keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive Sciences

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667572/neurobiological-findings-associated-with-high-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#1
Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Lucas Porcello Schilling, Graciane Radaelli, Luciana Borges Ferreira, Leonardo Pisani, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Jaderson Costa da Costa
ABSTRACTObjectives:to perform a comprehensive literature review of studies on older adults with exceptional cognitive performance. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review using two major databases (MEDLINE and Web of Science) from January 2002 to November 2017. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis included nine of 4,457 studies and revealed that high-performing older adults have global preservation of the cortex, especially the anterior cingulate region, and hippocampal volumes larger than normal agers...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667159/physical-activity-throughout-the-adult-life-span-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-old-age-a-systematic-review-of-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-data
#2
REVIEW
Tobias Engeroff, Tobias Ingmann, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years...
April 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666593/interaction-in-spoken-word-recognition-models-feedback-helps
#3
James S Magnuson, Daniel Mirman, Sahil Luthra, Ted Strauss, Harlan D Harris
Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665469/total-mercury-exposure-in-early-pregnancy-has-no-adverse-association-with-scholastic-ability-of-the-offspring-particularly-if-the-mother-eats-fish
#4
Joseph Hibbeln, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Caroline M Taylor, Alan Emond, Jean Golding
There is a public perception that relatively low doses of mercury found in seafood are harmful to the fetal brain but little consistent evidence to support this. In earlier publications we have shown no adverse associations between maternal total blood mercury levels and child behaviour, early development or cognitive function as measured by IQ. However, for IQ the lack of adverse association was conditional upon the mother being a fish eater. In this paper we analyse further data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), this time examining whether prenatal exposure to total mercury is associated with the child's scholastic abilities in reading, spelling, phoneme awareness, mathematics and science; the number of participants with prenatal mercury and relevant test results varied from 1500 to 2200...
April 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663387/muscarinic-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonists-current-scenario-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Stuti Verma, Ashwini Kumar, Timir Tripathi, Awanish Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the primary cause of dementia. It shows a progressive cognitive dysfunction with degenerating neurons. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) propagate the cognitive ability and it consists of two primary members namely muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Where mAChRs is G-protein coupled receptor, (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. The conventional therapeutic regimen for AD consists of three acetylcholinestearse inhibitors while a single NMDA receptor antagonist...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659315/association-between-pain-drawing-and-psychological-factors-in-musculoskeletal-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review
#6
Felipe Reis, Fernanda Guimarães, Leandro Calazans Nogueira, Ney Meziat-Filho, Tiago A Sanchez, Timothy Wideman
BACKGROUND: It has been speculated that there is an association between pain area and psychological factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions; however, this relation is not well established. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between pain distribution and psychological factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: We searched the following databases using optimized search strategies: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659005/state-of-the-science-of-neural-systems-in-late-life-depression-impact-on-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcome
#7
Kevin J Manning, David C Steffens
Major depression in older adults, or late-life depression (LLD), is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although the effects of LLD make it important to achieve a diagnosis and start treatment quickly, individuals with LLD are often inadequately or unsuccessfully treated. The latest treatment developments suggest that interventions targeting executive dysfunction and neuroticism, constructs associated with poor response to antidepressants in older adults, are successful in treating LLD...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658414/over-time-the-right-results-will-emerge
#8
Marlene Behrmann, Jacob Geskin
Scientific research involves going beyond the well-trodden and well-tested ideas and theories that form the core of scientific knowledge. During the time scientists are working things out, some results will be right, and others will be wrong. Over time, the right results will emerge. Lisa Randall (Frank B. Baird, Jr. Professor of Science, Physics Department, Harvard University) We are grateful to all the commentators for the important and thoughtful comments raised in response to the Geskin and Behrmann (G & B) literature survey...
February 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656848/the-discipline-of-epidemiology-engaging-in-the-full-breadth-of-population-health-science
#9
EDITORIAL
Harold I Feldman
This address was delivered by Harold I. Feldman, MD, MSCE, at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology in New Orleans, Louisiana, on September 26, 2017. Dr. Feldman is George S. Pepper Professor of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, and Chair, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He is recognized nationally and internationally for his expertise in kidney disease epidemiology...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655845/cardiac-telocytes-from-basic-science-to-cardiac-diseases-i-atrial-fibrillation
#10
REVIEW
Sorin Hostiuc, Ionuț Negoi, Catalin Dogaroiu, Eduard Drima, Cristian Bogdan Iancu
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is nowadays considered to be one of the most important causes of heart failure, stroke, cognitive decline, vascular dementia, sudden death and overall cardiovascular morbidity. Recently were published a few articles suggesting a possible involvement of telocytes in the development of atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this article is to analyze the results obtained in the field systematically, and to see if there is enough data to support a possible involvement of telocytes in arrhythmogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655519/much-ado-about-mice-standard-setting-in-model-organism-research
#11
Rebecca A Hardesty
Recently there has been a practice turn in the philosophy of science that has called for analyses to be grounded in the actual doings of everyday science. This paper is in furtherance of this call and it does so by employing participant-observation ethnographic methods as a tool for discovering epistemological features of scientific practice in a neuroscience lab. The case I present focuses on a group of neurobiologists researching the genetic underpinnings of cognition in Down syndrome (DS) and how they have developed a new mouse model which they argue should be regarded as the "gold standard" for all DS mouse research...
April 11, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650067/diagnostic-errors-and-the-bedside-clinical-examination
#12
REVIEW
Bennett W Clark, Arsalan Derakhshan, Sanjay V Desai
Diagnostic errors are common in clinical practice and lead to adverse patient outcomes. Systematic reviews have shown that inadequate history taking and physical examination lead to a plurality, if not a majority, of diagnostic errors. Recent advances in cognitive science have also shown that unconscious biases likely contribute to many diagnostic errors. Research into diagnostic error has been hampered by methodologic inconsistency and a paucity of studies in real-world clinical settings. The best evidence indicates that educational interventions to reduce diagnostic error should give physicians feedback about clinical outcomes and enhance their ability to recognize signs and symptoms of specific diseases at the bedside...
May 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649253/prevalence-and-predictors-of-khat-chewing-among-ethiopian-university-students-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Alemu Gebrie, Animut Alebel, Abriham Zegeye, Bekele Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Khat chewing has become a common practice among university students in developing countries like Ethiopia. It has a potential effect on physical, mental, social and cognitive aspects of student functioning. In Ethiopia, study findings regarding the prevalence of khat chewing were highly dispersed and inconsistent. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the pooled prevalence of khat chewing and its predictors among Ethiopian university students. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644887/post-traumatic-stress-reactions-among-individuals-with-visual-impairments-a-systematic-review
#14
Audun Brunes, Marianne B Hansen, Trond Heir
PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of post-traumatic stress reactions among individuals with visual impairment (VI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative studies were identified through searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Libraries. The literature search was limited to humans, of English and Scandinavian languages and publication year between 1980 and 2017. Study quality was assessed for all the included studies and extracted data were synthesized using narrative analysis...
April 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629186/systematic-review-of-acute-physically-active-learning-and-classroom-movement-breaks-on-children-s-physical-activity-cognition-academic-performance-and-classroom-behaviour-understanding-critical-design-features
#15
Andy J Daly-Smith, Stephen Zwolinsky, Jim McKenna, Phillip D Tomporowski, Margaret Anne Defeyter, Andrew Manley
Objective: To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#16
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628960/relationship-of-social-cognitive-theory-concepts-to-dietary-habits-of-pregnant-women
#17
Nasrin Torkan, Ashraf Kazemi, Zamzam Paknahad, Parvin Bahadoran
Background: Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627004/brain-connectivity-and-cognitive-processing-speed-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Riccardo Manca, Basil Sharrack, David Paling, Iain D Wilkinson, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Processing speed (PS) decline is the most commonly observed cognitive deficit in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a significant impact on quality of life. Despite its importance, knowledge of the underlying neural substrates is lacking. OBJECTIVE: As MS is increasingly recognised as a disconnection syndrome, our aim was to carry out a systematic literature review to clarify the relationship between PS performance and MRI measures of structural and functional brain connectivity in people with MS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#19
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625261/acute-and-chronic-effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognition-and-behaviour-in-young-people-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#20
REVIEW
Sara Suarez-Manzano, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Manuel De La Torre-Cruz, Emilio J Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have learning and behavioral control difficulties. AIM: The aim of this review is analyse the acute and chronic effect of physical activity (PA) on the cognition and behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Studies were identified in five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, Web of Science, and SCOPUS), from January 2000 through to January 2017...
April 3, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
keyword
keyword
116863
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"