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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#1
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533458/how-camouflage-works
#2
REVIEW
Sami Merilaita, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Innes C Cuthill
For camouflage to succeed, an individual has to pass undetected, unrecognized or untargeted, and hence it is the processing of visual information that needs to be deceived. Camouflage is therefore an adaptation to the perception and cognitive mechanisms of another animal. Although this has been acknowledged for a long time, there has been no unitary account of the link between visual perception and camouflage. Viewing camouflage as a suite of adaptations to reduce the signal-to-noise ratio provides the necessary common framework...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529544/complementary-and-alternative-interventions-for-fatigue-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#3
Gang-Zhu Xu, Yan-Feng Li, Mao-De Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao
BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524462/editorial-perspective-neurodiversity-a-revolutionary-concept-for-autism-and-psychiatry
#4
EDITORIAL
Simon Baron-Cohen
Should we continue to refer to autism as a 'disease' or 'disorder', or is the framework of 'neurodiversity' a more humane and accurate lens through which to view people with autism? Evidence at the genetic, neural, behavioural and cognitive levels reveals people with autism show both differences, and signs of disability, but not disorder. Disability requires societal support, acceptance of difference and diversity, and societal "reasonable adjustment", whilst disorder is usually taken to require cure or treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523540/rubinstein-taybi-syndrome-and-epigenetic-alterations
#5
Edward Korzus
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder in humans characterized by growth and psychomotor delay, abnormal gross anatomy, and mild to severe mental retardation (Rubinstein and Taybi, Am J Dis Child 105:588-608, 1963, Hennekam et al., Am J Med Genet Suppl 6:56-64, 1990). RSTS is caused by de novo mutations in epigenetics-associated genes, including the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREBBP), the gene-encoding protein referred to as CBP, and the EP300 gene, which encodes the p300 protein, a CBP homologue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522405/challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-development-of-new-antipsychotic-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Carlos Forray, Raimund Buller
In spite of the significant impact that the serendipitous discovery of drugs with antipsychotic properties had on the care of patients with psychotic disorders, there are significant challenges when aiming at therapeutic goals such as remission, recovery, improved health-related quality of life and functioning. The efficacy and effectiveness of existing antipsychotic drugs fail to address the full spectrum of symptoms and functional deficits that currently prevent patients with psychotic disorders from achieving fulfilling lives...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522290/somatization-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Danilo Carrozzino, Per Bech, Chiara Patierno, Marco Onofrj, Bo Mohr Morberg, Astrid Thomas, Laura Bonanni, Mario Fulcheri
The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic literature research strategy on ISI Web-of-Science, PsychINFO, PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Out of 2.926 initial records, only a total of 9 studies were identified as clearly relevant and analyzed in this systematic review...
May 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#8
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520689/the-course-prediction-and-treatment-of-acute-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-trauma-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
Eva Visser, Taco Gosens, Brenda Leontine Den Oudsten, Jolanda De Vries
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients suffer from acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (1) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and (2) which and when psychological treatments are effective. METHODS: Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 14, 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514701/a-biased-opinion-demonstration-of-cognitive-bias-on-a-fingerprint-matching-task-through-knowledge-of-dna-test-results
#10
Sarah V Stevenage, Alice Bennett
One study is presented which explores the biasing effects of irrelevant contextual information on a fingerprint matching task. Bias was introduced by providing the outcomes of a DNA test relating to each fictitious case under consideration. This was engineered to suggest either a match, no match, or an inconclusive outcome, and was thus either consistent, misleading or unbiased depending on the ground truth of each fingerprint pair. The results suggested that, when the difficulty of the fingerprint matching task was measurably increased, participants became more vulnerable to the biasing information...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512438/are-neurodynamic-organizations-a-fundamental-property-of-teamwork
#11
Ronald H Stevens, Trysha L Galloway
When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511792/mechanisms-of-hemispheric-lateralization-a-replication-study
#12
Kim C Wende, Catherine Thiel, Jens Sommer, Frieder M Paulus, Sören Krach, Andreas Jansen
It has been shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that hemispheric lateralization of brain activity depends on the requirements of the cognitive task performed during the processing of a sensory stimulus rather than on the intrinsic characteristics of that stimulus [Stephan et al., 2003, Science 301 (5631): 384-6]. Task-dependent increase in the coupling of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region involved in cognitive control, and brain areas in the left prefrontal and right parietal cortex, respectively, regions involved in task execution, was proposed as the mechanism underlying this task-dependency of hemispheric lateralization...
April 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503963/nominal-group-technique-for-individuals-with-cognitive-disability-a-systematic-review
#13
Ali Lakhani, David P Watling, Heidi Zeeman, Courtney J Wright, Jason Bishara
RATIONALE: Considering the perspectives of individuals with cognitive disability is important for their participation in their self-directed health care. The nominal group technique (NGT) has been identified as a method to gather opinions of people with cognitive disability; however, a synthesis of methodological considerations to undertake when employing the approach among people with cognitive disability is non-existent. METHOD: A systematic review guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols was undertaken...
May 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#14
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503833/moral-enhancement-meets-normative-and-empirical-reality-assessing-the-practical-feasibility-of-moral-enhancement-neurotechnologies
#15
Veljko Dubljević, Eric Racine
Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499003/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation-nih-medical-rehabilitation-coordinating-committee
#16
Ann O'Mara, Julia H Rowland, Thomas N Greenwell, Cheri L Wiggs, Jerome Fleg, Lyndon Joseph, Joan McGowan, James S Panagis, Charles Washabaugh, Grace C Y Peng, Rosalina Bray, Alison N Cernich, Theresa H Cruz, Sue Marden, Mary Ellen Michel, Ralph Nitkin, Louis Quatrano, Catherine Y Spong, Lana Shekim, Teresa L Z Jones, Denise Juliano-Bult, David M Panchinson, Daofen Chen, Lyn Jakeman, Ann Knebel, Lois A Tully, Leighton Chan, Diane Damiano, Biao Tian, Pamela McInnes, Partap Khalsa, Eve Reider, David Shurtleff, William Elwood, Rachel Ballard, Abby G Ershow, Lisa Begg
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
April 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498065/effect-of-interval-and-continuous-aerobic-training-on-basal-serum-and-plasma-bdnf-values-in-seniors-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#17
Lievyn Enette, Thomas Vogel, Jean Luc Fanon, Pierre Olivier Lang
The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the available clinical trials analyzing, in seniors, the effect of aerobic interval training (IAT) and continuous aerobic training (CAT) on peripheral Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) concentration. We identified 14 randomized or not-randomized intervention studies published up to January 2017 through a computer-assisted search (PUBMED, Pedro, and Science direct data bases). The 5 trials considering IAT and the 9 CAT totalized 988 individuals (age range: 58...
May 12, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495934/how-should-i-study-for-the-exam-self-regulated-learning-strategies-and-achievement-in-introductory-biology
#18
Amanda J Sebesta, Elena Bray Speth
In college introductory science courses, students are challenged with mastering large amounts of disciplinary content while developing as autonomous and effective learners. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process of setting learning goals, monitoring progress toward them, and applying appropriate study strategies. SRL characterizes successful, "expert" learners, and develops with time and practice. In a large, undergraduate introductory biology course, we investigated: 1) what SRL strategies students reported using the most when studying for exams, 2) which strategies were associated with higher achievement and with grade improvement on exams, and 3) what study approaches students proposed to use for future exams...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493605/adverse-effects-of-obesity-on-cognitive-functions-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#19
Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
BACKGROUND: The burden of illness associated with bipolar disorder (BD) warrants early pre-emption/prevention. Prediction models limited to psychiatric phenomenology have insufficient predictive power. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of overweight/obesity is associated with greater cognitive decline in individuals at high risk (HR) or ultra high risk (UHR) for BD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the moderational role of body mass index (BMI) on measures of cognitive function...
March 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493371/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-improvement-of-cognition-in-elderly-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Calvin Pak Wing Cheng, Corine Sau Man Wong, Kelsey Kimyin Lee, Alfred Pui Kam Chan, Jerry Wing Fai Yeung, Wai Chi Chan
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cognitive function in older patients with cognitive impairment. METHODS: A literature search was performed for articles published in English using the 10 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, INSPEC, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, AMED, Biological Sciences, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their inception to May 2016...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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