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Drosophila memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049853/nutrient-driven-o-glcnac-in-proteostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#1
REVIEW
Ilhan Akan, Stephanie Olivier-Van Stichelen, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
Proteostasis is essential in the mammalian brain where post-mitotic cells must function for decades to maintain synaptic contacts and memory. The brain is dependent on glucose and other metabolites for proper function and is spared from metabolic deficits even during starvation. In this review, we outline how the nutrient sensitive nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates protein homeostasis. The O-GlcNAc modification is highly abundant in the mammalian brain, and has been linked to proteopathies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016849/differential-protective-effects-of-connective-tissue-growth-factor-against-a%C3%AE-neurotoxicity-on-neurons-and-glia
#2
Cheng-Ning Yang, Min-Fang Wu, Chung-Chih Liu, Wei-Hung Jung, Yu-Chin Chang, Wang-Pao Lee, Young-Ji Shiao, Chia-Lin Wu, Horng-Huei Liou, Sze-Kwan Lin, Chih-Chiang Chan
Impaired clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) leads to abnormal extracellular accumulation of this neurotoxic protein that drives neurodegeneration in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression is elevated in plaque-surrounding astrocytes in AD patients. However, the role of CTGF in AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we characterized the neuroprotective activity of CTGF. We found that CTGF facilitated Aβ uptake and subsequent degradation within primary glia and neuroblastoma cells...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#3
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973902/drk-mediated-signaling-to-rho-kinase-is-required-for-anesthesia-resistant-memory-in-drosophila
#4
Vasileia Kotoula, Anastasios Moressis, Ourania Semelidou, Efthimios M C Skoulakis
Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) was described decades ago, but the mechanisms that underlie this protein synthesis-independent form of consolidated memory in Drosophila remain poorly understood. Whether the several signaling molecules, receptors, and synaptic proteins currently implicated in ARM operate in one or more pathways and how they function in the process remain unclear. We present evidence that Drk, the Drosophila ortholog of the adaptor protein Grb2, is essential for ARM within adult mushroom body neurons...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961992/capturing-environmental-plant-memories-in-dna-with-a-little-help-from-chromatin
#5
Diana Mihaela Buzas
Plants are eukaryotes living mostly immotile in harsh environments. On occasion, it is beneficial for their survival to maintain a transcriptional response to an environmental stress longer than the stress lasts (transcriptional memory) and even to reiterate such a response more quickly or more strongly when the same stress is re-encountered (priming memory). In eukaryotes, transcription takes place in the context of chromatin, the packaging material of DNA. Chromatin regulation is often invoked when it comes to environmental transcriptional and priming memory in plants, but rarely chromatin-based regulation can be accurately assigned to a given aspect of transcription in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961025/generation-and-evolution-of-neural-cell-types-and-circuits-insights-from-the-drosophila-visual-system
#6
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#7
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931572/drosophila-neprilysin-1-rescues-memory-deficits-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#8
Oriane Turrel, Valérie Goguel, Thomas Preat
Neprilysins are type-II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides, in particular the mammalian amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In Drosophila, several neprilysins expressed in the brain are required for middle-term (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, a pair of large neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MB), the center of olfactory memory. These data indicate that one or several peptides need to be degraded for MTM and LTM. We have previously shown that the fly amyloid precursor protein (APPL) is required for memory in the MB...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921711/foxp-expression-identifies-a-kenyon-cell-subtype-in-the-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-linking-them-to-fruitfly-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-neurons
#9
Adriana Schatton, Constance Scharff
The arthropod mushroom bodies (MB) are a higher order sensory integration center. In insects, they play a central role in associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), the highly ordered connectivity of heterogeneous MB neuron populations has been mapped using sophisticated molecular genetic and anatomical techniques. The MB-core subpopulation was recently shown to express the transcription factor FoxP with relevance for decision-making. Here we report the development and adult distribution of a FoxP-expressing neuron population in the MB of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) using in situ hybridization and a custom-made antiserum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918947/hormonal-signaling-cascade-during-an-early-adult-critical-period-required-for-courtship-memory-retention-in-drosophila
#10
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917665/improving-mitochondrial-function-significantly-reduces-metabolic-visual-motor-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Tobias W Weinrich, Ariathney Coyne, Thomas E Salt, Christopher Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Mitochondria play a major role in aging. Over time, mutations accumulate in mitochondrial DNA leading to reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increased production of damaging reactive oxygen species. If cells fail to cope, they die. Reduced ATP will result in declining cellular membrane potentials leading to reduced central nervous system function. However, aged mitochondrial function is improved by long wavelength light (670 nm) absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910569/hierarchical-recruitment-of-polycomb-complexes-revisited
#12
Eshagh Dorafshan, Tatyana G Kahn, Yuri B Schwartz
Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins epigenetically repress key developmental genes and thereby control alternative cell fates. PcG proteins act as complexes that can modify histones and these histone modifications play a role in transmitting the "memory" of the repressed state as cells divide. Here we consider mainstream models that link histone modifications to hierarchical recruitment of PcG complexes and compare them to results of a direct test of interdependence between PcG complexes for recruitment to Drosophila genes...
September 14, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#13
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900185/anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibodies-restore-memory-acquisition-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Alfonso Martin-Peña, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder triggered by the accumulation of soluble assemblies of the amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide. Despite remarkable advances in understanding the pathogenesis of AD, the development of palliative therapies is still lacking. Engineered anti-Aβ42 antibodies are a promising strategy to stall the progression of the disease. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies increase brain penetration and offer flexible options for delivery while maintaining the epitope targeting of full antibodies...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889104/machine-learning-analysis-identifies-drosophilagrunge-atrophin-as-an-important-learning-and-memory-gene-required-for-memory-retention-and-social-learning
#15
Balint Z Kacsoh, Casey S Greene, Giovanni Bosco
High throughput experiments are becoming increasingly common, and scientists must balance hypothesis driven experiments with genome wide data acquisition. We sought to predict novel genes involved in Drosophila learning and long-term memory from existing public high-throughput data. We performed an analysis using PILGRM, which analyzes public gene expression compendia using machine learning. We evaluated the top prediction alongside genes involved in learning and memory in IMP, an interface for functional relationship networks...
September 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857544/identification-of-5-1-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1h-pyrazol-3-yl-thiophene-2-carboxamides-as-novel-and-selective-monoamine-oxidase-b-inhibitors-used-to-improve-memory-and-cognition
#16
Alan P Kaplan, Terence Keenan, Roderick Scott, Xianbo Zhou, Rusiko Bourchouladze, Andrew J McRiner, Mark E Wilson, Darlene Romashko, Regina Miller, Matthew Bletsch, Gary Anderson, Jennifer Stanley, Adia Zhang, Dong Lee, John Nikpur
Initial work in Drosophila and mice demonstrated that the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) is a master control gene for memory formation. The relationship between CREB and memory has also been found to be true in other species, including aplysia and rats. It is thus well-established that CREB activation plays a central role in memory enhancement and that CREB is activated during memory formation. On the basis of these findings, a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign utilizing a CRE-luciferase (CRE-Luci) SK-N-MC cell line was performed to identify compounds that enhance transcriptional activation of the CRE promoter with a suboptimal dose of forskolin...
September 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851405/the-erm-protein-moesin-is-essential-for-neuronal-morphogenesis-and-long-term-memory-in-drosophila
#17
Patrick S Freymuth, Helen L Fitzsimons
Moesin is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein that plays an important role in modification of the actin cytoskeleton. Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton drives both neuronal morphogenesis and the structural changes in neurons that are required for long-term memory formation. Moesin has been identified as a candidate memory gene in Drosophila, however, whether it is required for memory formation has not been evaluated. Here, we investigate the role of Moesin in neuronal morphogenesis and in short- and long-term memory formation in the courtship suppression assay, a model of associative memory...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846707/kek-6-a-truncated-trk-like-receptor-for-drosophila-neurotrophin-2-regulates-structural-synaptic-plasticity
#18
Suzana Ulian-Benitez, Simon Bishop, Istvan Foldi, Jill Wentzell, Chinenye Okenwa, Manuel G Forero, Bangfu Zhu, Marta Moreira, Mark Phizacklea, Graham McIlroy, Guiyi Li, Nicholas J Gay, Alicia Hidalgo
Neurotrophism, structural plasticity, learning and long-term memory in mammals critically depend on neurotrophins binding Trk receptors to activate tyrosine kinase (TyrK) signaling, but Drosophila lacks full-length Trks, raising the question of how these processes occur in the fly. Paradoxically, truncated Trk isoforms lacking the TyrK predominate in the adult human brain, but whether they have neuronal functions independently of full-length Trks is unknown. Drosophila has TyrK-less Trk-family receptors, encoded by the kekkon (kek) genes, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved functions for this receptor class may exist...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844654/appetitive-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-the-honeybee-depend-on-sugar-reward-identity
#19
Nicola K Simcock, Helen Gray, Sofia Bouchebti, Geraldine A Wright
One of the most important tasks of the brain is to learn and remember information associated with food. Studies in mice and Drosophila have shown that sugar rewards must be metabolisable to form lasting memories, but few other animals have been studied. Here, we trained adult, worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) in two olfactory tasks (massed and spaced conditioning) known to affect memory formation to test how the schedule of reinforcement and the nature of a sugar reward affected learning and memory. The antennae and mouthparts of honeybees were most sensitive to sucrose but glucose and fructose were equally phagostimulatory...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826476/eyeless-uncouples-mushroom-body-neuroblast-proliferation-from-dietary-amino-acids-in-drosophila
#20
Conor W Sipe, Sarah E Siegrist
Cell proliferation is coupled with nutrient availability. If nutrients become limited, proliferation ceases, because growth factor and/or PI3-kinase activity levels become attenuated. Here, we report an exception to this generality within a subpopulation of Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts). We find that most neuroblasts enter and exit cell cycle in a nutrient-dependent manner that is reversible and regulated by PI3-kinase. However, a small subset, the mushroom body neuroblasts, which generate neurons important for memory and learning, divide independent of dietary nutrient conditions and PI3-kinase activity...
August 9, 2017: ELife
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