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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045748/conserved-asymmetry-underpins-homodimerization-of-dicer-associated-double-stranded-rna-binding-proteins
#1
Alex Heyam, Claire E Coupland, Clément Dégut, Ruth A Haley, Nicola J Baxter, Leonhard Jakob, Pedro M Aguiar, Gunter Meister, Michael P Williamson, Dimitris Lagos, Michael J Plevin
Double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) are commonly found in modular proteins that interact with RNA. Two varieties of dsRBD exist: canonical Type A dsRBDs interact with dsRNA, while non-canonical Type B dsRBDs lack RNA-binding residues and instead interact with other proteins. In higher eukaryotes, the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer forms a 1:1 association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP). Human Dicer associates with HIV TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP) or protein activator of PKR (PACT), while Drosophila Dicer-1 associates with Loquacious (Loqs)...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966749/issues-surrounding-hiv-status-disclosure-experiences-of-seropositive-women-in-lagos-nigeria
#2
Oluwaseun E Oseni, Ifeoma P Okafor, Adekemi O Sekoni
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity by infected women is crucial in HIV control. To determine the rates, patterns, effects, and determinants of disclosure of status among HIV-positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling method was used to select 364 HIV-positive women accessing care in HIV treatment centers in Lagos Island. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed with Epi Info (version 3...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926403/pathways-from-sexual-stigma-to-incident-hiv-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-nigerian-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#3
Cristina Rodriguez-Hart, Rebecca G Nowak, Rashelle Musci, Danielle German, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Blessing Kayode, Hongjie Liu, Oye Gureje, Trevor A Crowell, Stefan Baral, Man Charurat
OBJECTIVES: Sexual stigma affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria may be an important driver of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but potential mechanisms through which this occurs are not well understood. This study assessed the contributions of suicidal ideation and sexual risk behaviors to causal pathways between stigma and HIV/STIs. DESIGN: Data were collected from the TRUST/RV368 Study, a prospective cohort of 1,480 MSM from Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915113/causative-factors-for-sexual-and-reproductive-health-status-of-pregnant-adolescent-girls-in-urban-communities-of-lagos-nigeria
#4
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Toriola T Femi-Adebayo, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Elochukwu E Ukatu
Background The overall goal of this study was to determine the causative factors for pregnancy status in adolescent girls in two communities in the Lagos Island local government area. Methods A mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) study reviewing routine health facility antenatal care (ANC) records and conducting focus group discussions among 46 pregnant adolescents, exploring their views about sex, contraception, pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, was carried out. Key informant interviews were also carried out among healthcare workers and community members to assess their perceptions of adolescents' SRH problems...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885693/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-manicurists-in-central-brazil
#5
Larissa Cavaretto, Ana R C Motta-Castro, Sheila A Teles, Fernanda Q Souza, Wesley M Cardoso, Grazielli R de Rezende, Tayana S O Tanaka, Larissa M Bandeira, Gabriela A Cesar, Marco A M Puga, Bruna B Nepomuceno, Bárbara V Lago, Sonia M Fernandes-Fitts
The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 514 manicurists/pedicurists and identify the risk factors related with this infection. Samples were tested for HBV serological markers, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-HBc-positive samples were tested to investigate occult hepatitis B by PCR. HBsAg-positive samples were genotyped and the viral loads of HBV-DNA positive samples were quantified...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826456/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-a-cause-of-smear-negative-tb-and-or-tb-treatment-failure-in-nigerians
#6
R O Oladele, N K Irurhe, P Foden, A S Akanmu, T Gbaja-Biamila, A Nwosu, H A Ekundayo, F T Ogunsola, M D Richardson, D W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) as an alternative diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and treatment failure in TB patients in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicentre survey in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative adult patients at the end of their TB treatment in clinics in Lagos and Ilorin states. All were assessed using clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR) and aspergillus immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology, and some for sputum fungal culture...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806412/missed-opportunities-for-hiv-control-gaps-in-hiv-testing-for-partners-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-lima-peru
#7
Ana L Vasquez, Renato A Errea, Daniel Hoces, Juan Echevarria, Elsa González-Lagos, Eduardo Gotuzzo
INTRODUCTION: Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH) through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC): PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699851/dynamics-of-cd4-cell-count-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-lagos-nigeria
#8
Babatunde O Motayo, Babatunde A Olusola, Adedayo O Faneye, Solomon Aturaka, Olukunle Oluwasemowo, Joseph I Ogiogwa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to progressive loss of CD4 T cells. Antiretroviral therapy has been able to inhibit this process, resulting in significant level of immune recovery and function. Our aim is to investigate the dynamics of CD4 recovery among HIV patients in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 213 HIV-positive individuals were enrolled between October 2007 and May 2008, and followed up for 9 months based on CD4 count. CD4 analysis was done by flow cytometry at enrollment and after every 3 months...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670643/factors-associated-with-tb-hiv-co-infection-among-drug-sensitive-tuberculosis-patients-managed-in-a-secondary-health-facility-in-lagos-nigeria
#9
Olusola A Adejumo, Olusoji J Daniel, Andrew F Otesanya, Adebukola A Adegbola, Temitope Femi-Adebayo, Abimbola Bowale, Sunday Adesola, Olugbenga O Kuku, Kehinde O Otemuyiwa, Shafaatu N Oladega, Eze O Johnson, Ayodeji A Falana, Olusola Dawodu, Henry Owuna, Ganiyat Osoba, Adetokunbo Dacosta
BACKGROUND: This study assessed factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection among TB patients managed in a secondary health facility in Lagos Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of treatment cards of patients seen at a secondary referral hospital between January 1 2014 and December 31 2014 was conducted. Treatment outcomes and factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 334 records of patients reviewed, the proportion of patients with TB/HIV co-infection was 21...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648088/idiopathic-esophageal-ulcer-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-hiv-infection
#10
Alicia Martín-Lagos Maldonado, Julio Guilarte López-Mañas, Alberto Benavente Fernández
The esophageal ulcer us a common complication in people affected by the acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially in the final stages and in patients who develop an acute retroviral syndrome. Although, it can be caused by various infectious agents, such as species of candida, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV), no aetiological agent is successfully identified in a large proportion of patients and it is classified as idiopathic. We report the case of an idiopathic esophageal ulcer associated with the initial diagnosis of HIV-1...
June 26, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525320/sexual-and-reproductive-health-priorities-of-adolescent-girls-in-lagos-nigeria-findings-from-free-listing-interviews
#11
Juliet Iwelunmor, Sarah Blackstone, Ucheoma Nwaozuru, Donaldson Conserve, Patricia Iwelunmor, John E Ehiri
Background Adolescent girls in Nigeria experience a disproportionately high burden of sexual and reproductive health disparities that affect their well-being. Yet, little is known about adolescent girls' own unique perspectives of the sexual and reproductive health challenges they face, and possible solutions to these challenges. Aims To explore top sexual and reproductive health concerns of female adolescents in Nigeria and their perceptions regarding potential solutions to these issues. Methods Eighty adolescent girls attending two public secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria completed individual free-listing interviews...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462827/prevalence-of-insulin-resistance-among-patients-attending-the-hiv-clinic-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#12
Adeyemi O Dada, Temitope T Oshodi, Iwuchukwu O Ajie, Chinelo P Onyenekwu
BACKGROUND: Insulin Resistance(IR) is increasing in Africans as well as among the Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) infected population for several reasons which include the viral infection itself and the use of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This present study assessed the prevalence of IR among HIV infected population and the imminent effect of the disease and therapy on patients. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted in Lagos among 266 HIV infected participants and 130 HIV Negative controls aged 18-80 years...
April 12, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453241/stigma-access-to-healthcare-and-hiv-risks-among-men-who-sell-sex-to-men-in-nigeria
#13
Trevor A Crowell, Babajide Keshinro, Stefan D Baral, Sheree R Schwartz, Shauna Stahlman, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, William A Blattner, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie A Ake
INTRODUCTION: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who sell sex (MSS) may be subject to increased sexual behaviour-related stigma that affects uptake of healthcare and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to characterize stigma, access to care, and prevalence of HIV among MSS in Nigeria. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit MSM in Abuja and Lagos into the ongoing TRUST/RV368 study, which provides HIV testing and treatment...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355252/factors-associated-with-early-mycological-clearance-in-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#14
Fátima Concha-Velasco, Elsa González-Lagos, Carlos Seas, Beatriz Bustamante
INTRODUCTION: The first-line combination therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a condition of high mortality particularly in the first two weeks of treatment, consists of amphotericin B plus flucytosine (5-FC). Given that 5-FC remains unavailable in many countries, the knowledge of factors influencing mycological clearance in patients treated with second-line therapy could contribute to effective management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with the clearance of Cryptococcus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338097/the-cellular-protein-hnrnp-a2-b1-enhances-hiv-1-transcription-by-unfolding-ltr-promoter-g-quadruplexes
#15
Matteo Scalabrin, Ilaria Frasson, Emanuela Ruggiero, Rosalba Perrone, Elena Tosoni, Sara Lago, Martina Tassinari, Giorgio Palù, Sara N Richter
G-quadruplexes are four-stranded conformations of nucleic acids that act as cellular epigenetic regulators. A dynamic G-quadruplex forming region in the HIV-1 LTR promoter represses HIV-1 transcription when in the folded conformation. This activity is enhanced by nucleolin, which induces and stabilizes the HIV-1 LTR G-quadruplexes. In this work by a combined pull-down/mass spectrometry approach, we consistently found hnRNP A2/B1 as an additional LTR-G-quadruplex interacting protein. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed G-quadruplex specificity over linear sequences and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis indicated that hnRNP A2/B1 is able to efficiently unfold the LTR G-quadruplexes...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337490/effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-on-feacal-carriage-rates-of-resistant-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-in-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-lagos
#16
C C Egwuatu, F T Ogunsola, A A Iwuafor, C N Akujobi, T O Egwuatu, A U Nnachi, O O Oduyebo
BACKGROUND: The daily use of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis reduces morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but its impact on increasing antimicrobial resistance rates has been of public health concern, globally. This study investigated the effect of daily TMP-SMX prophylaxis on feacal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. METHODS: A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell counts of less than 350 cells/mm(3) who were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis and attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited for this study...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235839/sexual-partner-characteristics-and-incident-rectal-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections-among-gay-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-a-prospective-cohort-in-abuja-and-lagos-nigeria
#17
Habib O Ramadhani, Hongjie Liu, Rebecca G Nowak, Trevor A Crowell, Teclaire Ndomb, Charlotte Gaydos, Sheila Peel, Nicaise Ndembi, Stefan D Baral, Julie Ake, Man E Charurat
BACKGROUND: STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) potentiate HIV acquisition and transmission especially among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the influence of sexual network composition on incident rectal NG and/or CT infections among Nigerian MSM. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 is a cohort of MSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. MSM respondents (egos) provided STI risk factors and demographic information for up to five of their most recent sexual partners (alters) within their sexual networks...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202799/clonal-complexity-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-hamper-diagnostic-procedures
#18
Laura Pérez-Lago, Marta Herranz, Yurena Navarro, María Jesús Ruiz Serrano, Pilar Miralles, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
Clonal complexity is increasingly accepted in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, including mixed infections by ≥2 strains, which usually occur in settings with a high burden of tuberculosis and/or a high risk of overexposure to infected patients. Mixed infections can hamper diagnostic procedures; obtaining an accurate antibiogram is difficult when the susceptibility patterns of the strains differ. Here, we show how mixed infections can also prove challenging for other diagnostic procedures, even outside settings where mixed infections are traditionally expected...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060860/prevalence-and-incidence-of-hcv-infection-among-prisoners-in-central-brazil
#19
Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Larissa Melo Bandeira, Mauricio Antonio Pompilio, Julio Croda, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende, Luiz Fernando Paiva Dorisbor, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Gabriela Alves Cesar, Sheila Araújo Teles, Simone Simionatto, Alisson Richard Teixeira Novais, Bruna Nepomuceno, Lisie Souza Castro, Barbara Vieira do Lago, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro
The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab). One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931519/high-prevalence-of-hiv-chlamydia-and-gonorrhoea-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-attending-trusted-community-centres-in-abuja-and-lagos-nigeria
#20
Babajide Keshinro, Trevor A Crowell, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Sheila Peel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Cristina Rodriguez-Hart, Stefan D Baral, Melissa J Walsh, Ogbonnaya S Njoku, Sunday Odeyemi, Teclaire Ngo-Ndomb, William A Blattner, Merlin L Robb, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie Ake
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW) recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS)...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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