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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088192/nucleotide-diversity-inflation-as-a-genome-wide-response-to-experimental-lifespan-extension-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Pawel Michalak, Lin Kang, Pernille M Sarup, Mads F Schou, Volker Loeschcke
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory predicts that antagonistically selected alleles, such as those with divergent pleiotropic effects in early and late life, may often reach intermediate population frequencies due to balancing selection, an elusive process when sought out empirically. Alternatively, genetic diversity may increase as a result of positive frequency-dependent selection and genetic purging in bottlenecked populations. RESULTS: While experimental evolution systems with directional phenotypic selection typically result in at least local heterozygosity loss, we report that selection for increased lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster leads to an extensive genome-wide increase of nucleotide diversity in the selected lines compared to replicate control lines, pronounced in regions with no or low recombination, such as chromosome 4 and centromere neighborhoods...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026976/spermidine-boosts-autophagy-to-protect-from-synapse-aging
#3
Anuradha Bhukel, Frank Madeo, Stephan Sigrist
All animals form memories to adapt their behavior in a context-dependent manner. With increasing age, however, forming new memories becomes less efficient. While synaptic plasticity promotes memory formation, the etiology of age-induced memory formation remained enigmatic. Previous work showed that simple feeding of polyamine spermidine protects from age-induced memory impairment in Drosophila. Most recent work now shows that spermidine operates directly at synapses, allowing for an autophagy-dependent homeostatic regulation of presynaptic specializations...
December 27, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008309/role-of-drosophila-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-memory-formation
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Preat, Valérie Goguel
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005005/immediate-perception-of-a-reward-is-distinct-from-the-reward-s-long-term-salience
#5
John P McGinnis, Huoqing Jiang, Moutaz Ali Agha, Consuelo Perez Sanchez, Jeffrey J Lange, Zulin Yu, Frederic Marion-Poll, Kausik Si
Reward perception guides all aspects of animal behavior. However, the relationship between the perceived value of a reward, the latent value of a reward, and the behavioral response remains unclear. Here we report that, given a choice between two sweet and chemically similar sugars-L- and D-arabinose-Drosophila melanogaster prefers D- over L-arabinose, but forms long-term memories of L-arabinose (the isomer present in ripening fruits) more reliably. Behavioral assays indicate that L-arabinose-generated memories require sugar receptor Gr43a, and calcium imaging and electrophysiological recording indicate that L- and D-arabinose differentially activate Gr43a-expressing neurons...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003518/independent-natural-genetic-variation-of-punishment-versus-relief-memory
#6
Mirjam Appel, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Samet Kocabey, Sinead Savage, Christian König, Ayse Yarali
A painful event establishes two opponent memories: cues that are associated with pain onset are remembered negatively, whereas cues that coincide with the relief at pain offset acquire positive valence. Such punishment- versus relief-memories are conserved across species, including humans, and the balance between them is critical for adaptive behaviour with respect to pain and trauma. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as a study case, we found that both punishment- and relief-memories display natural variation across wild-derived inbred strains, but they do not covary, suggesting a considerable level of dissociation in their genetic effectors...
December 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#7
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936378/genome-wide-identification-of-neuronal-activity-regulated-genes-in-drosophila
#8
Xiao Chen, Reazur Rahman, Fang Guo, Michael Rosbash
Activity-regulated genes (ARGs) are important for neuronal functions like long-term memory and are well-characterized in mammals but poorly studied in other model organisms like Drosophila. Here we stimulated fly neurons with different paradigms and identified ARGs using high-throughput sequencing from brains as well as from sorted neurons: they included a narrow set of circadian neurons as well as dopaminergic neurons. Surprisingly, many ARGs are specific to the stimulation paradigm and very specific to neuron type...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932388/from-embryo-to-adult-pirna-mediated-silencing-throughout-germline-development-in-drosophila
#9
Pauline P Marie, Stéphane Ronsseray, Antoine Boivin
In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development, has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922050/identification-and-structural-characterization-of-the-n-terminal-amyloid-core-of-orb2-isoform-a
#10
Silvia A Cervantes, Thalia H Bajakian, Maria A Soria, Alexander S Falk, Rachel J Service, Ralf Langen, Ansgar B Siemer
Orb2 is a functional amyloid that plays a key role in Drosophila long-term memory formation. Orb2 has two isoforms that differ in their N-termini. The N-terminus of the A isoform (Orb2A) that precedes its Q-rich prion-like domain has been shown to be important for Orb2 aggregation and long-term memory. However, besides the fact that it forms fibrillar aggregates, structural information of Orb2 is largely absent. To understand the importance of the N-terminus of Orb2A and its relation to the fibril core, we recorded solid-state NMR and EPR data on fibrils formed by the first 88 residues of Orb2A (Orb2A88)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836963/phosphorylated-groucho-delays-differentiation-in-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-by-providing-a-molecular-memory-of-egfr-signaling-in-the-niche
#11
Michael J Johnston, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Ze'ev Paroush, Todd G Nystul
In the epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) of the Drosophila ovary, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling promotes self-renewal, whereas Notch signaling promotes differentiation of the prefollicle cell (pFC) daughters. We have identified two proteins, Six4 and Groucho (Gro), that link the activity of these two pathways to regulate the earliest cell fate decision in the FSC lineage. Our data indicate that Six4 and Gro promote differentiation towards the polar cell fate by promoting Notch pathway activity...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834611/strategy-changes-in-subsequent-fights-as-consequences-of-winning-and-losing-in-fruit-fly-fights
#12
Séverine Trannoy, Edward A Kravitz
In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802221/sh2b1-is-involved-in-the-accumulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Yijun Shen, Yiling Xia, Shiquan Meng, Nastasia K H Lim, Wenan Wang, Fude Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in learning and memory abilities, as well as pathological changes of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the brain. Insulin has been identified as a modulator of the neuronal pathways involved in learning and memory, and is also implicated as a modulator of Aβ and tau metabolism. Disrupted insulin signaling pathways are evident in AD patients and it is understood that type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of developing AD, suggesting a possible link between metabolic disorders and neurodegeneration...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791065/rna-binding-profiles-of-drosophila-cpeb-proteins-orb-and-orb2
#14
Barbara Krystyna Stepien, Cornelia Oppitz, Daniel Gerlach, Ugur Dag, Maria Novatchkova, Sebastian Krüttner, Alexander Stark, Krystyna Keleman
Localized protein translation is critical in many biological contexts, particularly in highly polarized cells, such as neurons, to regulate gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) family of RNA-binding proteins has emerged as a key regulator of mRNA transport and local translation required for early embryonic development, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory (LTM). Drosophila Orb and Orb2 are single members of the CPEB1 and CPEB2 subfamilies of the CPEB proteins, respectively...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#15
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#16
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#17
REVIEW
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725473/dynamics-of-memory-guided-choice-behavior-in-drosophila
#18
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto
Memory retrieval requires both accuracy and speed. Olfactory learning of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model system to identify molecular and neuronal substrates of memory and memory-guided behavior. The behavioral expression of olfactory memory has traditionally been tested as a conditioned odor response in a simple T-maze, which measures the result, but not the speed, of odor choice. Here, we developed multiplexed T-mazes that allow video recording of the choice behavior. Automatic fly counting in each arm of the maze visualizes choice dynamics...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721650/approaching-long-genomic-regions-and-large-recombination-rates-with-msparsm-as-an-alternative-to-macs
#19
Carlos Montemuiño, Antonio Espinosa, Juan C Moure, Gonzalo Vera, Porfidio Hernández, Sebastián Ramos-Onsins
The msParSm application is an evolution of msPar, the parallel version of the coalescent simulation program ms, which removes the limitation for simulating long stretches of DNA sequences with large recombination rates, without compromising the accuracy of the standard coalescence. This work introduces msParSm, describes its significant performance improvements over msPar and its shared memory parallelization details, and shows how it can get better, if not similar, execution times than MaCS. Two case studies with different mutation rates were analyzed, one approximating the human average and the other approximating the Drosophila melanogaster average...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702999/ohgata-the-single-drosophila-ortholog-of-human-cereblon-regulates-insulin-signaling-dependent-organismic-growth
#20
Satoru Wakabayashi, Naoya Sawamura, André Voelzmann, Meike Broemer, Toru Asahi, Michael Hoch
Cereblon (CRBN) is a substrate receptor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is highly conserved in animals and plants. CRBN proteins have been implicated in various biological processes such as development, metabolism, learning, and memory formation, and their impairment has been linked to autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability and cancer. Furthermore, human CRBN was identified as the primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Data on functional analysis of CRBN family members in vivo, however, are still scarce...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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