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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337490/effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-on-feacal-carriage-rates-of-resistant-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-in-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-lagos
#1
C C Egwuatu, F T Ogunsola, A A Iwuafor, C N Akujobi, T O Egwuatu, A U Nnachi, O O Oduyebo
BACKGROUND: The daily use of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis reduces morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but its impact on increasing antimicrobial resistance rates has been of public health concern, globally. This study investigated the effect of daily TMP-SMX prophylaxis on feacal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. METHODS: A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell counts of less than 350 cells/mm(3) who were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis and attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited for this study...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334859/neurocognitive-function-of-school-aged-hiv-infected-children-in-enugu-nigeria
#2
Kenechukwu K Iloh, Ifeoma J Emodi, Ngozi S Ibeziako, Anthony N Ikefuna, Agozie C Ubesie, Ogochukwu N Iloh, Gideon C Ilechukwu, Adaeze C Ayuk
Background: Evidence has shown neurocognitive problems often exist among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. There are limited data for children in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 school-aged perinatally HIV-infected children seen in the paediatric HIV clinic and age/sex-matched controls from the general paediatric clinic. Neuro-cognitive functioning was assessed using the Raven's progressive matrices (RPM) that has been adapted for the Nigerian population...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331636/patient-experiences-of-decentralized-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-plateau-state-north-central-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#3
Grace O Kolawole, Hannah N Gilbert, Nancin Y Dadem, Becky L Genberg, Patricia A Agaba, Prosper Okonkwo, Oche O Agbaji, Norma C Ware
Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317812/evaluation-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-case-detection-improvement-with-the-deployment-of-xpertmtb-rif-in-the-tuberculosis-control-program-of-cross-river-state-nigeria
#4
Ernest Afu Ochang, Ubleni E Emanghe, Atana Ewa, Akaninyene Otu, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Aniekan Etokidem, Barinadaa Afirima, Oju Eni Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Global indices show that Nigeria has the highest tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality rate. Overdependence on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy for diagnosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has limited control efforts. The new polymerase chain reaction-based XpertMTB/Rif (Cepheid Inc., CA, USA), which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, was introduced in Cross River State in 2014. We evaluated the increment in pulmonary TB case detection following introduction of XpertMTB/Rif into the Cross River State TB control program...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#5
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293763/erratum-to-barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-adherence-to-exclusive-breastfeeding-practices-among-hiv-infected-and-non-infected-women-in-jos-nigeria
#6
Bronwynè Coetzee, Mark Tomlinson, Sophia Osawe, Alash'le Abimiku, Ashraf Kagee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292563/hiv-task-sharing-between-nurses-and-physicians-in-nigeria-examining-the-correlates-of-nurse-self-efficacy-and-job-satisfaction
#7
Emilia Ngozi Iwu, William L Holzemer
A global shortfall of 12.9 million health care workers has been predicted to occur in the next two decades. Task sharing between physicians and nurses, a method used to help compensate for provider shortages, was shown to improve access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, but led to nurses performing beyond their scopes of practice. We surveyed 508 nurses in task-shifted roles in Nigeria. Respondents (n = 399) provided information on age, years in practice, gender, registration status, employment site, and access to task-sharing training and mentoring...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282390/incidence-and-predictors-of-tuberculosis-among-hiv-infected-adults-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-nigeria-2004-2012
#8
Ishani Pathmanathan, E Kainne Dokubo, Ray W Shiraishi, Simon G Agolory, Andrew F Auld, Dennis Onotu, Solomon Odafe, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Oseni Abiri, Henry C Debem, Adebobola Bashorun, Tedd Ellerbrock
BACKGROUND: Nigeria had the most AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2014 (170,000), and 46% were associated with tuberculosis (TB). Although treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces TB-associated morbidity and mortality, incident TB can occur while on ART. We estimated incidence and characterized factors associated with TB after ART initiation in Nigeria. METHODS: We analyzed retrospective cohort data from a nationally representative sample of adult patients on ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279209/assessment-of-provider-initiated-hiv-screening-in-nigeria-with-sub-saharan-african-comparison
#9
Felix A Ogbo, Andrew Mogaji, Pascal Ogeleka, Kingsley E Agho, John Idoko, Terver Zua Tule, Andrew Page
BACKGROUND: Despite Nigeria's high HIV prevalence, voluntary testing and counselling rates remain low. UNAIDS/WHO/CDC recommends provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in settings with high HIV prevalence. We aimed to assess the acceptability and logistical feasibility of the PITC strategy among adolescents and adults in a secondary health care centre in Idekpa Benue state, Nigeria. METHOD: All patients (aged ≥ 13 years) who visited the out-patient department and antenatal care unit of General Hospital Idekpa, Benue state, Nigeria were offered PITC for HIV...
March 9, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275458/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-hiv-1-rna-levels-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-adults-attending-a-tertiary-hospital-in-jos-nigeria
#10
EDITORIAL
Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Isaac Okoh Abah, Yakhat Barshep, Augustine Odo Ebonyi, Comfort Daniyam, Samson Ejiji Isa, Gomerep Simji, Stephen Oguche, Patricia Agaba, Patricia Lar, Oche Agbaji, John A Idoko
BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL) of HIV-infected persons is an important prognostic factor in HIV management. We determined the VL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients to identify the association between patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics with VL. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 224 ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients (≥15 years of age) accessing care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria ART treatment centre, from October 2010 to April 2011...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275257/non-adoption-of-option-b-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-nigeria-a-look-at-the-policymaking-process
#11
Babayemi Oluwaseun Olakunde, Chinwendu Daniel Ndukwe
In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended 'Option B+' (lifelong antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of their CD4 count or WHO clinical stage) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-based on its operational and clinical advantages. By 2015, 21 out of the 22 Global Plan priority countries had adopted the Option B+ approach. Despite its huge HIV burden, Nigeria is the only country yet to adopt Option B+. We analyse the policymaking process on Option B+ in Nigeria from 2012-2015, highlighting how factors related to the content (uncertainty about Option B+, lack of local evidence), actors (interest and power) and context (low domestic funding and poor retention in care) affected the policymaking process and present the implications of this decision for improving HIV response in Nigeria...
February 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273350/sexual-dysfunction-and-its-determinants-among-women-infected-with-hiv
#12
Patricia A Agaba, Seema T Meloni, Halima M Sule, Emmanuel I Agaba, John A Idoko, Phyllis J Kanki
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and its determinants among women with HIV infection enrolled for care and treatment in an ambulatory care setting. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among women attending the HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between March 2013 and February 2014. The self-administered Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to assess FSD; a score of less than 26...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261274/assessment-of-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-among-children-attending-care-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-southeastern-nigeria
#13
Cletus Akahara, Emeka Nwolisa, Kelechi Odinaka, Seline Okolo
Background. Adherence is the strongest predictor of successful treatment outcome among children infected with HIV. Our aim was to assess the antiretroviral drugs adherence status of HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 210 HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria using self-report method of assessment. Optimal ART adherence is defined as patient taking not missing more than 1 dose of combined antiretroviral therapy medication in the preceding 2 weeks prior to the study...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256483/psychosocial-factors-predicting-severity-of-depression-among-treatment-seeking-hiv-aids-patients-a-multi-site-nigerian-study
#14
B O Olley, K O Adebayo, M J Ogunde, A Ishola, A P Ogar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression as major psychological sequelea of the HIV/AIDS infection has continued to attract investigation. With few studies in Nigeria, it is unclear whether levels of perceived stigma, sexual risk behaviors, and anticipated discrimination are differentially associated with severity of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study using a multivariate design investigated the role of stigma, anticipated discrimination, self-esteem, HIV-related factors (e...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248679/cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-diarrheal-children-and-hiv-infected-persons-in-ebonyi-and-nsukka-nigeria
#15
Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah, Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Dawn Roellig, Lihua Xiao
INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. METHODOLOGY: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243867/peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-hiv-dna-levels-correlate-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-nigeria
#16
Jibreel Jumare, Sara Sunshine, Hayat Ahmed, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Tricia Burdo, Lindsay M Eyzaguirre, Anya Umlauf, Mariana Cherner, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, Jonathan Z Li, William A Blattner, Walter Royal
Mononuclear cells play key roles in the pathogenic mechanisms leading to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). We examined the association between HIV DNA within peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and HAND in Nigeria. PBMCs were collected at baseline from 36 antiretroviral naive participants. CD14+ cells and T&B lymphocyte fractions were isolated by, respectively, positive and negative magnetic bead separation. Total HIV DNA within CD14+ and T&B cells were separately quantified using real-time PCR assay targeting HIV LTR-gag and cell input numbers determined by CCR5 copies/sample...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243150/predictors-of-hypertension-in-an-urban-hiv-infected-population-at-the-university-of-calabar-teaching-hospital-calabar-nigeria
#17
Henry Ohem Okpa, Elvis Mbu Bisong, Ofem Egbe Enang, Emmanuel Monjok, Ekere James Essien
BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239486/using-brothel-leadership-to-promote-condom-use-among-brothel-based-female-sex-workers-in-abuja-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-pilot-trial
#18
Uchenna Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Ifeanyi Okekearu, Sylvia Adebajo, Adaora Uzoh, Egbe Aneotah Awo, Chukwuemeka Chima, Ogechukwu Agwagwa, Bart van den Borne
BACKGROUND: The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs) having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general population. METHODS/DESIGN: The clusters in the randomized pilot trial will be brothels and female sex workers (FSWs) residing in the brothels will be the participants of the study...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235839/sexual-partner-characteristics-and-incident-rectal-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections-among-gay-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-a-prospective-cohort-in-abuja-and-lagos-nigeria
#19
Habib O Ramadhani, Hongjie Liu, Rebecca G Nowak, Trevor A Crowell, Teclaire Ndomb, Charlotte Gaydos, Sheila Peel, Nicaise Ndembi, Stefan D Baral, Julie Ake, Man E Charurat
BACKGROUND: STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) potentiate HIV acquisition and transmission especially among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the influence of sexual network composition on incident rectal NG and/or CT infections among Nigerian MSM. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 is a cohort of MSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. MSM respondents (egos) provided STI risk factors and demographic information for up to five of their most recent sexual partners (alters) within their sexual networks...
February 24, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180012/seroprevalence-and-co-infection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-among-pregnant-women-in-lokoja-north-central-nigeria
#20
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Oluwatomi Olufunke Amuda, Charles Nzurumike, Muhammed Mustapha Suleiman, Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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