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methylphenidate adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213188/children-with-adhd-and-symptoms-of-oppositional-defiant-disorder-improved-in-behavior-when-treated-with-methylphenidate-and-adjuvant-risperidone-though-weight-gain-was-also-observed-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Leila Jahangard, Shahrokh Akbarian, Mohammad Haghighi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Amir Keshavarzi, Hafez Bajoghli, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Children with ADHD often show symptoms of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD). We investigated the impact of adjuvant risperidone (RISP) to a standard treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD and symptoms of ODD. Eighty-four children with ADHD and ODD (age: M=8.55; range: 7.28-9.95 years; 73.8% males) took part in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial lasting eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned either to the MPH+RISP (1mg/kg/d+0.5mg/d) or to the MPH+PLCO (1mg/kg/d+placebo) condition...
December 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#2
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191586/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-low-educational-achievement-evidence-supporting-a-causal-hypothesis
#3
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Erik A Ehli, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e.g. genetic pleiotropy) and by comparing educational achievement and secondary school career in children with ADHD who take or do not take methylphenidate. Data on ADHD symptoms, educational achievement and methylphenidate usage were available in a primary school sample of ~10,000 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register...
February 13, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181385/hemodynamic-profile-and-behavioral-characteristics-during-induction-of-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Richard S Cartabuke, Joseph D Tobias, Julie Rice, Dmitry Tumin
AIM: There is no consensus regarding the administration of stimulant drugs preoperatively, particularly in pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD. The primary objective of the current study was to assess differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after induction of anesthesia between patients on chronic amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy who receive their normal dose preoperatively compared to patients in whom the prescribed medication was withheld. Secondary objectives were to assess the anxiety level during the induction of anesthesia and the effect of premedication with midazolam...
February 8, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179105/a-prenatal-nicotine-exposure-mouse-model-of-methylphenidate-responsive-adhd-associated-cognitive-phenotypes
#5
Jinmin Zhu, Fangfang Fan, Deirdre M McCarthy, Lin Zhang, Elisa N Cannon, Thomas J Spencer, Joseph Biederman, Pradeep G Bhide
Prenatal exposure to nicotine via cigarette smoke or other forms of tobacco use is a significant environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and ADHD are not well understood. Animal models, especially rodent models, are beginning to bridge this gap in knowledge. Although ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and working memory deficits, the majority of the animal models are based on only one or two ADHD associated phenotypes, in particular, hyperactivity or inattention...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176786/disrupted-glutamatergic-transmission-in-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-behavioral-abnormality-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#6
Jia Cheng, Aiyi Liu, Michael Y Shi, Zhen Yan
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits...
February 8, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168407/what-are-the-benefits-of-methylphenidate-as-a-treatment-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
EDITORIAL
Manfred Gerlach, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Luis A Rohde, Marcel Romanos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165547/effects-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-the-cerebellum-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#8
A N Inci Kenar, G A Unal, Y Kiroglu, H Herken
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between the use of methylphenidate (MPH) and changes in creatine, choline, and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), striatum, cerebellum, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 60 patients 18-60 years of age who met the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for ADHD...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165318/an-evaluation-approach-for-the-performance-of-dosing-regimens-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treatment
#9
Guillaume Bonnefois, Philippe Robaey, Olivier Barrière, Jun Li, Fahima Nekka
OBJECTIVE: Stimulant medications, with methylphenidate as the main agent, are the most prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, real challenges still remain for clinicians concerned with adaptation of the therapeutic regimens, in terms of doses and timing, to children's daily activities. The aim of this study was to optimize short-acting methylphenidate regimens according to specific children's needs by evaluating the performance of a particular regimen through a web-based application...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154152/oral-administration-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-differentially-affects-dopamine-release-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-striatum-a-microdialysis-study-in-the-monkey
#10
Tohru Kodama, Takashi Kojima, Yoshiko Honda, Takayuki Hosokawa, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Masataka Watanabe
: Methylphenidate (MPH: Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Since MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145999/short-term-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-math-productivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-mediated-by-symptom-improvements-evidence-from-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre M Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies report positive effects of methylphenidate on academic performance, the mechanism behind these improvements remains unclear. This study investigates the effects of methylphenidate on academic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mediating and moderating influence of ADHD severity, academic performance, and ADHD symptom improvement. METHODS: Sixty-three children with ADHD participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study comparing the effects of long-acting methylphenidate and placebo...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144880/use-of-stimulants-in-bipolar-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Giulia Vannucchi, Fulvio Bedani, Ettore Favaretto
Several international guidelines indicate stimulants, including methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines and derivatives, modafinil, and armodafinil among the second-third-line choices for bipolar depression. Efficacy of stimulants has been also reported for the management of residual depressive symptoms such as fatigue and sleepiness and for the management of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in children and adult bipolar patients with comorbid ADHD. Few case reports show positive results with MPH in the treatment of resistant mania...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130762/new-formulations-of-methylphenidate-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-pharmacokinetics-efficacy-and-tolerability
#13
REVIEW
Samuele Cortese, Giulia D'Acunto, Eric Konofal, Gabriele Masi, Benedetto Vitiello
Psychostimulants are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate is one of the most commonly used psychostimulants worldwide. Given that immediate-release and/or tablet/capsule formulations may decrease adherence to methylphenidate treatment, several drug companies have been developing novel long-acting and/or liquid/chewable formulations that may improve adherence as well as (for long-acting formulations) reduce abuse potential, decrease stigma associated with multiple administrations per day, and decrease the potential for adverse effects related to dosage peak...
February 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116523/chronic-oral-methylphenidate-treatment-reversibly-increases-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-in-rats
#14
Lisa S Robison, Mala Ananth, Michael Hadjiargyrou, David E Komatsu, Panayotis K Thanos
Previously, we created an 8-h limited-access dual bottle drinking paradigm to deliver methylphenidate (MP) to rats at two dosages that result in a pharmacokinetic profile similar to patients treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chronic treatment resulted in altered behavior, with some effects persisting beyond treatment. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups at four weeks of age: control (water), low-dose MP (LD), and high-dose MP (HD). Briefly, 4 mg/kg (low dose; LD) or 30 mg/kg (high dose; HD) MP was consumed during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg (HD) MP during hours two through eight...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115274/toxicity-of-the-amphetamine-metabolites-4-hydroxyamphetamine-and-4-hydroxynorephedrine-in-human-dopaminergic-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
R Feio-Azevedo, V M Costa, L M Ferreira, P S Branco, F C Pereira, M L Bastos, F Carvalho, J P Capela
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant used worldwide by millions of patients in the clinical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy or even obesity, and is also a drug of abuse. 4-Hydroxynorephedrine (4-OHNE) and 4-hydroxyamphetamine (4-OHAMPH) are two major metabolites known to persist in the brain longer than AMPH. The contribution of AMPH metabolites for its neurotoxicity is undetermined. We evaluated the toxicity of AMPH and its metabolites 4-OHNE and 4-OHAMPH, obtained by chemical synthesis, in human dopaminergic differentiated SH-SY5Y neurons...
January 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111275/concomitant-behavioral-and-pfc-neuronal-activity-recorded-following-dose-response-protocol-of-mpd-in-adult-male-rats
#16
Sidish S Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Michael Joseph, Nachum Dafny
The use of methylphenidate (MPD), a commonly prescribed drug to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has steadily increased over the past 25 years. This trend has been accompanied by more MPD abuse by ordinary individuals for its cognitive enhancing effects. Therefore, understanding the effects of MPD on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain area involved in higher cortical processing such as executive function, language, planning, and attention regulation, is of particular importance. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of acute and chronic dose-response characteristics following MPD exposure on both the PFC neuronal population and behavioral activity in freely behaving animals implanted previously with permanent electrodes within the PFC...
January 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110352/effects-of-methylphenidate-on-attention-in-wistar-rats-treated-with-the-neurotoxin-n-2-chloroethyl-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine-dsp4
#17
Joachim Hauser, Andreas Reissmann, Thomas-A Sontag, Oliver Tucha, Klaus W Lange
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on attention in rats as measured using the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time task (5CSRTT) and to investigate whether methylphenidate has effects on DSP4-treated rats. Methylphenidate is a noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and commonly used in the pharmacological treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Wistar rats were trained in the 5CSRTT and treated with one of three doses of DSP4 or saline...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103159/the-effects-of-stimulant-medication-and-training-on-sports-competence-among-children-with-adhd
#18
Amy R Altszuler, Anne S Morrow, Brittany M Merrill, Shannon Bressler, Fiona L Macphee, Elizabeth M Gnagy, Andrew R Greiner, Stefany Coxe, Joseph S Raiker, Erika Coles, William E Pelham
The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095970/cyclic-alternating-pattern-associated-with-catathrenia-and-bruxism-in-a-10-year-old-patient
#19
Brian Villafuerte-Trisolini, Fiorella Adrianzén-Álvarez, Kevin R Duque, Jimmy Palacios-García, Darwin Vizcarra-Escobar
Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is widely recognized as an expression of sleep instability in electroencephalogram activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep. We report a case with sequences of CAP followed by bruxism and catathrenia in a 10-y-old male patient with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in treatment with methylphenidate. We found CAP in 83.1% of all episodes of catathrenia, and the CAP rate was 12.8%. We propose to consider catathrenia as one of the sleep disorders that may be accompanied by CAP...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093662/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-uk
#20
Evelina A Zimovetz, Alain Joseph, Rajeev Ayyagari, Josephine A Mauskopf
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder in children that may persist into adulthood. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved in many countries for ADHD treatment in children, adolescents, and adults. OBJECTIVES: Estimate the cost-effectiveness of LDX as a first- or second-line treatment for adults with ADHD from the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) perspective compared with methylphenidate extended release (MPH-ER) and atomoxetine (ATX)...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
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