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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628790/associated-illness-severity-in-schizophrenia-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin I Perry, Dhanya Salimkumar, Daniel Green, Anne Meakin, Andrew Gibson, Deepali Mahajan, Tayyeb Tahir, Swaran P Singh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate whether schizophrenia and type II diabetes mellitus may present with associated illness severity, in light of accumulating evidence to suggest both conditions have important shared inflammatory components with many shared inflammatory genetic factors. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review employing PRISMA criteria, searching EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and Google Scholar to February 1st, 2017, for clinical studies assessing schizophrenia severity alongside dysglycaemia...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#2
R Powers Albert, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626435/reproducibility-in-psychological-science-when-do-psychological-phenomena-exist
#3
Seppo E Iso-Ahola
Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625430/sensorimotor-and-executive-function-slowing-in-anesthesiology-residents-after-overnight-shifts
#4
George W Williams, Bairavi Shankar, Eliana M Klier, Alice Z Chuang, Salma El Marjiya-Villarreal, Omonele O Nwokolo, Aanchal Sharma, Anne B Sereno
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Medical residents working overnight call shifts experience sleep deprivation and circadian clock disruption. This leads to deficits in sensorimotor function and increases in workplace accidents. Using quick tablet-based tasks, we investigate whether measureable executive function differences exist following a single overnight call versus routine shift, and whether factors like stress, rest and caffeine affect these measures. DESIGN: A prospective, observational, longitudinal, comparison study was conducted...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625273/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-disease-modification-trials-in-mild-to-moderate-dementia-a-systematic-review-patient-and-public-consultation-and-consensus-recommendations
#5
Lucy Webster, Derek Groskreutz, Anna Grinbergs-Saull, Rob Howard, John T O'Brien, Gail Mountain, Sube Banerjee, Bob Woods, Robert Perneczky, Louise Lafortune, Charlotte Roberts, Jenny McCleery, James Pickett, Frances Bunn, David Challis, Georgina Charlesworth, Katie Featherstone, Chris Fox, Claire Goodman, Roy Jones, Sallie Lamb, Esme Moniz-Cook, Justine Schneider, Sasha Shepperd, Claire Surr, Jo Thompson-Coon, Clive Ballard, Carol Brayne, Orlaith Burke, Alistair Burns, Linda Clare, Peter Garrard, Patrick Kehoe, Peter Passmore, Clive Holmes, Ian Maidment, Fliss Murtagh, Louise Robinson, Gill Livingston
BACKGROUND: There is currently no disease-modifying treatment available to halt or delay the progression of the disease pathology in dementia. An agreed core set of the best-available and most appropriate outcomes for disease modification would facilitate the design of trials and ensure consistency across disease modification trials, as well as making results comparable and meta-analysable in future trials. OBJECTIVES: To agree a set of core outcomes for disease modification trials for mild to moderate dementia with the UK dementia research community and patient and public involvement (PPI)...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619248/the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-and-cognitive-behavioural-therapies-for-insomnia-on-depressive-and-fatigue-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Andrea Ballesio, Maria Raisa Jessica V Aquino, Bernd Feige, Anna F Johann, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Caterina Lombardo, Gerta Rücker, Dieter Riemann, Chiara Baglioni
This review aimed to assess the impact of behavioural therapy for insomnia administered alone (BT-I) or in combination with cognitive techniques (cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia, CBT-I) on depressive and fatigue symptoms using network meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from 1986 to May 2015. Studies were included if they incorporated sleep restriction, a core technique of BT-I treatment, and an adult insomnia sample, a control group and a standardised measure of depressive and/or fatigue symptoms...
February 7, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#7
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence shows that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617657/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation
#8
Nih Medical Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615268/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatments-for-major-depressive-disorder-review-of-systematic-reviews
#9
Gerald Gartlehner, Gernot Wagner, Nina Matyas, Viktoria Titscher, Judith Greimel, Linda Lux, Bradley N Gaynes, Meera Viswanathan, Sheila Patel, Kathleen N Lohr
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to summarise the evidence on more than 140 pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for major depressive disorder (MDD) and to evaluate the confidence that patients and clinicians can have in the underlying science about their effects. DESIGN: This is a review of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: This study used MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Epistemonikos from 2011 up to February 2017 for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in adult patients with acute-phase MDD...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614978/butz-m-v-kutter-e-f-how-the-mind-comes-into-being-introducing-cognitive-science-from-a-functional-and-computational-perspective-butz-m-v-kutter-e-f-how-the-mind-comes-into-being-introducing-cognitive-science-from-a-functional-and-computational-perspective-new
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#11
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611885/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adult-psychiatric-patients-part-ii-controversies-over-medical-assessment-and-consensus-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
Michael P Wilson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Eric L Anderson, Anthony T Ng, Leslie S Zun, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. METHODS: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608767/anxiety-and-depression-toward-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#13
Michael W Eysenck, Małgorzata Fajkowska
This Special Issue of Cognition and Emotion addresses one of the cardinal concerns of affective science, which is overlapping and distinctive features of anxiety and depression. A central finding in the study of anxiety and depression is that they are moderately highly correlated with each other. This leads us to the question: What is behind this co-occurrence? Possible explanations relate to poor discriminant validity of measures; both emotional states are associated with negative affect; stressful life events; impaired cognitive processes; they share a common biological/genetic diathesis...
June 13, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606625/-terrorism-and-human-behavior
#14
S J Leistedt
OBJECTIVES: Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. METHODS: Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases...
June 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604790/sparse-eeg-meg-source-estimation-via-a-group-lasso
#15
Michael Lim, Justin M Ales, Benoit R Cottereau, Trevor Hastie, Anthony M Norcia
Non-invasive recordings of human brain activity through electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencelphalography (MEG) are of value for both basic science and clinical applications in sensory, cognitive, and affective neuroscience. Here we introduce a new approach to estimating the intra-cranial sources of EEG/MEG activity measured from extra-cranial sensors. The approach is based on the group lasso, a sparse-prior inverse that has been adapted to take advantage of functionally-defined regions of interest for the definition of physiologically meaningful groups within a functionally-based common space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602027/assistive-technology-for-memory-support-in-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Henriëtte G Van der Roest, Jennifer Wenborn, Channah Pastink, Rose-Marie Dröes, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT)...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600377/serious-gaming-during-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-complex-chronic-pain-or-fatigue-complaints-study-protocol-for-a-controlled-trial-and-process-evaluation
#17
Miel A P Vugts, Margot C W Joosen, Agali Mert, Aglaia Zedlitz, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef
INTRODUCTION: Many individuals suffer from chronic pain or functional somatic syndromes and face boundaries for diminishing functional limitations by means of biopsychosocial interventions. Serious gaming could complement multidisciplinary interventions through enjoyment and independent accessibility. A study protocol is presented for studying whether, how, for which patients and under what circumstances, serious gaming improves patient health outcomes during regular multidisciplinary rehabilitation...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600219/a-note-on-the-roles-of-quantum-and-mechanical-models-in-social-biophysics
#18
REVIEW
Taiki Takahashi, Song-Ju Kim, Makoto Naruse
Recent advances in the applications of quantum models into various disciplines such as cognitive science, social sciences, economics, and biology witnessed enormous achievements and possible future progress. In this paper, we propose one of the most promising directions in the applications of quantum models: the combination of quantum and mechanical models in social biophysics. The possible resulting discipline may be called as experimental quantum social biophysics and could foster our understandings of the relationships between the society and individuals...
June 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596746/a-systematic-review-of-psychosocial-interventions-to-cancer-caregivers
#19
REVIEW
Fang Fu, Huaijuan Zhao, Feng Tong, Iris Chi
Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WANFANG were searched...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594076/the-future-of-safety-science-is-happening-now-the-modernization-of-the-benefit-risk-paradigm
#20
Fabio Lievano, Linda Scarazzini, Frank Shen, James Duhig, Jeremy Jokinen
The future of safety science is happening now and has the potential to improve patient outcomes through an evolving approach to benefit-risk assessment. Three building blocks for the future of safety science, cognitive and behavioral systems, medical assessment, and data science, individually and collaboratively advance and modernize the benefit-risk paradigm. Incorporating the patient perspective and patient experiences will help identify tools that are useful in real-world practice. Medical assessment teams will bring together the study of toxicity and toxicogenomics, biomarkers, and special populations to personalize the benefit-risk profile...
June 8, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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