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Anesthesia for hydrocephalus

James Pan, Jennifer L Quon, Eli Johnson, Bryan Lanzman, Anjeza Chukus, Allen L Ho, Michael S B Edwards, Gerald A Grant, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE Fast magnetic resonance imaging (fsMRI) sequences are single-shot spin echo images with fast acquisition times that have replaced CT scans for many conditions. Introduced as a means of evaluating children with hydrocephalus and macrocephaly, these sequences reduce the need for anesthesia and can be more cost-effective, especially for children who require multiple surveillance scans. However, the role of fsMRI has yet to be investigated in evaluating the posterior fossa in patients with Chiari I abnormality (CM-I)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Lal Rehman, Ghulam Farooq, Irum Bukhari
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find the outcome of repair and resection of the occipital encephalocele. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The clinical data of fifty consecutive occipital encephalocele patients were retrieved from medical records including operative notes, postoperative follow-up visits, and postsurgical complications were noted for analysis from November 2009 to November 2013 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Murat Şakir Ekşi, Ahmet Öğrenci, Osman Ersegun Batçık, Orkun Koban
De novo obstructive hydrocephalus is a rare event during pregnancy. There are only case reports presented in literature. We aimed to discuss the pathophysiological basis and management options with an exemplary case presentation and review of the current literature. A 28-year-old G2P1 patient presented to our clinic with headache, vomiting, and deteriorated vision at the 8th week of gestation. She had no history of central nervous system infection or trauma. A brain magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. There was hydrocephalus due to cerebral aqueduct stenosis (Evan's index of 58%)...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Ajay Prasad Hrishi, Karen Ruby Lionel
CONTEXT: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare arteriovenous malformation where a dilated median prosencephalic vein provides a low-resistance conduit for intracerebral blood flow resulting in high-output cardiac failure, severe pulmonary hypertension, with or without central nervous system symptoms secondary to hydrocephalus, in the neonatal and pediatric population. AIM: This study aims to analysis of the anesthetic management of this unique subset of patients with VGAM...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Du Tran-Viet, Brittany M Wong, Shwetha Mangalesh, Ramiro Maldonado, C Michael Cotten, Cynthia A Toth
PURPOSE: The authors investigated feasibility of undilated handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) retinal imaging in preterm infants and children with neurologic abnormalities. METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol, the authors attempted handheld SDOCT imaging of the retina, choroid, and optic nerve in infants and young children without pupil dilation. Scans were analyzed for quality and successful capture of foveal, optic nerve, and retinal structural parameters and abnormalities...
May 29, 2017: Retina
Eva Brichtová, J Šenkyřík
PURPOSE: A low radiation burden is essential during diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients due to their high tissue sensitivity. Using MR examination instead of the routinely used CT reduces the radiation exposure and the risk of adverse stochastic effects. Our retrospective study evaluated the possibility of using ultrafast single-shot (SSh) sequences and turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences in rapid MR brain imaging in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus and a programmable ventriculoperitoneal drainage system...
May 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Aabid Hussain Mir, Zulfiqar Ali, Bashir Ahmad Dar, Imtiaz A Naqash, Samreena Bashir
Congenital heart defects are associated with various physiological disturbances. They pose anesthetic challenges for both cardiac and noncardiac surgeries. Atrioventricular septal defects are due to a developmental failure in the separation of atria and the ventricles into separate chambers and failure in the separation of mitral and tricuspid valves. We present a case of a child (1½ years), weighing 10 kg, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus who was planned for ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Child was having an oxygen saturation of 76% on room air...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Zhongheng Zhang, Xiao Xu, Hongying Ni
We here presented a 65-year-old woman with disseminated Staphylococcus aureus infection following spinal anesthesia. The patient underwent spinal anesthesia for great saphenous vein stripping. Twenty days after the procedure, the patient developed hydrocephalus, pulmonary infection, and epidural abscess. Microbiological culture of the pus showed infection by S aureus. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and prompt surgical abscess drainage were associated with good outcome. Hydrocephalus is thought to be associated with arachnoiditis caused by S aureus infection, which provides new insights into the pathophysiology of arachnoiditis...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Young Taek Jung, Sang Pyung Lee, Jae Ik Cho
OBJECTIVE: The risk of complications is high for patients with a large cranial defect and hydrocephalus, undergoing cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation. The purpose of this study is to examine retrospectively such cases with complications and contrive an operative technique to reduce complications. METHODS: Nineteen patients underwent cranioplasty and VP shunt operation due to large cranial defects and hydrocephalus. These patients were divided into two groups: Group A with 10 patients who underwent staged-operations, and Group B with 9 patients who underwent one-stage operation...
October 2015: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
You-Sub Kim, Sung-Hyun Kim, Seung-Hoon Jung, Tae-Sun Kim, Sung-Pil Joo
BACKGROUND: A lumbar drainage catheter is frequently placed intra-operatively to decrease fluid pressure on the brain in aneurysmal subarachnoid cases. In rare cases, this catheter placement can lead to intracranial hypotension, resulting in brain stem herniation termed "brain sag" and it can lead to neurological injury and may prove to be fatal. We present our patient with brain sag secondary to intraoperative lumbar drainage. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old woman was admitted with a sudden onset of severe headache...
2016: SpringerPlus
Stephanie Walsh, Jennifer Donnan, Andrea Morrissey, Lindsey Sikora, Sonya Bowen, Kayla Collins, Don MacDonald
The purpose of this study was to systematically assess and synthesize the world literature on risk factors for the onset and natural progression of hydrocephalus, thereby providing a basis for policy makers to identify appropriate risk management measures to mitigate the burden of disease in Canada. Evidence for risk factors was limited for both onset and progression. Two meta-analyses that examined a risk factor for onset met the inclusion criteria. One found a significant protective effect of prenatal vitamins among case control studies, but not cohort/randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 2017: Neurotoxicology
Charu Mahajan, Girija P Rath, Parmod K Bithal, Ashok K Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: Giant encephalocele, a rare entity, makes anesthesiologists wary of challenging anesthetic course. Apart from inherent challenges of pediatric anesthesia, the anesthesiologist has to deal with unusual positioning, difficult tracheal intubation, and associated anomalies during the perioperative course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 29 children with giant encephalocele, who underwent excision and repair, during a period of 13 years, were retrospectively analyzed...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Thomas P Garton, Yangdong He, Hugh J L Garton, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi, Jennifer M Strahle
Neuronal degeneration following neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is incompletely understood. Understanding the mechanisms of degeneration and cell loss may point toward specific treatments to limit injury. We evaluated the role of hemoglobin (Hb) in cell death after intraventricular injection in neonatal rats. Hb was injected into the right lateral ventricle of post-natal day 7 rats. Rats exposed to anesthesia were used for controls. The CA-1 region of the hippocampus was analyzed via immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining, Western blots, and double-labeling stains...
March 15, 2016: Brain Research
Rakesh Garg, Navdeep Sokhal, Girija Rath
Congenital malformations of various sorts account for a large percentage of childhood hydrocephalus but associated Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomaly has not been reported earlier. Though the anaesthetic concerns for isolated arrested hydrocephalus and CVJ anomaly has been reported but the concomitant occurrence of both and its anaesthetic implications is not mentioned in literature. Here we present the anaesthetic management of a child with arrested hydrocephalus along with CVJ anomaly leading to compression of cervicomedullary junction and myelopathy scheduled for decompression and fixation of craniovertebral junction...
2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica
Norman James Halliday
More than 50% of the population in most developing countries is younger than 18 years, and it has been estimated that 85% of these children may require some sort of surgery before their 15th birthday. Common congenital surgical requirements are for cleft lip and palate, inguinal hernia, meningomyelocele, as well as hydrocephalus. In addition, there is a greater incidence of trauma experienced by pediatric patients. Burn and scald injuries are also common because of the proximity of domestic open fires and boiling pots of water...
June 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Toshihiro Mashiko, Takayuki Anno, Fumihiro Arai, Eiju Watanabe
Cerebrospinal fluid shunting is a surgical treatment alternative for hydrocephalus. In general, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) and lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts have been widely practiced as standard procedures. However, these procedures are difficult because the shunt passer often rotates unintentionally. Therefore, we developed a simple device that prevents shunt passer rotation and termed it a "shunt passer-clamp"(SP-C). This device consists of two parts: the first part is the body with a hole through which the passer goes and a "female" screw perpendicular to the hole...
April 2015: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Juan F Martínez-Lage, Antonio L López-Guerrero, Claudio Piqueras, María-José Almagro, Amparo Gilabert
BACKGROUND: Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion causes diverse clinical syndromes most of them constituting the manifestations of decreased intracranial pressure. Subdural collections or chronic subdural hematomas are the best-known consequences of persistent CSF leaks, especially in overshunted hydrocephalus. Continuous CSF escape also occurs after lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia, and diverse spinal surgeries. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy submitted to reoperation of spinal cord compression due to partial sacral agenesis complained of postoperative orthostatic headaches and vomiting initially attributed to CSF hypotension...
June 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Akihiro Inoue, Shohei Kohno, Yoshiaki Kumon, Hideaki Watanabe, Takanori Ohnishi, Hisashi Hashimoto, Keiichi Matsubara
We report herein a case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma complicated by pregnancy and concerns about the period in which surgery could be performed successfully. A 19-year-old woman, who was also 35 weeks pregnant, was admitted to our hospital with headache, nausea, and general fatigue. Neurological examination on admission revealed disturbed consciousness, and the patient's general condition was poor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large tumor in the cerebellar vermis along with an obstructive hydrocephalus...
January 2015: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Tiffany E Chao, Pratik B Patel, Michael Kikubaire, Michelle Niescierenko, Lars Hagander, John G Meara
BACKGROUND: Situational needs of health care facilities inform the optimal allocation of resources and quality improvement efforts. This study examines surgical care delivery metrics at a tertiary care institution in Liberia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed operative and ward logbooks from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Data parameters included patients' age, diagnosis, procedure, mortality, and perioperative provider information. RESULTS: In 2012, 1,036 operations were performed...
September 2015: World Journal of Surgery
V Vybíhal, R Gerychová, P Janků, G Hanoun, M Sova, P Fadrus, M Smrčka, M Keřkovský
UNLABELLED: Hydrocephalus is a disorder of abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the intracranial space, usually in the cerebral ventricles. The number of patients reaching reproductive age and intending to become pregnant has increased in recent years because of treatment advances. An implanted shunt is usually introduced into the abdominal cavity (ventriculoperitoneal shunt). Numerous changes occur during pregnancy, mainly increased accumulation of water, increased intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume and increased intra-abdominal pressure as a result of the growing uterus...
August 2014: Ceská Gynekologie
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