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Global burden of injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650247/burden-of-alcohol-abuse-or-dependence-among-long-term-opioid-users-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#1
Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg, Nathaniel Katz, Kavita Gajria, Anna D Coutinho, Paul P Yeung, Richard White
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse disorders among chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) patients add to the clinical challenges and economic burden of caring for such patients. Despite potential risks, some CNCP patients with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and pain that is refractory to nonopioid treatment options may still need opioids for pain management. However, there is a lack of data on adverse outcomes in long-term opioid users with CNCP and a history of substance abuse or AAD disorders...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633867/review-of-a-causal-role-of-fructose-containing-sugars-in-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
REVIEW
Gerald J Maarman, Amy E Mendham, Kim Lamont, Cindy George
In 2012, the World Health Organization Global Status Report on noncommunicable diseases showed that 7.4 million deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. Consequently, cardiovascular disease is a significant health burden, especially when partnered with comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, these diseases can all be induced or exacerbated by diet. Carbohydrates, in particular, fructose and glucose, generally form the largest part of the human diet. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that if large amounts of fructose are consumed either in isolation or in combination with glucose (fructose-containing sugars), myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#3
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607177/burden-of-vision-loss-associated-with-eye-disease-in-china-1990-2020-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#4
Bingsong Wang, Nathan Congdon, Rupert Bourne, Yichong Li, Kai Cao, Aiping Zhao, Mayinuer Yusufu, Wenlan Dong, Maigeng Zhou, Ningli Wang
AIMS: To assess the burden of vision loss due to eye disease in China between 1990 and 2015, and to predict the burden in 2020. METHODS: Data from the GBD 2015 (Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015) were used. The main outcome measures were prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) for vision loss due to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, other vision loss, refraction and accommodation disorders and trachoma. RESULTS: Prevalence for eye diseases increased steadily from 1990 to 2015, and will increase until 2020...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605262/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-from-injury-to-genomic-stability
#5
Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Flavia de Paoli, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth cause of death in the world and it is currently presenting a major global public health challenge, causing premature death from pathophysiological complications and rising economic and social burdens. COPD develops from a combination of factors following exposure to pollutants and cigarette smoke, presenting a combination of both emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which causes lung airflow limitations that are not fully reversible by bronchodilators...
June 12, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602927/one-year-mortality-of-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-following-spinal-cord-injury-a-14-year-population-based-study
#6
Shou-Chun Yu, Jinn-Rung Kuo, Yow-Ling Shiue, Zong-Xing Yu, Chung-Han Ho, Chia-Chun Wu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chin-Chen Chu, Sher-Wei Lim
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health burden because of its increasing incidence, high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and poor prognosis. We aimed to investigate the 1-year mortality rate of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with CKD and ESRD, and compare it with that of SCI patients without CKD by conducting a large Taiwanese population dataset. METHODS: In this 14-year retrospective cohort study, the study group (SCI with CKD group, N=3315) and comparison group (SCI without CKD group, N=6630) were matched at a 1:2 ratio with propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and length of stay...
June 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579966/problematic-alcohol-use-among-university-students
#7
Tesfa Mekonen, Wubalem Fekadu, Tefera Chane, Shimelash Bitew
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is attributable to many diseases and injury-related health conditions, and it is the fifth leading risk factor of premature death globally. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the proportion and associated factors of problematic alcohol use among University students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 725 randomly selected University students from November to December 2015. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and problematic alcohol use was assessed by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579963/olesoxime-inhibits-cardioplegia-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-a-study-in-langendorff-perfused-rabbit-hearts
#8
Aida Salameh, Maren Keller, Ingo Dähnert, Stefan Dhein
Objective: During cardioplegia, which is often used in cardiac surgery, the heart is subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion injury, which can result in a post-operative impairment of cardiac function. Mitochondria permeability transition pores (MPTP) play a key role in cardiomyocyte survival after ischemia/reperfusion injury. It was shown in clinical settings that blockers of MPTP like cyclosporine might have a positive influence on cardiac function after cardioplegic arrest. Olesoxime, which is a new drug with MPTP blocking activity, has been introduced as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
June 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576237/global-burn-care-education-and-research
#10
REVIEW
Anna Schoenbrunner, Wone Banda, Amanda A Gosman
Burns are an often-overlooked health indicator in global health literature, but account for a significant global health burden in lower middle income countries. This article provides an overview of burn injury from the global health perspective. It focuses on education and research, emphasizing the appropriate role of volunteerism.
July 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565941/insulin-replacement-limits-progression-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-the-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rat
#11
Mitchel Tate, Minh Deo, Anh H Cao, Sally G Hood, Karina Huynh, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Tracey L Julius, Gemma A Figtree, Gregory J Dusting, David M Kaye, Rebecca H Ritchie
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major contributor to the increasing burden of heart failure globally. Effective therapies remain elusive, in part due to the incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetes-induced myocardial injury. The objective of this study was to assess the direct impact of insulin replacement on left ventricle structure and function in a rat model of diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.v.) or citrate vehicle and were followed for 8 weeks...
May 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551805/mitochondria-damage-and-kidney-disease
#12
Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin
The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546049/gunshot-induced-injuries-in-orthopaedic-trauma-research-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-most-influential-literature
#13
REVIEW
M Held, E Engelmann, R Dunn, S S Ahmad, M Laubscher, M J B Keel, S Maqungo, S Hoppe
A growing burden of gunshot injuries demands evidence-based ballistic trauma management. No comprehensive systematic overview of the current knowledge is available to date. This study aims to identify and analyze the most influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. All databases available in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge were searched to conduct this bibliometrical study. The most cited orthopedic ballistic trauma articles published between 1950 and 2015 were identified by use of a multi-step approach...
May 22, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504617/opportunities-and-challenges-in-the-wider-adoption-of-liver-and-interconnected-microphysiological-systems
#15
David J Hughes, Tomasz Kostrzewski, Emma L Sceats
Liver disease represents a growing global health burden. The development of in vitro liver models which allow the study of disease and the prediction of metabolism and drug-induced liver injury in humans remains a challenge. The maintenance of functional primary hepatocytes cultures, the parenchymal cell of the liver, has historically been difficult with dedifferentiation and the consequent loss of hepatic function limiting utility. The desire for longer term functional liver cultures sparked the development of numerous systems, including collagen sandwiches, spheroids, micropatterned co-cultures and liver microphysiological systems...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501675/predicting-heavy-episodic-drinking-using-an-extended-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#16
Nicola Black, Barbara Mullan, Louise Sharpe
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption contributes significantly to the global burden from disease and injury, and specific patterns of heavy episodic drinking contribute uniquely to this burden. Temporal self-regulation theory and the dual-process model describe similar theoretical constructs that might predict heavy episodic drinking. The aims of this study were to test the utility of temporal self-regulation theory in predicting heavy episodic drinking, and examine whether the theoretical relationships suggested by the dual-process model significantly extend temporal self-regulation theory...
April 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477152/revisiting-grade-3-diffuse-axonal-injury-not-all-brainstem-microbleeds-are-prognostically-equal
#17
Saef Izzy, Nicole L Mazwi, Sergi Martinez, Camille A Spencer, Joshua P Klein, Gunjan Parikh, Mel B Glenn, Steven M Greenberg, David M Greer, Ona Wu, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Recovery of functional independence is possible in patients with brainstem traumatic axonal injury (TAI), also referred to as "grade 3 diffuse axonal injury," but acute prognostic biomarkers are lacking. We hypothesized that the extent of dorsal brainstem TAI measured by burden of traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) correlates with 1-year functional outcome more strongly than does ventral brainstem, corpus callosal, or global brain TMB burden. Further, we hypothesized that TMBs within brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal network (AAN) correlate with 1-year outcome...
May 5, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463097/road-traffic-injury-in-lagos-nigeria-assessing-prehospital-care
#18
Nasiru A Ibrahim, Abdul Wahab O Ajani, Ibrahim A Mustafa, Rufai A Balogun, Mobolaji A Oludara, Olufemi E Idowu, Babatunde A Solagberu
Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital...
May 2, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459953/early-clinical-predictors-of-5-year-outcome-after-concussive-blast-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Christine L Mac Donald, Jason Barber, Mary Jordan, Ann M Johnson, Sureyya Dikmen, Jesse R Fann, Nancy Temkin
Importance: The long-term clinical effects of wartime traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), most of which are mild, remain incompletely described. Current medical disability cost estimates from world conflicts continually surpass projections. Additional information regarding long-term functional trajectory is needed to reduce this extensive public health burden. Objectives: To examine 5-year clinical outcomes leveraging existing clinical data collected at 1 year after injury in the same patients and to identify early risk factors for long-term disability...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459283/impact-of-improving-vehicle-front-design-on-the-burden-of-pedestrian-injuries-in-germany-usa-and-india
#20
Dane Moran, Dipan Bose, Kavi Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and two countries, (USA, and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. METHODS: We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and non-fatal injuries in each country in 2013...
May 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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