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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912657/using-multiple-mini-interviews-as-a-pre-screening-tool-for-medical-student-candidates-completing-international-health-electives
#1
Caley A Satterfield, Matthew M Dacso, Premal Patel
There continues to be an increase in the number of learners who participate in international health electives (IHEs). However, not all learners enter IHEs with the same level of knowledge, attitude, and previous experience, which puts undue burden on host supervisors and poses risks to student and patient safety. The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) is a technique that has become a popular method for undergraduate and postgraduate-level health science admissions programs. This paper describes the MMI process used by our program to screen first-year medical students applying for pre-clinical IHEs...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911318/generalized-information-theory-meets-human-cognition-introducing-a-unified-framework-to-model-uncertainty-and-information-search
#2
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909923/cognitive-mechanisms-of-disgust-in-the-development-and-maintenance-of-psychopathology-a-qualitative-review-and-synthesis
#3
REVIEW
Kelly A Knowles, Rebecca C Cox, Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
A growing body of research has implicated disgust in various psychopathologies, especially anxiety-related disorders. Although the observed role of disgust in many disorders is robust, the mechanisms that may explain this role are unclear. Cutting-edge research in cognitive science has the potential to elucidate such mechanisms and consequently improve our understanding of how disgust contributes to the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. In this qualitative review, we systematically assess cognitive bias mechanisms that have been linked to disgust and its disorders...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908765/collective-memory-from-a-psychological-perspective-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-22-438-451-2018
#4
William Hirst, Jeremy K Yamashiro, Alin Coman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904937/synergistic-information-processing-encrypts-strategic-reasoning-in-poker
#5
Seth Frey, Dominic K Albino, Paul L Williams
There is a tendency in decision-making research to treat uncertainty only as a problem to be overcome. But it is also a feature that can be leveraged, particularly in social interaction. Comparing the behavior of profitable and unprofitable poker players, we reveal a strategic use of information processing that keeps decision makers unpredictable. To win at poker, a player must exploit public signals from others. But using public inputs makes it easier for an observer to reconstruct that player's strategy and predict his or her behavior...
June 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904829/pain-cognition-in-migraine-from-basic-neurophysiology-to-a-behavioral-paradigm
#6
Vincenzo Bonavita, Roberto De Simone, Angelo Ranieri
Most of the data in this review have been already reported by the authors in Neurological Science, but the goal of the present paper is to realize an integrated lecture of all the available data and look to the last achievements in pain cognition, with a special focus on migraine and chronic migraine. According to the proposed integrated perspective, migraine can be viewed as an adaptive behavioral response with evolutionistic advantages.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904544/interventions-for-supporting-and-assessing-science-writing-communication-cases-of-asian-english-language-learners
#7
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903802/study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-of-an-internet-administered-guided-cbt-based-self-help-intervention-engage-for-parents-of-children-previously-treated-for-cancer
#8
Joanne Woodford, Anna Wikman, Martin Cernvall, Gustaf Ljungman, Amanda Romppala, Helena Grönqvist, Louise von Essen
INTRODUCTION: A subgroup of parents of children previously treated for cancer report long-term psychological distress after end of treatment. However, needs for psychological support are commonly unmet and there is a lack of evidence-based treatments tailored to the specific needs of this population. An internet-administered, guided, cognitive-behavioural therapy-based, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer may provide a solution. The aim is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention ENGAGE and the study procedures for a future controlled trial...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903402/conceptual-issues-in-neuroscientific-research-on-empathy
#9
REVIEW
Gerrit Glas
This paper gives an analysis of some conceptual issues in the neuroscientific study of empathy. The focus will almost exclusively be on a seminal paper by Decety and Jackson (2004) on the functional architecture of empathy. The authors withstand reductionistic tendencies in the exposition of what their findings might mean for the psychology of social cognition. They are aware of the thorny conceptual issues that arise when attempting to bridge intuitive folk psychological conceptions of empathy with explanations offered by social psychology, developmental science, and, most of all, neuroscience...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902278/understanding-levels-of-best-practice-an-empirical-validation
#10
Huy P Phan, Bing H Ngu, Hui-Wen Wang, Jen-Hwa Shih, Sheng-Ying Shi, Ruey-Yih Lin
Recent research has explored the nature of the theoretical concept of optimal best practice, which emphasizes the importance of personal resolve, inner strength, and the maximization of a person's development, whether it is mental, cognitive, social, or physical. In the context of academia, the study of optimal functioning places emphasis on a student's effort expenditure, positive outlook, and determination to strive for educational success and enriched subjective well-being. One major inquiry closely associated with optimal functioning is the process of optimization...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902127/the-influence-of-fatigue-on-decision-making-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#11
Thomas Gus Almonroeder, Sarah Marie Tighe, Taylor Matthew Miller, Christopher Ray Lanning
A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases...
June 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902029/the-status-of-women-cognitive-scientists-in-canada-insights-from-publicly-available-nserc-funding-data
#12
Debra Titone, Mehrgol Tiv, Penny M Pexman
A crucial question within science and academia, and cognitive science specifically, is whether there is gender disparity in opportunity and advancement over the professional life span (e.g., Ceci, Ginther, Kahn, & Williams, 2014; Geraci, Balsis, & Busch, 2015; Valian, 1998). To investigate this question, we analyzed gender distributions in publicly available federal funding data from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada that are specific to cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900574/the-recruitment-of-shifting-and-inhibition-in-on-line-science-and-mathematics-tasks
#13
Stella Vosniadou, Dimitrios Pnevmatikos, Nikos Makris, Despina Lepenioti, Kalliopi Eikospentaki, Anna Chountala, Giorgos Kyrianakis
Prior research has investigated the recruitment of inhibition in the use of science/mathematics concepts in tasks that require the rejection of a conflicting, nonscientific initial concept. The present research examines if inhibition is the only EF skill recruited in such tasks and investigates whether shifting is also involved. It also investigates whether inhibition and/or shifting are recruited in tasks in which the use of science/mathematics concepts does not require the rejection of an initial concept, or which require only the use of initial concepts...
June 13, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897607/-use-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review
#14
C Loureiro, C Garcia, L Adana, T Yacelga, A Rodriguez-Lorenzana, C Maruta
AIM: To analyze the frequency of use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a cognitive screening instrument, cross-cultural adaptation, the existence of normative data and clinical validation studies in Latin America Hispanic countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo databases were consulted between April and June 2017 according to the PRISMA methodology. We included all studies referencing the MoCA as an instrument to evaluate cognitive deterioration conducted in Latin America and that included normative and psychometric data, as well as its clinical validation...
June 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896470/a-theory-based-contextual-nutrition-education-manual-enhanced-nutrition-teaching-skill
#15
Mojisola D Kupolati, Una E MacIntyre, Gerda J Gericke
Background: A theory-based contextual nutrition education manual (NEM) may enhance effective teaching of nutrition in schools. School nutrition education should lead to the realization of such benefits as improved health, scholarly achievement leading to manpower development and consequently the nation's development. The purpose of the study was to develop a contextual NEM for teachers of Grade 5 and 6 learners in the Bronkhorstspruit district, South Africa, and to assess teachers' perception on the use of the manual for teaching nutrition...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895737/brain-connectivity-networks-and-the-aesthetic-experience-of-music
#16
REVIEW
Mark Reybrouck, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Listening to music is above all a human experience, which becomes an aesthetic experience when an individual immerses himself/herself in the music, dedicating attention to perceptual-cognitive-affective interpretation and evaluation. The study of these processes where the individual perceives, understands, enjoys and evaluates a set of auditory stimuli has mainly been focused on the effect of music on specific brain structures, as measured with neurophysiology and neuroimaging techniques. The very recent application of network science algorithms to brain research allows an insight into the functional connectivity between brain regions...
June 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894448/neurologic-outcomes-after-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-systematic-review
#17
Katharine Boyle, Ryan Felling, Alvin Yiu, Wejdan Battarjee, Jamie McElrath Schwartz, Cynthia Salorio, Melania M Bembea
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize neurologic outcomes following neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DATA SOURCES: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria included publication dates 2000-2016, patient ages 0-18 years, and use of standardized measures to evaluate outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
June 11, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893607/evidence-base-on-outpatient-behavioral-treatments-for-adolescent-substance-use-2014-2017-outcomes-treatment-delivery-and-promising-horizons
#18
Aaron Hogue, Craig E Henderson, Sara J Becker, Danica K Knight
This article updates the evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use (ASU) since publication of the previous review completed for this journal by Hogue, Henderson, Ozechowski, and Robbins (2014). It first summarizes the Hogue et al. findings along with those from recent literature reviews and meta-analytic studies of ASU treatments. It then presents study design and methods criteria used to select 11 comparative studies subjected to Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology level of support evaluation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888338/validation-of-mobile-phone-text-messages-for-nicotine-and-tobacco-risk-communication-among-college-students-a-content-analysis
#19
Georges E Khalil, Karen S Calabro, Brittani Crook, Tamara C Machado, Cheryl L Perry, Alexander V Prokhorov
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, young adults have the highest prevalence of tobacco use. The dissemination of mobile phone text messages is a growing strategy for tobacco risk communication among young adults. However, little has been done concerning the design and validation of such text messages. The Texas Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science (Texas-TCORS) has developed a library of messages based on framing (gain- or loss-framed), depth (simple or complex) and appeal (emotional or rational)...
February 2018: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887647/from-cognitivism-to-autopoiesis-towards-a-computational-framework-for-the-embodied-mind
#20
Micah Allen, Karl J Friston
Predictive processing (PP) approaches to the mind are increasingly popular in the cognitive sciences. This surge of interest is accompanied by a proliferation of philosophical arguments, which seek to either extend or oppose various aspects of the emerging framework. In particular, the question of how to position predictive processing with respect to enactive and embodied cognition has become a topic of intense debate. While these arguments are certainly of valuable scientific and philosophical merit, they risk underestimating the variety of approaches gathered under the predictive label...
2018: Synthese
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