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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028883/a-new-pan-european-train-the-trainer-programme-for-bioinformatics-pilot-results-on-feasibility-utility-and-sustainability-of-learning
#1
Allegra Via, Teresa K Attwood, Pedro L Fernandes, Sarah L Morgan, Maria Victoria Schneider, Patricia M Palagi, Gabriella Rustici, Rochelle E Tractenberg
Demand for training life scientists in bioinformatics methods, tools and resources and computational approaches is urgent and growing. To meet this demand, new trainers must be prepared with effective teaching practices for delivering short hands-on training sessions-a specific type of education that is not typically part of professional preparation of life scientists in many countries. A new Train-the-Trainer (TtT) programme was created by adapting existing models, using input from experienced trainers and experts in bioinformatics, and from educational and cognitive sciences...
September 26, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027025/spontaneous-integration-of-temporal-information-implications-for-representational-computational-capacity-of-animals
#2
REVIEW
Ezgi Gür, Yalçın Akın Duyan, Fuat Balcı
How do animals adapt their behaviors to changing conditions? This question relates to the debate between associative versus representational/computational approaches in cognitive science. An influential line of research that has significantly shaped the conceptual development of animal learning over decades has primarily focused on the role of associative dynamics with little-to-no ascription of representational/combinatorial capacities. The common assumption of these models is that behavioral adjustments are incremental and they result from updating of associations based on actions and their outcomes, without encoding the critical information serving as the determinant(s) of such contingencies (e...
October 12, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025157/chronic-pain-after-traumatic-brain-injury-pathophysiology-and-pain-mechanisms
#3
Karen-Amanda Irvine, J David Clark
Background: Traumatic brain injury refers to a broad range of neurological, cognitive, and emotional factors that result from the application of an external force to the head. Individuals recovering from traumatic brain injury will frequently experience acute and chronic pain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiological changes resulting from traumatic brain injury and how these may be involved in the development and persistence of pain after injury...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025113/innovative-technology-using-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-pain-does-it-reduce-pain-via-distraction-or-is-there-more-to-it
#4
Anita Gupta, Kevin Scott, Matthew Dukewich
Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is an exciting new technology with almost endless possible uses in medicine. One area it has shown promise is pain management. This selective review focused on studies that gave evidence to the distraction or nondistraction mechanisms by which VR leads to the treatment of pain. Methods: The review looked at articles from 2000 to July 29, 2016, focusing on studies concerning mechanisms by which virtual reality can augment pain relief...
August 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024609/the-goldwater-rule-perspectives-from-and-implications-for-psychological-science
#5
Scott O Lilienfeld, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists...
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019416/communication-technology-adoption-among-older-adult-veterans-the-interplay-of-social-and-cognitive-factors
#6
Cristina Leone, Joan Soo Li Lim, Anita Stern, Jocelyn Charles, Sandra Black, Ronald Baecker
OBJECTIVES: InTouch is an electronic communication platform designed to be accessible by computer-naive seniors. The present study explored the process of adoption and use of the application by seniors with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the lens of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). METHOD: We studied adoption and use of InTouch for social communication over a 12-week period in a 475-bed Veteran's care facility at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada...
October 11, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019300/the-politics-of-cognition-liberalism-and-the-evolutionary-origins-of-victorian-education
#7
Matthew Daniel Eddy
In recent years the historical relationship between scientific experts and the state has received increasing scrutiny. Such experts played important roles in the creation and regulation of environmental organizations and functioned as agents dispatched by politicians or bureaucrats to assess health-related problems and concerns raised by the public or the judiciary. But when it came to making public policy, scientists played another role that has received less attention. In addition to acting as advisers and assessors, some scientists were democratically elected members of local and national legislatures...
October 11, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019169/one-back-reinforcement-dissociates-implicit-procedural-and-explicit-declarative-category-learning
#8
J David Smith, Sonia Jamani, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church
The debate over unitary/multiple category-learning utilities is reminiscent of debates about multiple memory systems and unitary/dual codes in knowledge representation. In categorization, researchers continue to seek paradigms to dissociate explicit learning processes (yielding verbalizable rules) from implicit learning processes (yielding stimulus-response associations that remain outside awareness). We introduce a new dissociation here. Participants learned matched category tasks with a multidimensional, information-integration solution or a one-dimensional, rule-based solution...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019061/neuropsychological-measures-that-predict-progression-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Sylvie Belleville, Céline Fouquet, Carol Hudon, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Jordie Croteau
This study aimed to determine the extent to which cognitive measures can predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's type dementia (AD), assess the predictive accuracy of different cognitive domain categories, and determine whether accuracy varies as a function of age and length of follow-up. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed data from longitudinal studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values for neuropsychological tests to identify individuals with MCI who will develop AD...
October 10, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017990/healthy-beyond-pregnancy-a-web-based-intervention-to-improve-adherence-to-postpartum-care-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#10
Katherine Park Himes, Heidi Donovan, Stephanie Wang, Carrie Weaver, Jillian Rae Grove, Francesca Lucia Facco
BACKGROUND: During the postpartum visit, health care providers address issues with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Women with Medicaid insurance are less likely to return for a postpartum visit compared with women with private insurance. Behavioral economics acknowledges that people do not make exclusively rational choices, rather immediate gratification, cognitive and psychological biases, and social norms influence decision making. Drawing on insights from decision science, behavioral economists have examined how these biases can be modulated through carefully designed interventions...
October 10, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016679/perimenopause-and-emergence-of-an-alzheimer-s-bioenergetic-phenotype-in-brain-and-periphery
#11
Lisa Mosconi, Valentina Berti, Crystal Guyara-Quinn, Pauline McHugh, Gabriella Petrongolo, Ricardo S Osorio, Christopher Connaughty, Alberto Pupi, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Richard S Isaacson, Mony J de Leon, Russell H Swerdlow, Roberta Diaz Brinton
After advanced age, female sex is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms underlying the increased AD risk in women remain largely undetermined. Preclinical studies identified the perimenopause to menopause transition, a neuroendocrine transition state unique to the female, as a sex-specific risk factor for AD. In animals, estrogenic regulation of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) falters during perimenopause. This is evident in glucose hypometabolism and decline in mitochondrial efficiency which is sustained thereafter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016631/a-measure-of-knowledge-flow-between-specific-fields-implications-of-interdisciplinarity-for-impact-and-funding
#12
Seokbeom Kwon, Gregg E A Solomon, Jan Youtie, Alan L Porter
Encouraging knowledge flow between mutually relevant disciplines is a worthy aim of research policy makers. Yet, it is less clear what types of research promote cross-disciplinary knowledge flow and whether such research generates particularly influential knowledge. Empirical questions remain as to how to identify knowledge-flow mediating research and how to provide support for this research. This study contributes to addressing these gaps by proposing a new way to identify knowledge-flow mediating research at the individual research article level, instead of at more aggregated levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016179/george-mandler-1924-2016
#13
Fergus Craik
Presents an obituary for George Mandler, who died in London on May 6, 2016 at the age of 91. Mandler was one of the pioneers of the cognitive revolution in psychology. He was instrumental in moving the study of human learning from notions based largely on associations to a view of memory as an organized, nested hierarchical structure. Mandler was also a major proponent of the dual-process theory of recognition memory, in which general feelings of familiarity are distinguished from the context-rich experience of recollection...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994457/back-from-basics-integration-of-science-and-practice-in-medical-education
#14
Glen Bandiera, Ayelet Kuper, Maria Mylopoulos, Cynthia Whitehead, Mariela Ruetalo, Kulamakan Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods
CONTEXT: In 1988, the Edinburgh Declaration challenged medical teachers, curriculum designers and leaders to make an organised effort to change medical education for the better. Among a series of recommendations was a call to integrate training in science and clinical practice across a breadth of clinical contexts. The aim was to create physicians who could serve the needs of all people and provide care in a multitude of contexts. In the years since, in the numerous efforts towards integration, new models of curricula have been proposed and implemented with varying levels of success...
October 10, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991719/neuroimaging-and-cognitive-functions-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of refractory focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging researches have demonstrated structural abnormalities in several cerebral regions. Cognitive impairment has been frequently described as a potential comorbidity of long-term TLE. This review investigated the state of research regarding neuropsychological impairment and neuroimaging studies in TLE patients. Studies were found on PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, 412 publications were selected: only 20 articles met search criteria...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986415/clinical-outcomes-of-asleep-vs-awake-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease
#16
Matthew A Brodsky, Shannon Anderson, Charles Murchison, Mara Seier, Jennifer Wilhelm, Aaron Vederman, Kim J Burchiel
OBJECTIVE: To compare motor and nonmotor outcomes at 6 months of asleep deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD) using intraoperative imaging guidance to confirm electrode placement vs awake DBS using microelectrode recording to confirm electrode placement. METHODS: DBS candidates with PD referred to Oregon Health & Science University underwent asleep DBS with imaging guidance. Six-month outcomes were compared to those of patients who previously underwent awake DBS by the same surgeon and center...
October 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977753/the-manitoba-youth-justice-program-empowering-and-supporting-fasd-affected-youth-in-conflict-with-the-law
#17
Sally Elizabeth Longstaffe, Albert Chudley, Mary Kate Harvie, Teresa Brown, Dan Neault, Trevor John Markesteyn
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) describes a constellation of physical, cognitive, neurologic and behavioral impairments resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. FASD is recognized as being one of the largest causes of preventable brain injury in children. There had long been concerns that some youth in conflict with the law may be affected with FASD given repetitive patterns of offending and apparent lack of understanding of consequences of their actions. In 2004 funding was received from Justice Canada for a pilot project with a cross departmental steering committee working together to determine a best way of working across systems to provide FASD assessments to these youth...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977307/sensory-processing-during-childhood-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review
#18
Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula Machado, Suelen Rosa de Oliveira, Lívia de Castro Magalhães, Débora Marques de Miranda, Maria Cândida Ferrarez Bouzada
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. DATA SOURCE: The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975654/a-prospectus-for-ethical-analysis-of-ageing-individuals-responsibility-to-prevent-cognitive-decline
#19
Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall
As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975240/research-gaps-and-controversies-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-review
#20
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Steven T DeKosky, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
Importance: Scientific and lay interest in negative outcomes associated with exposure to repetitive brain trauma (RBT) continues to strengthen. Concerns about the association between RBT and dementia began more than a century ago, but have resurfaced in the last decade with the more recently described chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a tauopathy associated with RBT that has become inextricably linked to conversations about sport-related concussion and mild traumatic brain injury...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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