
Jacob Torrejon, Mathieu Riou, Flavio Abreu Araujo, Sumito Tsunegi, Guru Khalsa, Damien Querlioz, Paolo Bortolotti, Vincent Cros, Kay Yakushiji, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Mark D Stiles, Julie Grollier
Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10(8) oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748885/cardiac-status-in-children-with-acute-poststreptococcal-glomerulonephritis
#3
Tushar Idhate, Syed Ahmed Zaki, Preeti Shanbag
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is the most common type of glomerulonephritis seen in children. It can affect multiple organs with heart being frequently involved. Yet, there are very few studies on cardiac status in children with PSGN and hence this study was conducted. All consecutive children from 1 month to 12 years of age, admitted over a two-year period with a diagnosis of PSGN, were included in the study. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and two-dimensional echocardiogram were performed in all patients on admission and repeated at six and 12 weeks, if abnormal...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748841/prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-for-the-west-nile-virus-in-human-population-in-tripoli-libya
#4
Taher Shaibi, Walid K Saadawi, H Aghila, Badereddin B Annajar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748693/all-polymeric-flexible-transparent-heaters
#5
Magatte N Gueye, Alexandre Carella, Renaud Demadrille, Jean-Pierre Simonato
All-polymeric flexible transparent heaters are demonstrated for the first time. Thin films of four poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based materials embedding different dopants exhibit low sheet resistances, down to 57 Ω sq-1 associated with good transparencies (> 87 %) and a haze lower than 1 %. These transparent thin films show excellent heating properties, with high heating rates (up to 1.6 °C s-1) and steady state temperatures exceeding 100 °C when subjected to a 12 V bias. Very high areal power densities were also measured, reaching almost 10 000 W m-2...
July 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748557/mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-very-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-individuals-from-6-to-26%C3%A2-years
#6
Julia Jaekel, Nicole Baumann, Peter Bartmann, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (<32 weeks' gestational age; VP) or very low-birth weight (<1,500 g; VLBW) birth has been associated with increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders and less partnering in adulthood. The aim was to test whether (a) VP/VLBW are at increased risk of any anxiety or mood disorders from 6 to 26 years compared with term-born individuals; (b) social support from romantic partners is associated with protection from anxiety and mood disorders; and (c) VP/VLBW adults' lower social support mediates their risk for any anxiety and mood disorders...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748455/resection-of-rectal-cancer-resembling-submucosal-tumor-that-was-preoperatively-diagnosed-with-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-biopsy
#7
Akimitsu Tanio, Hiroaki Saito, Keigo Ashida, Shouichi Urushibara, Manabu Yamamoto, Naruo Tokuyasu, Teruhisa Sakamoto, Soichiro Honjo, Yoshihiko Maeta, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) resembling submucosal tumor (SMT; CRC/SMT) is very rare. Because its biopsy is challenging, accurate preoperative diagnosis is also very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old woman with a high serum carcinoembryonic antigen level underwent a computed tomography colonoscopy, which showed extrinsic rectum compression. A coronal magnetic resonance image showed a 4-cm low-intensity tumor between her rectum and sacrum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed a 30-mm low-echoic lesion originating from the rectum...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748388/pls3-sequencing-in-childhood-onset-primary-osteoporosis-identifies-two-novel-disease-causing-variants
#8
A J Kämpe, A Costantini, R E Mäkitie, N Jäntti, H Valta, M Mäyränpää, H Kröger, M Pekkinen, F Taylan, H Jiao, O Mäkitie
Altogether 95 children with primary bone fragility were screened for variants in PLS3, the gene underlying X-linked osteoporosis. Two children with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures and low BMD had novel disease-causing PLS3 variants. Children with milder phenotypes had no pathogenic variants. PLS3 screening is indicated in childhood-onset primary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to determine the role of pathogenic PLS3 variants in children's bone fragility and to elucidate the associated phenotypic features...
July 26, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748381/is-it-safe-to-perform-lumbar-spine-surgery-on-patients-over-eighty-five
#9
Houssam Bouloussa, Abdulmajeed Alzakri, Soufiane Ghailane, Claudio Vergari, Simon Mazas, Jean-Marc Vital, Pierre Coudert, Olivier Gille
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of lumbar spine surgery in patients over 85. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients over 85 years of age with LSS who underwent decompression surgery with or without fusion between February 2011 and July 2014 were included. Comorbidities, autonomy (Activities of Daily Life and Braden scales), surgical parameters and complications (Clavien-Dindo classification) were collected. A telephone survey was performed to assess survival and patients' satisfaction at last follow-up...
July 26, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748298/comparison-of-sodium-hypochlorite-extrusion-by-five-irrigation-systems-using-an-artificial-root-socket-model-and-a-quantitative-chemical-method
#10
Adham A Azim, Hacer Aksel, M Margaret Jefferson, George T-J Huang
OBJECTIVES: This is to compare the volumes of irrigant apically extruded by five irrigation systems in an artificial socket model simulating clinical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human single-rooted teeth were enlarged to size 40/04 and then embedded in silicone impression material. The root canal space was irrigated with nominal 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) using standard needle irrigation (SNI) with a 30-gauge notched needle, EndoActivator (EA), XP Endo Finisher (XP Endo), EndoVac (EV), and photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS)...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747981/comparison-of-the-response-using-icr-mice-derived-from-three-different-sources-to-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Do Yeon Lee, Myeong Hwan Kim, Hye Rin Suh, Young Suk Jung, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim
This study was conducted to compare the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS)-induced diabetic patterns of Korl:ICR, A:ICR, and B:ICR mice obtained from three different sources. Six-week-old male ICR mice were obtained from three difference sources. Korl:ICR mice were kindly provided by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS). The other two groups of ICR mice were purchased from different vendors located in the United States (A:ICR) and Japan (B:ICR). All ICR mice that received MLDS exhibited overt diabetic symptoms throughout the study, and the incidence and development of diabetes mellitus were similar among the three ICR groups...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747940/surgical-treatment-for-pulmonary-aspergilloma-early-and-long-term-results
#12
Mariusz Kasprzyk, Kornel Pieczyński, Krystian Mania, Piotr Gabryel, Cezary Piwkowski, Wojciech Dyszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary aspergilloma is a difficult therapeutic problem due to the low effectiveness of conservative treatment and high surgical morbidity. AIM: To analyze the early and late results of surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2015, 49 patients were treated surgically for pulmonary aspergilloma. Symptoms occurred in 85.7% of cases, including recurrent hemoptysis in 53%. A history of immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy was noted in 24...
June 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747920/unraveling-key-metabolomic-alterations-in-wheat-embryos-derived-from-freshly-harvested-and-water-imbibed-seeds-of-two-wheat-cultivars-with-contrasting-dormancy-status
#13
Aayudh Das, Dea-Wook Kim, Pramod Khadka, Randeep Rakwal, Jai S Rohila
Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant) or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible). Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747869/effect-of-dietary-copper-addition-on-lipid-metabolism-in-rabbits
#14
Liu Lei, Sui Xiaoyi, Li Fuchang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on lipid metabolism in rabbits. Our study showed dietary copper addition (5-45 mg/kg) increased body mass gain, but decreased fat and liver weights compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Copper (45 mg/kg) addition significantly increased the skeletal muscle weight, but inhibited cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dietary copper addition (45 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma triglyceride levels but decreased very low density lipoprotein levels (P < 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747764/super-strong-dislocation-structured-high-carbon-martensite-steel
#15
Jun-Jie Sun, Yong-Ning Liu, Yun-Tian Zhu, Fu-Liang Lian, Hong-Ji Liu, Tao Jiang, Sheng-Wu Guo, Wen-Qing Liu, Xiao-Bing Ren
High-carbon martensite steels (with C > 0.5 wt.%) are very hard but at the same time as brittle as glass in as-quenched or low-temperature-tempered state. Such extreme brittleness, originating from a twin microstructure, has rendered these steels almost useless in martensite state. Therefore, for more than a century it has been a common knowledge that high-carbon martensitic steels are intrinsically brittle and thus are not expected to find any application in harsh loading conditions. Here we report that these brittle steels can be transformed into super-strong ones exhibiting a combination of ultrahigh strength and significant toughness, through a simple grain-refinement treatment, which refines the grain size to ~4 μm...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747633/a-room-temperature-continuous-wave-nanolaser-using-colloidal-quantum-wells
#16
Zhili Yang, Matthew Pelton, Igor Fedin, Dmitri V Talapin, Edo Waks
Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have emerged as promising active materials for solution-processable optoelectronic and light-emitting devices. In particular, the development of nanocrystal lasers is currently experiencing rapid progress. However, these lasers require large pump powers, and realizing an efficient low-power nanocrystal laser has remained a difficult challenge. Here, we demonstrate a nanolaser using colloidal nanocrystals that exhibits a threshold input power of less than 1 μW, a very low threshold for any laser using colloidal emitters...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747530/sequence-intrinsic-somatic-mutation-mechanisms-contribute-to-affinity-maturation-of-vrc01-class-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#17
Joyce K Hwang, Chong Wang, Zhou Du, Robin M Meyers, Thomas B Kepler, Donna Neuberg, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, M Gordon Joyce, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F Haynes, Leng-Siew Yeap, Frederick W Alt
Variable regions of Ig chains provide the antigen recognition portion of B-cell receptors and derivative antibodies. Ig heavy-chain variable region exons are assembled developmentally from V, D, J gene segments. Each variable region contains three antigen-contacting complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), with CDR1 and CDR2 encoded by the V segment and CDR3 encoded by the V(D)J junction region. Antigen-stimulated germinal center (GC) B cells undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) of V(D)J exons followed by selection for SHMs that increase antigen-binding affinity...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747493/role-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-matrix-m-protein-in-suppressing-host-transcription
#18
Qi Ke, Wade Weaver, Adam Pore, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Julia Halo Wildschutte, Peng Xiao, Brian S Shepherd, Allyn Spear, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Carol A Stepien, Vikram N Vakharia, Douglas W Leaman
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the northern hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral genes expression. By systematically screening each of the six VHSV structural and nonstructural genes, we have identified matrix protein (M) as its most potent anti-host protein. VHSV-IVb M alone suppressed mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and type I IFN-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747466/network-activity-influences-the-subthreshold-and-spiking-visual-responses-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-three-layer-turtle-cortex
#19
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Ralf Wessel
A primary goal of systems neuroscience is to understand cortical function, which typically involves studying spontaneous and stimulus-modulated cortical activity. Mounting evidence suggests a strong and complex relationship exists between the ongoing and stimulus-modulated cortical state. To date, most work in this area has been based on spiking in populations of neurons. While advantageous in many respects, this approach is limited in scope; it records the activity of a minority of neurons, and gives no direct indication of the underlying subthreshold dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747371/designing-hiv-testing-algorithms-based-on-2015-who-guidelines-using-data-from-six-sites-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Cara S Kosack, Leslie Shanks, Greet Beelaert, Tumwesigye Benson, Aboubacar Savane, Anne Ng'ang'a, Bita Andre, Jean-Paul B N Zahinda, Katrien Fransen, Anne-Laure Page
Our objective was to evaluate the performance of HIV testing algorithms based on WHO recommendations, using data from specimens collected at six HIV testing and counselling sites in sub-Saharan Africa (Guinea, Conakry; Kitgum and Arua, Uganda; Homa Bay, Kenya; Douala, Cameroun; Baraka, Democratic Republic of Congo). A total of 2780 samples, including 1306 HIV-positive, were included in the analysis. HIV testing algorithms were designed using Determine as a first test. Second and third rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) were selected based on site-specific performance, adhering where possible to the WHO-recommended minimum requirements of sensitivity and specificity of ≥99%...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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