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Drosophila memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681474/ejaculation-induced-by-the-activation-of-crz-neurons-is-rewarding-to-drosophila-males
#1
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#2
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#3
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#4
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615554/flying-the-rna-nest-drosophila-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-transcriptome-dynamics-of-early-development
#5
REVIEW
Fabio Alexis Lefebvre, Éric Lécuyer
Early development is punctuated by a series of pervasive and fast paced transitions. These events reshape a differentiated oocyte into a totipotent embryo and allow it to gradually mount a genetic program of its own, thereby framing a new organism. Specifically, developmental transitions that ensure the maternal to embryonic control of developmental events entail a deep remodeling of transcriptional and transcriptomic landscapes. Drosophila provides an elegant and genetically tractable system to investigate these conserved changes at a dazzling developmental pace...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593084/flying-drosophila-maintain-arbitrary-but-stable-headings-relative-to-the-angle-of-polarized-light
#6
Timothy L Warren, Peter T Weir, Michael H Dickinson
Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animal's wings...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581730/the-impact-of-rhodiola-rosea-on-the-gut-microbial-community-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Khachik E Labachyan, Dara Kiani, Evgueni A Sevrioukov, Samuel E Schriner, Mahtab Jafari
Background: The root extract of Rhodiola rosea has historically been used in Europe and Asia as an adaptogen, and similar to ginseng and Shisandra , shown to display numerous health benefits in humans, such as decreasing fatigue and anxiety while improving mood, memory, and stamina. A similar extract in the Rhodiola family, Rhodiola crenulata , has previously been shown to confer positive effects on the gut homeostasis of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Although, R. rosea has been shown to extend lifespan of many organisms such as fruit flies, worms and yeast, its anti-aging mechanism remains uncertain...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552027/loss-of-the-intellectual-disability-and-autism-gene-cc2d1a-and-its-homolog-cc2d1b-differentially-affect-spatial-memory-anxiety-and-hyperactivity
#8
Marta Zamarbide, Adam W Oaks, Heather L Pond, Julia S Adelman, M Chiara Manzini
Hundreds of genes are mutated in non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with each gene often involved in only a handful of cases. Such heterogeneity can be daunting, but rare recessive loss of function (LOF) mutations can be a good starting point to provide insight into the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disease. Biallelic LOF mutations in the signaling scaffold CC2D1A cause a rare form of autosomal recessive ID, sometimes associated with ASD and seizures. In parallel, we recently reported that Cc2d1a -deficient mice present with cognitive and social deficits, hyperactivity and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551489/active-protection-learning-activated-raf-mapk-activity-protects-labile-memory-from-rac1-independent-forgetting
#9
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545390/elongator-complex-is-required-for-long-term-olfactory-memory-formation-in-drosophila
#10
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508991/mass-spectrometry-imaging-shows-cocaine-and-methylphenidate-have-opposite-effects-on-major-lipids-in-drosophila-brain
#11
Mai H Philipsen, Nhu N T Phan, John Stephen Fletcher, Per Malmberg, Andrew G Ewing
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules in the fly with a spatial resolution around 3 µm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502301/kaleido-visualizing-big-brain-data-with-automatic-color-assignment-for-single-neuron-images
#12
Ting-Yuan Wang, Nan-Yow Chen, Guan-Wei He, Guo-Tzau Wang, Chi-Tin Shih, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Effective 3D visualization is essential for connectomics analysis, where the number of neural images easily reaches over tens of thousands. A formidable challenge is to simultaneously visualize a large number of distinguishable single-neuron images, with reasonable processing time and memory for file management and 3D rendering. In the present study, we proposed an algorithm named "Kaleido" that can visualize up to at least ten thousand single neurons from the Drosophila brain using only a fraction of the memory traditionally required, without increasing computing time...
March 3, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490272/a-drosophila-model-of-intellectual-disability-caused-by-mutations-in-the-histone-demethylase-kdm5
#13
Sumaira Zamurrad, Hayden A M Hatch, Coralie Drelon, Helen M Belalcazar, Julie Secombe
Mutations in KDM5 family histone demethylases cause intellectual disability in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms linking KDM5-regulated transcription and cognition remain unknown. Here, we establish Drosophila as a model to understand this connection by generating a fly strain harboring an allele analogous to a disease-causing missense mutation in human KDM5C (kdm5A512P ). Transcriptome analysis of kdm5A512P flies revealed a striking downregulation of genes required for ribosomal assembly and function and a concomitant reduction in translation...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490271/two-parallel-pathways-assign-opposing-odor-valences-during-drosophila-memory-formation
#14
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478851/drosophila-full-length-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-required-for-visual-working-memory-and-prevents-age-related-memory-impairment
#15
Franziska Rieche, Katia Carmine-Simmen, Burkhard Poeck, Doris Kretzschmar, Roland Strauss
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477608/mushroom-body-glycolysis-is-required-for-olfactory-memory-in-drosophila
#16
Chia-Lin Wu, Ching-Ching Chang, Jie-Kai Wu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Chu-Huai Yang, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang
Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory...
February 22, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474956/the-clock-gene-period-differentially-regulates-sleep-and-memory-in-drosophila
#17
Robin Fropf, Hong Zhou, Jerry C P Yin
Circadian regulation is a conserved phenomenon across the animal kingdom, and its disruption can have severe behavioral and physiological consequences. Core circadian clock proteins are likewise well conserved from Drosophila to humans. While the molecular clock interactions that regulate circadian rhythms have been extensively described, additional roles for clock genes during complex behaviors are less understood. Here, we show that mutations in the clock gene period result in differential time-of-day effects on acquisition and long-term memory of aversive olfactory conditioning...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473541/a-kinase-dependent-feedforward-loop-affects-crebb-stability-and-long-term-memory-formation
#18
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467630/neural-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-active-forgetting
#19
REVIEW
Jorge H Medina
The neurobiology of memory formation attracts much attention in the last five decades. Conversely, the rules that govern and the mechanisms underlying forgetting are less understood. In addition to retroactive interference, retrieval-induced forgetting and passive decay of time, it has been recently demonstrated that the nervous system has a diversity of active and inherent processes involved in forgetting. In Drosophila , some operate mainly at an early stage of memory formation and involves dopamine (DA) neurons, specific postsynaptic DA receptor subtypes, Rac1 activation and induces rapid active forgetting...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432454/history-dependence-in-insect-flight-decisions-during-odor-tracking
#20
Rich Pang, Floris van Breugel, Michael Dickinson, Jeffrey A Riffell, Adrienne Fairhall
Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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