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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822716/contrast-effects-on-speed-perception-for-linear-and-radial-motion
#1
Rebecca A Champion, Paul A Warren
Speed perception is vital for safe activity in the environment. However, considerable evidence suggests that perceived speed changes as a function of stimulus contrast, with some investigators suggesting that this might have meaningful real-world consequences (e.g. driving in fog). In the present study we investigate whether the neural effects of contrast on speed perception occur at the level of local motion processing or more complex global motion configurations. To do this we examine both speed discrimination thresholds and contrast-dependent speed perception for two global motion configurations that have matched local spatio-temporal structure...
August 16, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821774/pre-coincidence-brain-activity-predicts-the-perceptual-outcome-of-streaming-bouncing-motion-display
#2
Song Zhao, Yajie Wang, Lina Jia, Chengzhi Feng, Yu Liao, Wenfeng Feng
When two identical visual discs move toward each other on a two-dimensional visual display, they can be perceived as either "streaming through" or "bouncing off" each other after their coincidence. Previous studies have observed a strong bias toward the streaming percept. Additionally, the incidence of the bouncing percept in this ambiguous display could be increased by various factors, such as a brief sound at the moment of coincidence and a momentary pause of the two discs. The streaming/bouncing bistable motion phenomenon has been studied intensively since its discovery...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821729/nonlinear-bayesian-filtering-and-learning-a-neuronal-dynamics-for-perception
#3
Anna Kutschireiter, Simone Carlo Surace, Henning Sprekeler, Jean-Pascal Pfister
The robust estimation of dynamical hidden features, such as the position of prey, based on sensory inputs is one of the hallmarks of perception. This dynamical estimation can be rigorously formulated by nonlinear Bayesian filtering theory. Recent experimental and behavioral studies have shown that animals' performance in many tasks is consistent with such a Bayesian statistical interpretation. However, it is presently unclear how a nonlinear Bayesian filter can be efficiently implemented in a network of neurons that satisfies some minimum constraints of biological plausibility...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#4
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. GABA level varies substantially across individuals and this variability is associated with inter-individual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition, or whether GABA level of different cortical regions selectively influences perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how GABA level in parietal and occipital cortices related to inter-individual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception, in a group of healthy young male participants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821642/super-optimal-perceptual-integration-suggests-a-place-based-representation-of-pitch-at-high-frequencies
#5
Bonnie K Lau, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
Pitch, the perceptual correlate of sound repetition rate or frequency, plays an important role in speech perception, music perception, and listening in complex acoustic environments. Despite its perceptual importance, the neural mechanisms underlying pitch remain poorly understood. Although cortical regions responsive to pitch have been identified, little is known about how pitch information is extracted from the inner ear itself. The two primary theories of peripheral pitch coding involve stimulus-driven spike timing, or phase locking, in the auditory nerve (time code), and the spatial distribution of responses along the length of the cochlear partition (place code)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820891/scene-text-detection-via-extremal-region-based-double-threshold-convolutional-network-classification
#6
Wei Zhu, Jing Lou, Longtao Chen, Qingyuan Xia, Mingwu Ren
In this paper, we present a robust text detection approach in natural images which is based on region proposal mechanism. A powerful low-level detector named saliency enhanced-MSER extended from the widely-used MSER is proposed by incorporating saliency detection methods, which ensures a high recall rate. Given a natural image, character candidates are extracted from three channels in a perception-based illumination invariant color space by saliency-enhanced MSER algorithm. A discriminative convolutional neural network (CNN) is jointly trained with multi-level information including pixel-level and character-level information as character candidate classifier...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819078/-associative-learning-between-orientation-and-color-in-early-visual-areas
#7
Kaoru Amano, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato, Yuka Sasaki, Takeo Watanabe
Associative learning is an essential neural phenomenon where the contingency of different items increases after training. Although associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas. Here, we developed an associative decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback (A-DecNef) to determine whether associative learning of color and orientation can be induced in early visual areas...
August 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#8
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817798/toward-a-wiring-diagram-understanding-of-appetite-control
#9
REVIEW
Mark L Andermann, Bradford B Lowell
Prior mouse genetic research has set the stage for a deep understanding of appetite regulation. This goal is now being realized through the use of recent technological advances, such as the ability to map connectivity between neurons, manipulate neural activity in real time, and measure neural activity during behavior. Indeed, major progress has been made with regard to meal-related gut control of appetite, arcuate nucleus-based hypothalamic circuits linking energy state to the motivational drive, hunger, and, finally, limbic and cognitive processes that bring about hunger-mediated increases in reward value and perception of food...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816481/individuals-eye-movements-in-reading-are-highly-consistent-across-time-and-trial
#10
Benjamin T Carter, Steven G Luke
Eye movements are used to study a variety of cognitive phenomena, including attention, perception, memory, language, reading, decision making, and many others, as well as cognitive impairments and individual differences in cognition. These studies assume, with little evidence, that eye movements are stable across time and trials. Eye movement stability must be better characterized to understand the full theoretical and clinical implications of individual differences in eye movement behavior. The present study examined eye movement reliability in normal individuals during reading...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813817/the-effects-of-silent-visuomotor-cueing-on-word-retrieval-in-broca-s-aphasies-a-pilot-study
#11
Klaudia Grechuta, Belen Rubio Bellaster, Rosa Espin Munne, Teresa Usabiaga Bernal, Begona Molina Hervas, Rosa San Segundo, Paul F M J Verschure
About a quarter of stroke patients worldwide suffer serious language disorders such as aphasias. Most common symptoms of Broca's aphasia are word naming disorders which highly impact verbal communication and the quality of life of aphasic patients. In order to recover disturbances in word retrieval, several cueing methods (i.e. phonemic and semantic) have been established to improve lexical access establishing effective language rehabilitation techniques. Based on recent evidence from action-perception theories, which postulate that neural circuits for speech perception and articulation are tightly coupled, in the present work, we propose and investigate an alternative type of cueing using silent articulation-related visual stimuli...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812624/perceptive-costs-of-reproduction-drive-ageing-and-physiology-in-male-drosophila
#12
Zachary M Harvanek, Yang Lyu, Christi M Gendron, Jacob C Johnson, Shu Kondo, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life-history traits, including reproductive effort and ageing. Here, we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809716/structured-weak-semantic-space-construction-for-visual-categorization
#13
Chunjie Zhang, Jian Cheng, Qi Tian
Visual features have been widely used for image representation and categorization. However, visual features are often inconsistent with human perception. Besides, constructing explicit semantic space is still an open problem. To alleviate these two problems, in this paper, we propose to construct structured weak semantic space for image representation. Exemplar classifier is first trained to separate each training image from other images for weak semantic space construction. However, each exemplar classifier separates one training image from other images, and it only has limited semantic separability...
August 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808932/visual-attention-and-action-how-cueing-direct-mapping-and-social-interactions-drive-orienting
#14
REVIEW
Mark A Atkinson, Andrew A Simpson, Geoff G Cole
Despite considerable interest in both action perception and social attention over the last 2 decades, there has been surprisingly little investigation concerning how the manual actions of other humans orient visual attention. The present review draws together studies that have measured the orienting of attention, following observation of another's goal-directed action. Our review proposes that, in line with the literature on eye gaze, action is a particularly strong orienting cue for the visual system. However, we additionally suggest that action may orient visual attention using mechanisms, which gaze direction does not (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807872/cortical-representation-of-persistent-visual-stimuli
#15
Edden M Gerber, Tal Golan, Robert T Knight, Leon Y Deouell
Research into visual neural activity has focused almost exclusively on onset- or change-driven responses and little is known about how information is encoded in the brain during sustained periods of visual perception. We used intracranial recordings in humans to determine the degree to which the presence of a visual stimulus is persistently encoded by neural activity. The correspondence between stimulus duration and neural response duration was strongest in early visual cortex and gradually diminished along the visual hierarchy, such that is was weakest in inferior-temporal category-selective regions...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807648/not-all-visual-symmetry-is-equal-partially-distinct-neural-bases-for-vertical-and-horizontal-symmetry
#16
Zaira Cattaneo, Silvia Bona, Juha Silvanto
Visual mirror symmetry plays an important role in visual perception in both human and animal vision; its importance is reflected in the fact that it can be extracted automatically during early stages of visual processing. However, how this extraction is implemented at the cortical level remains an open question. Given the importance of symmetry in visual perception, one possibility is that there is a network which extracts all types of symmetry irrespective of axis of orientation; alternatively, symmetry along different axes might be encoded by different brain regions, implying that that there is no single neural mechanism for symmetry processing...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#17
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805504/neural-basis-of-altered-earlier-attention-and-higher-order-biological-motion-processing-in-schizophrenia
#18
Yukiko Matsumoto, Hideyuki Takahashi, Jun Miyata, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Schizophrenia patients have impairments of biological motion (BM) perception, which provides critical information about social cognition. Because social cognition is underpinned by attention, the impairments of BM perception in schizophrenia could be partially attributable to altered attention. To elucidate the impairments in attention and social perception in schizophrenia, we investigated the neural basis of impaired BM processing using MRI in respect to attention deficits by eye tracker. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to evaluate the relationship between BM perception and gray matter (GM) volume...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#19
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803529/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-incongruity-resolution-the-case-of-humor-comprehension
#20
Tagiru Nakamura, Tomoko Matsui, Akira Utsumi, Mika Yamazaki, Kai Makita, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato
A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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