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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784976/microbial-metabolic-gatekeeping-in-the-jejunum
#1
Michiel Kleerebezem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779394/preparation-of-a-mesoporous-silica-based-nano-vehicle-for-dual-dox-cpt-ph-triggered-delivery
#2
Maria C Llinàs, Gabriel Martínez-Edo, Anna Cascante, Irene Porcar, Salvador Borrós, David Sánchez-García
A dual doxorubicin/camptothecin (DOX/CPT) pH-triggered drug delivery mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based nano-vehicle has been prepared. In this drug-delivery system (DDS), CPT is loaded inside the pores of the MSNs, while DOX is covalently attached to the surface of an aldehyde-functionalized MSN through a dihydrazide-polyethylene glycol chain. Thus, DOX and the linker act as pH-sensitive gatekeeper. The system is versatile and easy to assemble, not requiring the chemical modification of the drugs. While at physiological conditions the release of the drugs is negligible, at acidic pH a burst release of DOX and a gradual release of CPT take place...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776415/suicide-prevention-gatekeeper-training-in-the-netherlands-improves-gatekeepers-knowledge-of-suicide-prevention-and-their-confidence-to-discuss-suicidality-an-observational-study
#3
Sanne Terpstra, Aartjan Beekman, Jens Abbing, Sabine Jaken, Martin Steendam, Renske Gilissen
BACKGROUND: The gatekeeper training is designed to help identify suicidal individuals, respond to suicidal ideation and refer to help. The internationally widely used training shows promising results. This is the first study presenting its effectiveness in the Netherlands and the first study investigating the effect in different employment sectors. METHODS: In an observational study, 113 Suicide Prevention - the Dutch suicide prevention expertise centre and lifeline - trained 526 professionals as gatekeepers...
May 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774271/gatekeepers-for-infertility-treatment-views-of-art-providers-concerning-referrals-by-non-art-providers
#4
Robert Klitzman
Many patients who might benefit from treatment using assisted reproductive technology (ART) do not receive it, raising critical questions of why, and how best to overcome existing barriers. In-depth interviews of approximately 1 h each were conducted with 27 ART providers (17 physicians and 10 other healthcare providers). These interviewees suggest that non-ART providers may serve as gatekeepers in a complex system, involving not only individual-level, but also dyadic and institutional, processes and factors related to provider-patient relationships...
April 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770367/engaging-religious-leaders-to-support-hiv-prevention-and-care-for-gays-bisexual-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-coastal-kenya
#5
Evans Gichuru, Bernadette Kombo, Noni Mumba, Salla Sariola, Eduard J Sanders, Elise M van der Elst
In Kenyan communities, religious leaders are important gatekeepers in matters of health and public morality. In a context that is generally homophobic, religious leaders may aggravate or reduce stigmatization of sexual minorities such as gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Literature indicates mixed results in efforts to encourage religious leaders to work effectively and sensitively with issues regarding HIV and sexuality. This paper describes the implementation of an engagement intervention with religious leaders from different denominations, which took place following a homophobic hate attack that was led by local religious leaders, at an HIV research clinic for GBMSM on the Kenyan coast...
2018: Critical Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#6
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757973/a-new-strategy-to-control-and-eradicate-undruggable-oncogenic-k-ras-driven-pancreatic-cancer-molecular-insights-and-core-principles-learned-from-developmental-and-evolutionary-biology
#7
REVIEW
Robert E Van Sciver, Michael P Lee, Caroline Dasom Lee, Alex C Lafever, Elizaveta Svyatova, Kevin Kanda, Amber L Colliver, Lauren L Siewertsz van Reesema, Angela M Tang-Tan, Vasilena Zheleva, Monicah N Bwayi, Minglei Bian, Rebecca L Schmidt, Lynn M Matrisian, Gloria M Petersen, Amy H Tang
Oncogenic K-RAS mutations are found in virtually all pancreatic cancers, making K-RAS one of the most targeted oncoproteins for drug development in cancer therapies. Despite intense research efforts over the past three decades, oncogenic K-RAS has remained largely "undruggable". Rather than targeting an upstream component of the RAS signaling pathway (i.e., EGFR/HER2) and/or the midstream effector kinases (i.e., RAF/MEK/ERK/PI3K/mTOR), we propose an alternative strategy to control oncogenic K-RAS signal by targeting its most downstream signaling module, Seven-In-Absentia Homolog (SIAH)...
May 14, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756503/social-relationships-and-suicidal-ideation-among-the-elderly-who-live-alone-in-republic-of-korea-a-logistic-model
#8
Hyun-Jung Kwon, Ji-Ung Jeong, Mihyang Choi
With population aging and change in family structure, the number of the elderly who live alone is rapidly increasing in Korea. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social relationships-especially newly formed formal social relationships (FSRs)-and suicidal ideation among Korean elderly who live alone. The elderly who live alone (N = 2509) from the 2014 Survey of Living Conditions and Welfare Needs of Older Koreans were analyzed using logistic regression. This study found that informal social relationships (ISRs) (eg, children, friends and neighbors) of the elderly who live alone had statistically significant association with suicidal ideation, whereas FSRs (eg, formal helper and social participation) did not have significant association with suicidal ideation...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756137/ros-responsive-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-mr-imaging-guided-photodynamically-maneuvered-chemotherapy
#9
Vijayakameswara Rao N, Hwa Seung Han, Hansang Lee, Van Quy Nguyen, Sangmin Jeon, Dae-Woong Jung, Jeongjin Lee, Gi-Ra Yi, Jae Hyung Park
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with stimuli-responsive gatekeepers have been extensively investigated for controlled drug delivery at the target sites. Herein, we developed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive MSNs (R-MSNs), consisting of a gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA complex as the ROS-responsive gatekeeper and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated chlorin e6 as the ROS generator, for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided photodynamic chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX), chosen as an anticancer drug, was physically encapsulated into DOTA-conjugated MSNs, followed by chemical crosslinking via the addition of GdCl3...
May 14, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748212/tas-114-a-first-in-class-dual-dutpase-dpd-inhibitor-demonstrates-potential-to-improve-therapeutic-efficacy-of-fluoropyrimidine-based-chemotherapy
#10
Wakako Yano, Tatsushi Yokogawa, Takeshi Wakasa, Keisuke Yamamura, Akio Fujioka, Kunihiro Yoshisue, Eiji Matsushima, Seiji Miyahara, Hitoshi Miyakoshi, Junko Taguchi, Khoon Tee Chong, Yayoi Takao, Masayoshi Fukuoka, Kenichi Matsuo
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite and exerts antitumor activity via intracellularly and physiologically complicated metabolic pathways. In this study, we designed a novel small molecule inhibitor, TAS-114, which targets the intercellular metabolism of 5-FU to enhance antitumor activity and modulates catabolic pathway to improve the systemic availability of 5-FU. TAS-114 strongly and competitively inhibited deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase), a gatekeeper protein preventing aberrant base incorporation into DNA, and enhanced the cytotoxicity of fluoropyrimidines in cancer cells; however, it had little intrinsic activity...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747618/evaluation-of-a-multimodal-school-based-depression-and-suicide-prevention-program-among-dutch-adolescents-design-of-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Mandy W M Gijzen, Daan H M Creemers, Sanne P A Rasing, Filip Smit, Rutger C M E Engels
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, suicide has been the most important cause of mortality in youth aged 15 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Depression is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm, planning, and suicide attempts) in adolescents. Adolescents who develop depressive symptoms, are also at risk for adult depression. This developmental continuity is especially noticeable in adolescents compared to other age groups; therefore, it is necessary to develop preventive strategies for teens...
May 10, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745693/pierre-janet-and-the-enchanted-boundary-of-psychical-research
#12
Renaud Evrard, Erika Annabelle Pratte, Etzel Cardeña
Among the founders of French psychology, Pierre Janet (1859-1947) is recognized for both his scientific and institutional roles. The psychology born at the turn of the 20th century was initially partly receptive to, but then engaged in, a battle with the "psychical marvelous," and Janet was no exception. He was involved in the split between psychology and parapsychology (or "metapsychics" in France), developed at that time, playing several successive roles: the pioneer, the repentant, and the gatekeeper...
May 2018: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743236/idh1-r132-mutant-promotes-tumor-formation-through-downregulating-p53
#13
Bin Jiang, Wentao Zhao, Minggang Shi, Jia Zhang, Ai Chen, Huanhuan Ma, Muhammad Suleman, Furong Lin, Lin Zhou, Jinyang Wang, Yan Zhang, Mengjue Liu, Shixiong Wen, Cong Ouyang, Huihui Wang, Xiumin Huang, Huamin Zhou, Qinxi Li
Resistance to apoptosis and uncontrolled proliferation are two hallmarks of cancer cells. p53 is crucial for apoptosis triggered by a broad range of stresses and a well known gatekeeper for neoplastic transformation. Here we show that oncogenic IDH1 R132H/Q mutants robustly inhibit p53 expression and such an effect is attributed to 2-HG production. Mechanistically, 2-HG stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α which in turn activates the expression of miR-380-5p, a characterized microRNA against p53 expression...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742306/a-defined-and-flexible-pocket-explains-aryl-substrate-promiscuity-by-the-cahuitamycin-starter-unit-activating-enzyme-cahj
#14
David H Sherman, Ashootosh Tripathi, Sung Ryeol Park, Andrew Sikkema, Hyo Je Cho, Jianfeng Wu, Brian Lee, Chuanwu Xi, Janet L Smith
Cahuitamycins are biofilm inhibitors biosynthesized by a convergent NRPS pathway. Previous genetic analysis indicated that a discrete enzyme, CahJ, serves as a gatekeeper for cahuitamycin structural diversification. Herein, the CahJ protein was probed structurally, functionally and through mutasynthesis. This analysis enabled production of a new cahuitamycin congener through targeted precursor incorporation.
May 9, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738190/recruiting-and-engaging-african-american-men-in-health-research
#15
Schenita Randolph, Tanya Coakley, Jeffrey Shears
BACKGROUND: Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors...
May 8, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731296/-sex-and-gender-equity-in-research-rationale-for-the-sager-guidelines-and-recommended-use
#16
Shirin Heidari, Thomas F Babor, Paola De Castro, Sera Tort, Mirjam Curno
BACKGROUND: Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines...
May 3, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728101/attitudes-toward-sexual-and-reproductive-health-among-adolescents-and-young-people-in-urban-and-rural-dr-congo
#17
Fidèle Mbadu Muanda, Ndongo Parfait Gahungu, Francine Wood, Jane T Bertrand
BACKGROUND: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), onset of sexual intercourse is initiated during adolescence, however only two in ten sexually active unmarried women are using modern contraception. Improving adolescents' and young peoples' knowledge and practices related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is necessary to improve health outcomes. However, little is known about the SRH attitudes and needs among young people in the DRC. The study aims to contribute to the available evidence by examining adolescents' and young people's insights on their cultural norms, practices and attitudes towards SRH services...
May 4, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725130/mir-422a-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-malignancy-by-targeting-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-2-in-gastric-cancer
#18
Zhongyuan He, Zheng Li, Xuan Zhang, Kai Yin, Weizhi Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Bowen Li, Lei Zhang, Jianghao Xu, Guangli Sun, Lu Wang, Qing Li, Xiaoxu Huang, Lu Zhang, Diancai Zhang, Hao Xu, Zekuan Xu
Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a crucial role in human malignancies. Here, we showed that microRNA-422a (miR-422a) expression was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer (GC) samples and cell lines compared with normal controls, and that its expression level was inversely related to tumor size and depth of infiltration. Functional studies revealed that the overexpression of miR-422a in GC tumor cells suppressed cell proliferation and migration, and drove a metabolic shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720344/-the-sense-of-taste-in-a-clinical-setting
#19
Alexander Fjaeldstad, Henrique Fernandes, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Therese Ovesen
As a gatekeeper, taste buds forage chemicals to identify both nutrition and toxins. This can be the decisive difference between initiating the swallow reflex or spitting out the oral contents. In addition to this simple function the sense of taste takes part in more complex relations such as reflexes vs learning, perception vs expectation, and pleasure vs disgust. All relations, which can be perturbed into unbalance, create great discomfort in patients suffering from a dysfunctional sense of taste. This review discusses the most important mechanisms of taste function and dysfunction as well as the possible avenues for treatment of the disorders...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719252/role-of-selenof-as-a-gatekeeper-of-secreted-disulfide-rich-glycoproteins
#20
Sun Hee Yim, Robert A Everley, Frank A Schildberg, Sang-Goo Lee, Andrea Orsi, Zachary R Barbati, Kutay Karatepe, Dmitry E Fomenko, Petra A Tsuji, Hongbo R Luo, Steven P Gygi, Roberto Sitia, Arlene H Sharpe, Dolph L Hatfield, Vadim N Gladyshev
Selenof (15-kDa selenoprotein; Sep15) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident thioredoxin-like oxidoreductase that occurs in a complex with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. We found that Selenof deficiency in mice leads to elevated levels of non-functional circulating plasma immunoglobulins and increased secretion of IgM during in vitro splenic B cell differentiation. However, Selenof knockout animals show neither enhanced bacterial killing capacity nor antigen-induced systemic IgM activity, suggesting that excess immunoglobulins are not functional...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
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