keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive Sciences

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467699/when-project-commitment-leads-to-learning-from-failure-the-roles-of-perceived-shame-and-personal-control
#1
Wenzhou Wang, Bin Wang, Ke Yang, Chong Yang, Wenlong Yuan, Shanghao Song
Facing a remarkably changing world, researchers have gradually shifted emphasis from successful experiences to failures. In the current study, we build a model to explore the relationship between project commitment and learning from failure, and test how emotion (i.e., perceived shame after failure) and cognition (i.e., attribution for failure) affect this process. After randomly selecting 400 firms from the list of high-tech firms reported by the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, we use a two-wave investigation of the employees, and the final sample consists of 140 teams from 58 companies in the technology industry in mainland China...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465749/systematic-review-of-measurement-tools-to-assess-surgeons-intraoperative-cognitive-workload
#2
REVIEW
R D Dias, M C Ngo-Howard, M T Boskovski, M A Zenati, S J Yule
BACKGROUND: Surgeons in the operating theatre deal constantly with high-demand tasks that require simultaneous processing of a large amount of information. In certain situations, high cognitive load occurs, which may impact negatively on a surgeon's performance. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the different methods used to assess surgeons' cognitive load, and a critique of the reliability and validity of current assessment metrics. METHODS: A search strategy encompassing MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PROSPERO and the Cochrane database was developed to identify peer-reviewed articles published from inception to November 2016...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464443/a-visual-familiarity-account-of-evidence-for-orthographic-processing-in-pigeons-columbia-livia-a-reply-to-scarf-corballis-g%C3%A3-nt%C3%A3-rk%C3%A3-n-and-colombo-2017
#3
John R Vokey, Randall K Jamieson, Jason M Tangen, Rachel A Searston, Scott W Allen
Scarf et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(40):11272-11276, 2016) demonstrated that pigeons, as with baboons (Grainger et al. in Science 336(6078):245-248, 2012; Ziegler in Psychol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612474322 , 2013), can be trained to display several behavioural hallmarks of human orthographic processing. But, Vokey and Jamieson (Psychol Sci 25(4):991-996, 2014) demonstrated that a standard, autoassociative neural network model of memory applied to pixel maps of the words and nonwords reproduces all of those results...
February 20, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463292/effectiveness-of-interventions-aimed-at-improving-physical-and-psychological-outcomes-of-fall-related-injuries-in-people-with-dementia-a-narrative-systematic-review
#4
Shannon Robalino, Sarange B Nyakang'o, Fiona R Beyer, Chris Fox, Louise M Allan
BACKGROUND: The annual prevalence of falls in people with dementia ranges from 47 to 90%. Falls are a common reason for hospital admission in people with dementia, and there is limited research evidence regarding the care pathways experienced by this population. In addition to immediate management of an injury, prevention of further falls is likely to be an important part of any successful intervention. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving the physical and psychological wellbeing of people with dementia who have sustained a fall-related injury...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462649/the-roles-of-the-analogy-with-natural-selection-in-b-f-skinner-s-philosophy
#5
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462583/cognitive-science-persistent-apes-are-intelligent-apes
#6
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Benjamin Y Hayden
In humans, self-control is correlated with general intelligence; a new study finds that this correlation extends to chimpanzees as well. The new results highlight the cognitive bases of self-control and suggest a common evolutionary history for human and primate self-control.
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461892/human-cognitive-limitations-broad-consistent-clinical-application-of-physiological-principles-will-require-decision-support
#7
Alan H Morris
Our education system seems to fail to enable clinicians to broadly understand core physiological principles. The emphasis on reductionist science, including "omics" branches of research, has likely contributed to this decrease in understanding. Consequently, clinicians cannot be expected to consistently make clinical decisions linked to best physiological evidence. This is a large-scale problem with multiple determinants, within an even larger clinical decision problem: the failure of clinicians to consistently link their decisions to best evidence...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460349/adolescent-brain-development-implications-for-understanding-risk-and-resilience-processes-through-neuroimaging-research
#8
Amanda Sheffield Morris, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Jennifer S Silk
This special section focuses on research that utilizes neuroimaging methods to examine the impact of social relationships and socioemotional development on adolescent brain function. Studies include novel neuroimaging methods that further our understanding of adolescent brain development. This special section has a particular focus on how study findings add to our understanding of risk and resilience. In this introduction to the special section, we discuss the role of neuroimaging in developmental science and provide a brief review of neuroimaging methods...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460160/unethical-human-research-in-the-field-of-neuroscience-a-historical-review
#9
Hussein Algahtani, Mohammed Bajunaid, Bader Shirah
Understanding the historical foundations of ethics in human research are key to illuminating future human research and clinical trials. This paper gives an overview of the most remarkable unethical human research and how past misconducts helped develop ethical guidelines on human experimentation such as The Nuremberg Code 1947 following WWII. Unethical research in the field of neuroscience also proved to be incredibly distressing. Participants were often left with life-long cognitive disabilities. This emphasizes the importance of implicating strict rules and ethical guidelines in neuroscience research that protect participants and respects their dignity...
February 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459939/cognitive-outcomes-of-children-born-extremely-or-very-preterm-since-the-1990s-and-associated-risk-factors-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#10
E Sabrina Twilhaar, Rebecca M Wade, Jorrit F de Kieviet, Johannes B van Goudoever, Ruurd M van Elburg, Jaap Oosterlaan
Importance: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. Objective: To examine the cognitive abilities of children of EP/VP birth (EP/VP children) and the role of perinatal and demographic risk factors. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched without language restriction (last search March 2, 2017)...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459471/gender-sex-as-a-social-determinant-of-cardiovascular-risk
#11
REVIEW
Adrienne O'Neil, Anna J Scovelle, Allison J Milner, Anne Kavanagh
The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458949/what-does-interdisciplinarity-look-like-in-practice-mapping-interdisciplinarity-and-its-limits-in-the-environmental-sciences
#12
Miles MacLeod, Michiru Nagatsu
In this paper we take a close look at current interdisciplinary modeling practices in the environmental sciences, and suggest that closer attention needs to be paid to the nature of scientific practices when investigating and planning interdisciplinarity. While interdisciplinarity is often portrayed as a medium of novel and transformative methodological work, current modeling strategies in the environmental sciences are conservative, avoiding methodological conflict, while confining interdisciplinary interactions to a relatively small set of pre-existing modeling frameworks and strategies (a process we call crystallization)...
February 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447175/modelling-human-hard-palate-shape-with-b%C3%A3-zier-curves
#13
Rick Janssen, Scott R Moisik, Dan Dediu
People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth) is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeo)anthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444130/-are-you-gonna-publish-that-peer-reviewed-publication-outcomes-of-doctoral-dissertations-in-psychology
#14
Spencer C Evans, Christina M Amaro, Robyn Herbert, Jennifer B Blossom, Michael C Roberts
If a doctoral dissertation represents an original investigation that makes a contribution to one's field, then dissertation research could, and arguably should, be disseminated into the scientific literature. However, the extent and nature of dissertation publication remains largely unknown within psychology. The present study investigated the peer-reviewed publication outcomes of psychology dissertation research in the United States. Additionally, we examined publication lag, scientific impact, and variations across subfields...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443053/neuroimaging-field-methods-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-neuroimaging-to-study-global-child-development-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Kaja K Jasińska, Sosthène Guei
Portable neuroimaging approaches provide new advances to the study of brain function and brain development with previously inaccessible populations and in remote locations. This paper shows the development of field functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging to the study of child language, reading, and cognitive development in a rural village setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Innovation in methods and the development of culturally appropriate neuroimaging protocols allow a first-time look into the brain's development and children's learning outcomes in understudied environments...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441518/haloperidol-for-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
M Barbateskovic, S R Kraus, M O Collet, O Mathiesen, J C Jakobsen, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients...
February 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441401/exercise-induced-fatigue-in-young-people-advances-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Dimitrios A Patikas, Craig A Williams, Sébastien Ratel
PURPOSE: In recent decades, the interest for exercise-induced fatigue in youth has substantially increased, and the effects of growth on the peripheral (muscular) and central (neural) mechanisms underpinning differences in neuromuscular fatigue between healthy children and adults have been described more extensively. The purpose of this review is to retrieve, report, and analyse the findings of studies comparing neuromuscular fatigue between children and adults. Objective measures of the evaluation of the physiological mechanisms are discussed...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440517/enquire-within-cultural-evolution-and-cognitive-science
#18
REVIEW
Cecilia Heyes
Cultural evolution and cognitive science need each other. Cultural evolution needs cognitive science to find out whether the conditions necessary for Darwinian evolution are met in the cultural domain. Cognitive science needs cultural evolution to explain the origins of distinctively human cognitive processes. Focusing on the first question, I argue that cultural evolutionists can get empirical traction on third-way cultural selection by rooting the distinction between replication and reconstruction, two modes of cultural inheritance, in the distinction between System 1 and System 2 cognitive processes...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440515/integrative-studies-of-cultural-evolution-crossing-disciplinary-boundaries-to-produce-new-insights
#19
Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman, Nicole Creanza
Culture evolves according to dynamics on multiple temporal scales, from individuals' minute-by-minute behaviour to millennia of cultural accumulation that give rise to population-level differences. These dynamics act on a range of entities-including behavioural sequences, ideas and artefacts as well as individuals, populations and whole species-and involve mechanisms at multiple levels, from neurons in brains to inter-population interactions. Studying such complex phenomena requires an integration of perspectives from a diverse array of fields, as well as bridging gaps between traditionally disparate areas of study...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440074/the-effects-of-doctoral-teaching-development-on-early-career-stem-scholars-college-teaching-self-efficacy
#20
Mark R Connolly, You-Geon Lee, Julia N Savoy
To help prepare future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities are offering teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of TD programs on early-career STEM scholars' sense of self-efficacy as postsecondary teachers. In 2011, a survey questionnaire was administered to 2156 people who in 2009 were doctoral students in STEM departments at three U...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
keyword
keyword
116863
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"