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Drosophila memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836963/phosphorylated-groucho-delays-differentiation-in-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-by-providing-a-molecular-memory-of-egfr-signaling-in-the-niche
#1
Michael J Johnston, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Ze'ev Paroush, Todd G Nystul
In the epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) of the Drosophila ovary, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling promotes self-renewal whereas Notch signaling promotes differentiation of the prefollicle cell (pFC) daughters. We have identified two proteins, Six4 and Groucho (Gro), that link the activity of these two pathways to regulate the earliest cell fate decision in the FSC lineage. Our data indicate that Six4 and Gro promote differentiation toward the polar cell fate by promoting Notch pathway activity...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834611/strategy-changes-in-subsequent-fights-as-consequences-of-winning-and-losing-in-fruit-fly-fights
#2
Séverine Trannoy, Edward A Kravitz
In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802221/sh2b1-is-involved-in-the-accumulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Yijun Shen, Yiling Xia, Shiquan Meng, Nastasia K H Lim, Wenan Wang, Fude Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in learning and memory abilities, as well as pathological changes of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the brain. Insulin has been identified as a modulator of the neuronal pathways involved in learning and memory, and is also implicated as a modulator of Aβ and tau metabolism. Disrupted insulin signaling pathways are evident in AD patients and it is understood that type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of developing AD, suggesting a possible link between metabolic disorders and neurodegeneration...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791065/rna-binding-profiles-of-drosophila-cpeb-proteins-orb-and-orb2
#4
Barbara Krystyna Stepien, Cornelia Oppitz, Daniel Gerlach, Ugur Dag, Maria Novatchkova, Sebastian Krüttner, Alexander Stark, Krystyna Keleman
Localized protein translation is critical in many biological contexts, particularly in highly polarized cells, such as neurons, to regulate gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) family of RNA-binding proteins has emerged as a key regulator of mRNA transport and local translation required for early embryonic development, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory (LTM). Drosophila Orb and Orb2 are single members of the CPEB1 and CPEB2 subfamilies of the CPEB proteins, respectively...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#5
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#6
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#7
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725473/dynamics-of-memory-guided-choice-behavior-in-drosophila
#8
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto
Memory retrieval requires both accuracy and speed. Olfactory learning of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model system to identify molecular and neuronal substrates of memory and memory-guided behavior. The behavioral expression of olfactory memory has traditionally been tested as a conditioned odor response in a simple T-maze, which measures the result, but not the speed, of odor choice. Here, we developed multiplexed T-mazes that allow video recording of the choice behavior. Automatic fly counting in each arm of the maze visualizes choice dynamics...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721650/approaching-long-genomic-regions-and-large-recombination-rates-with-msparsm-as-an-alternative-to-macs
#9
Carlos Montemuiño, Antonio Espinosa, Juan C Moure, Gonzalo Vera, Porfidio Hernández, Sebastián Ramos-Onsins
The msParSm application is an evolution of msPar, the parallel version of the coalescent simulation program ms, which removes the limitation for simulating long stretches of DNA sequences with large recombination rates, without compromising the accuracy of the standard coalescence. This work introduces msParSm, describes its significant performance improvements over msPar and its shared memory parallelization details, and shows how it can get better, if not similar, execution times than MaCS. Two case studies with different mutation rates were analyzed, one approximating the human average and the other approximating the Drosophila melanogaster average...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702999/ohgata-the-single-drosophila-ortholog-of-human-cereblon-regulates-insulin-signaling-dependent-organismic-growth
#10
Satoru Wakabayashi, Naoya Sawamura, André Voelzmann, Meike Broemer, Toru Asahi, Michael Hoch
Cereblon (CRBN) is a substrate receptor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is highly conserved in animals and plants. CRBN proteins have been implicated in various biological processes such as development, metabolism, learning, and memory formation, and their impairment has been linked to autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability and cancer. Furthermore, human CRBN was identified as the primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Data on functional analysis of CRBN family members in vivo, however, are still scarce...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684064/spermidine-suppresses-age-associated-memory-impairment-by-preventing-adverse-increase-of-presynaptic-active-zone-size-and-release
#11
Varun K Gupta, Ulrike Pech, Anuradha Bhukel, Andreas Fulterer, Anatoli Ender, Stephan F Mauermann, Till F M Andlauer, Emmanuel Antwi-Adjei, Christine Beuschel, Kerstin Thriene, Marta Maglione, Christine Quentin, René Bushow, Martin Schwärzel, Thorsten Mielke, Frank Madeo, Joern Dengjel, André Fiala, Stephan J Sigrist
Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641694/thermal-stress-depletes-energy-reserves-in-drosophila
#12
Peter Klepsatel, Martina Gáliková, Yanjun Xu, Ronald P Kühnlein
Understanding how environmental temperature affects metabolic and physiological functions is of crucial importance to assess the impacts of climate change on organisms. Here, we used different laboratory strains and a wild-caught population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to examine the effect of temperature on the body energy reserves of an ectothermic organism. We found that permanent ambient temperature elevation or transient thermal stress causes significant depletion of body fat stores. Surprisingly, transient thermal stress induces a lasting "memory effect" on body fat storage, which also reduces survivorship of the flies upon food deprivation later after stress exposure...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629706/drosophila-neprilysins-are-involved-in-middle-term-and-long-term-memory
#13
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626494/quercetin-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-drosophila-ad-model-by-modulating-cell-cycle-related-protein-expression
#14
Yan Kong, Ke Li, Tingting Fu, Chao Wan, Dongdong Zhang, Hang Song, Yao Zhang, Na Liu, Zhenji Gan, Liudi Yuan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by β amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurofibril tangles. It has been reported that a bioflavonoid, quercetin, could ameliorate AD phenotypes in C. elegans and mice. However, the mechanism underlying the ameliorative effect of quercetin is not fully understood yet. Drosophila models could recapitulate AD-like phenotypes, such as shortened lifespan, impaired locomotive ability as well as defects in learning and memory. So in this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on AD in Drosophila model and explored the underlying mechanisms...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622635/characterization-of-the-drosophila-beaf-32a-and-beaf-32b-insulator-proteins
#15
S V Satya Prakash Avva, Craig M Hart
Data implicate the Drosophila 32 kDa Boundary Element-Associated Factors BEAF-32A and BEAF-32B in both chromatin domain insulator element function and promoter function. They might also function as an epigenetic memory by remaining bound to mitotic chromosomes. Both proteins are made from the same gene. They differ in their N-terminal 80 amino acids, which contain single DNA-binding BED fingers. The remaining 200 amino acids are identical in the two proteins. The structure and function of the middle region of 120 amino acids is unknown, while the C-terminal region of 80 amino acids has a putative leucine zipper and a BESS domain and mediates BEAF-BEAF interactions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615061/4-hydroxyisophthalic-acid-from-decalepis-hamiltonii-rescues-the-neurobehavioral-deficit-in-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-taupathies
#16
Mohammad Haddadi, Samaneh Reiszadeh Jahromi, Upendra Nongthomba, T Shivanandappa, S R Ramesh
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiological factors implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neurons are more sensitive to oxidative damage there is an increasing interest in developing novel antioxidant therapies, especially herbal preparations due to their safety profile and high efficiency. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of a novel antioxidant compound, 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid (4-HIPA) isolated from aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots was examined using transgenic Drosophila model of taupathy expressing wild-type and mutant forms of 2N4R isoform of human microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT)...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602281/short-term-exposure-to-predation-affects-body-elemental-composition-climbing-speed-and-survival-ability-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Indrikis Krams, Sarah Eichler Inwood, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M Burghardt, David M Butler, Severi Luoto, Tatjana Krama
Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593377/hippocampal-activation-of-rac1-regulates-the-forgetting-of-object-recognition-memory
#18
Yunlong Liu, Shuwen Du, Li Lv, Bo Lei, Wei Shi, Yikai Tang, Lianzhang Wang, Yi Zhong
Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585032/olfactory-behaviors-assayed-by-computer-tracking-of-drosophila-in-a-four-quadrant-olfactometer
#19
Chun-Chieh Lin, Olena Riabinina, Christopher J Potter
A key challenge in neurobiology is to understand how neural circuits function to guide appropriate animal behaviors. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for such investigations due to its complex behaviors, powerful genetic techniques, and compact nervous system. Laboratory behavioral assays have long been used with Drosophila to simulate properties of the natural environment and study the neural mechanisms underlying the corresponding behaviors (e.g. phototaxis, chemotaxis, sensory learning and memory)(1-3)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568554/inhibiting-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-during-development-impairs-memory-in-adult-drosophila
#20
Ilaria Drago, Ronald L Davis
The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
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