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Global burden of injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201861/role-of-physicians-in-the-management-of-substance-use-disorders
#1
Yvonne Bonomo, Nadine Ezard, Adrian Reynolds
Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs are responsible for significant contribution to the global burden of disease and injury. There are several contributions that the physician can make to reduce the burden that substance use contributes to the community, not only clinically but also through leadership and contribution to community dialogue and public policy.
February 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196501/taking-multi-morbidity-into-account-when-attributing-dalys-to-risk-factors-comparing-dynamic-modeling-with-the-gbd2010-calculation-method
#2
Hendriek C Boshuizen, Wilma J Nusselder, Marjanne H D Plasmans, Henk H Hilderink, Bianca E P Snijders, René Poos, Coen H van Gool
BACKGROUND: Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) quantify the loss of healthy years of life due to dying prematurely and due to living with diseases and injuries. Current methods of attributing DALYs to underlying risk factors fall short on two main points. First, risk factor attribution methods often unjustly apply incidence-based population attributable fractions (PAFs) to prevalence-based data. Second, it mixes two conceptually distinct approaches targeting different goals, namely an attribution method aiming to attribute uniquely to a single cause, and an elimination method aiming to describe a counterfactual situation without exposure...
February 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196151/estimation-of-years-lived-with-disability-due-to-noncommunicable-diseases-and-injuries-using-a-population-representative-survey
#3
Ji In Park, Hae Hyuk Jung
The Global Burden of Disease 2010 and the WHO Global Health Estimates of years lived with disability (YLDs) uses disability-weights obtained from lay health-state descriptions, which cannot fully reflect different disease manifestations, according to severity, treatment, and environment. The aim of this study was to provide population-representative YLDs of noncommunicable diseases and injuries using a prevalence-based approach, with the disability weight measured in subjects with specific diseases or injuries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188927/xanthohumol-isolated-from-humulus-lupulus-prevents-thrombosis-without-increased-bleeding-risk-by-inhibiting-platelet-activation-and-mtdna-release
#4
Guang Xin, Zeliang Wei, Chengjie Ji, Huajie Zheng, Jun Gu, Limei Ma, Wenfang Huang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Rui Zhang, Chaoyi Qin, Li Wen, Zhihua Xing, Yu Cao, Qing Xia, Ke Li, Hai Niu, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Wen Huang
AIM: As the global population has reached 7 billion and the baby boom generation reaches old age, thrombosis has become the major contributor to the global disease burden. It has been reported that, in moderate doses, beer may protect against thrombosis. Xanthohumol (XN), an antioxidant, is found at high concentrations in hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a common ingredient of beer. Here, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of XN on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities, and study its mechanism...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188606/costs-of-productivity-loss-due-to-occupational-cancer-in-canada-estimation-using-claims-data-from-workers-compensation-boards
#5
W Dominika Wranik, Adam Muir, Min Hu
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a leading cause of illness globally, yet our understanding of the financial implications of cancer caused by working conditions and environments is limited. The goal of this study is to estimate the costs of productivity losses due to occupational cancer in Canada, and to evaluate the factors associated with these costs. METHODS: Two sources of data are used: (i) Individual level administrative claims data from the Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia; and (ii) provincial aggregated cancer claims statistics from the Association of Workers Compensation Boards of Canada...
December 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187802/critical-care-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
D K Menon, A Ercole
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing global problem, which is responsible for a substantial burden of disability and death, and which generates substantial healthcare costs. High-quality intensive care can save lives and improve the quality of outcome. TBI is extremely heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcome. Current approaches to the critical care management of TBI are not underpinned by high-quality evidence, and many of the current therapies in use have not shown benefit in randomized control trials...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168229/international-classification-of-diseases-10th-edition-based-disability-adjusted-life-years-for-measuring-of-burden-of-specific-injury
#7
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Do Shin, Hye Sook Park, Kyoung Jun Song, Jin Sung Cho, Seung Chul Lee, Sung Chun Kim, Ju Ok Park, Ki Ok Ahn, Yu Mi Park
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10th edition injury code-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to measure the burden of specific injuries. METHODS: Three independent panels used novel methods to score disability weights (DWs) of 130 indicator codes sampled from 1,284 ICD injury codes. The DWs were interpolated into the remaining injury codes (n=1,154) to estimate DWs for all ICD injury codes. The reliability of the estimated DWs was evaluated using the test-retest method...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138518/decellularized-zebrafish-cardiac-extracellular-matrix-induces-mammalian-heart-regeneration
#8
William C W Chen, Zhouguang Wang, Maria Azzurra Missinato, Dae Woo Park, Daniel Ward Long, Heng-Jui Liu, Xuemei Zeng, Nathan A Yates, Kang Kim, Yadong Wang
Heart attack is a global health problem that leads to significant morbidity, mortality, and health care burden. Adult human hearts have very limited regenerative capability after injury. However, evolutionarily primitive species generally have higher regenerative capacity than mammals. The extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to this difference. Mammalian cardiac ECM may not be optimally inductive for cardiac regeneration because of the fibrotic, instead of regenerative, responses in injured adult mammalian hearts...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103632/global-health-and-emergency-care-defining-clinical-research-priorities
#9
Bhakti Hansoti, Adam R Aluisio, Meagan A Barry, Kevin Davey, Brian A Lentz, Payal Modi, Jennifer A Newberry, Melissa H Patel, Tricia A Smith, Alexandra M Vinograd, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent strides in the development of Global Emergency Medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments worldwide. Here, progress on the Global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified...
January 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095408/patient-safety-incidents-involving-sick-children-in-primary-care-in-england-and-wales-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#10
Philippa Rees, Adrian Edwards, Colin Powell, Peter Hibbert, Huw Williams, Meredith Makeham, Ben Carter, Donna Luff, Gareth Parry, Anthony Avery, Aziz Sheikh, Liam Donaldson, Andrew Carson-Stevens
BACKGROUND: The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059874/a-structured-approach-to-capture-the-lived-experience-of-spinal-cord-injury-data-model-and-questionnaire-of-the-international-spinal-cord-injury-community-survey
#11
Christine Fekete, Marcel W M Post, Jerome Bickenbach, James Middleton, Birgit Prodinger, Melissa Selb, Gerold Stucki
The International Spinal Cord Injury (InSCI) community survey has been developed to collect internationally comparable data on the lived experience of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in all 6 WHO regions. The InSCI survey provides a crucial first step to generate evidence on functioning, health maintenance, and subjective well-being in persons with SCI globally. A major challenge in setting up the InSCI community survey was to develop a data model and questionnaire that comprehensively captures what matters to people and, at the same time, is feasible and parsimonious in terms of participant's burden...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#12
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002085/rates-and-predictors-of-injury-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv
#13
Hasina Samji, Wendy Zhang, Oghenowede Eyawo, Shahab Jabbari, Guillaume Colley, Zachary Tanner, Mark Hull, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
OBJECTIVES: Injuries are responsible for 10% of the global burden of disease; however, the epidemiology of injury among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been well elucidated. This study seeks to characterize rates and predictors of injury among PLHIV compared to the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada. DESIGN: A population-based dataset was created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and PopulationDataBC. METHODS: PLHIV aged 20 years and older were compared to a random 10% sample of the adult general population...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986419/epilepsy-in-the-tropics-emerging-etiologies
#14
Jaime Carrizosa Moog, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Chong Tin Tan
Epilepsy is considered by the World Health Organization a public health priority with more than 50 million human beings affected by the disease. More than 80% of persons with epilepsy live in low and middle income countries and most of them in tropical areas. Several emerging, re-emerging and neglected diseases are symptomatic etiologies that jointly contribute to the enormous global burden of epilepsy. Besides the clinical strengths to reduce diagnostic and treatment gaps, other strategies in social, economic, cultural, educational and health policies are needed to prevent and treat appropriately vulnerable and affected persons with epilepsy...
December 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986236/surgical-management-and-reconstruction-training-smart-course-for-international-orthopedic-surgeons
#15
Hao-Hua Wu, Kushal R Patel, Amber M Caldwell, R Richard Coughlin, Scott L Hansen, Joseph N Carey
BACKGROUND: The burden of complex orthopedic trauma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is exacerbated by soft-tissue injuries, which can often lead to amputations. This study's purpose was to create and evaluate the Surgical Management and Reconstruction Training (SMART) course to help orthopedic surgeons from LMICs manage soft-tissue defects and reduce the rate of amputations. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, orthopedic surgeons from LMICs were recruited to attend a 2-day SMART course taught by plastic surgery faculty in San Francisco...
July 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974396/an-emerging-epidemic-cancer-and-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Mark T Nolan
Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of mortality globally. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy significantly contribute to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure (HF) in particular is a relatively common and life-threatening complication. The increased risk is driven by the shared risk factors for cancer and HF, the direct impact of cancer therapy on the heart, an existing care gap in the cardiac care of patients with cancer and the increasing population of adult cancer survivors...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966094/therapeutic-hypothermia-for-birth-asphyxia-in-neonates
#17
REVIEW
Vikram Datta
India contributes to the highest neonatal mortality globally. Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in India. A large number of neonates who suffer from birth asphyxia progress to Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE). The risk of a neonate progressing to severe form of HIE is many times higher in the low and middle income countries (LMICs) with ill developed health infrastructure. Till date LMICs have had a low institutional delivery rate, poor regionalization of care, lack of adequate transport facilities and ill equipped neonatal intensive care facilities...
December 14, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941934/the-global-burden-of-chronic-kidney-disease-estimates-variability-and-pitfalls
#18
REVIEW
Richard J Glassock, David G Warnock, Pierre Delanaye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is currently defined by abnormalities of kidney structure or function assessed using a matrix of variables - including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), thresholds of albuminuria and duration of injury - and is considered by many to be a common disorder globally. However, estimates of CKD prevalence vary widely, both within and between countries. The reasons for these variations are manifold, and include true regional differences in CKD prevalence, vagaries of using estimated GFR (eGFR) for identifying CKD, issues relating to the use of set GFR thresholds to define CKD in elderly populations, and concerns regarding the use of one-off testing for assessment of eGFR or albuminuria to define the prevalence of CKD in large-scale epidemiological studies...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940189/hydrocortisone-vitamin-c-and-thiamine-for-the-treatment-of-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-retrospective-before-after-study
#19
Paul E Marik, Vikramjit Khangoora, Racquel Rivera, Michael H Hooper, John Catravas
BACKGROUND: The global burden of sepsis is estimated as 15 to 19 million cases annually with a mortality rate approaching 60% in low income countries. METHODS: In this retrospective before-after clinical study, we compared the outcome and clinical course of consecutive septic patients treated with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone and thiamine during a 7-month period (treatment group) compared to a control group treated in our ICU during the preceding 7 months...
December 6, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939986/methylation-of-septin9-mediated-by-dnmt3a-enhances-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-and-liver-fibrogenesis
#20
Yuting Wu, Fangtian Bu, Haixia Yu, Wanxia Li, Cheng Huang, Xiaoming Meng, Lei Zhang, Taotao Ma, Jun Li
Liver fibrosis, resulting from chronic and persistent injury to the liver, is a worldwide health problem. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure and even hepatocellular cancer (HCC), often eventually requiring liver transplantation, poses a huge health burden on the global community. However, the specific pathogenesis of liver fibrosis remains not fully understood. Numerous basic and clinical studies have provided evidence that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, might contribute to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the pivotal cell type responsible for the fibrous scar in liver...
December 6, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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