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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467691/neural-correlates-of-facial-mimicry-simultaneous-measurements-of-emg-and-bold-responses-during-perception-of-dynamic-compared-to-static-facial-expressions
#1
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467495/representations-of-naturalistic-stimulus-complexity-in-early-and-associative-visual-and-auditory-cortices
#2
Yağmur Güçlütürk, Umut Güçlü, Marcel van Gerven, Rob van Lier
The complexity of sensory stimuli has an important role in perception and cognition. However, its neural representation is not well understood. Here, we characterize the representations of naturalistic visual and auditory stimulus complexity in early and associative visual and auditory cortices. This is realized by means of encoding and decoding analyses of two fMRI datasets in the visual and auditory modalities. Our results implicate most early and some associative sensory areas in representing the complexity of naturalistic sensory stimuli...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464819/mentalization-and-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-insula
#3
Carrie J McAdams, Jessica A Harper, Erin Van Enkevort
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an interpersonal attribution bias associated with self-perception, the externalizing bias, was related to neural activations during mentalization. METHODS: A functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving verbal appraisals measured neural activations when thinking about oneself and others in 59 adults, including healthy women as well as women with and recovered from anorexia nervosa. Whole-brain regressions correlated brain function during mentalization with the externalizing bias measured using the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459373/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-responding-to-injustice
#4
Mirre Stallen, Filippo Rossi, Amber Heijne, Ale Smidts, Carsten K W De Dreu, Alan G Sanfey
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified specific brain networks that are involved with both the perception of, and response to, social injustice, with reward-related regions preferentially involved in punishment compared to compensation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459372/detecting-unattended-stimuli-depends-on-the-phase-of-pre-stimulus-neural-oscillations
#5
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Neural oscillations appear important for perception and attention processes, as stimulus detection is dependent upon the phase of 7-11 Hz oscillations prior to stimulus onset. Previous work has examined stimulus detection at attended locations, but it is unknown whether unattended locations are also subject to phasic modulation by ongoing oscillatory activity, as would be predicted by theories proposing a role for neural oscillations in organizing general neural processing. Here we recorded brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG) while human participants of both sexes detected brief visual targets preceded by a spatial cue, and determined whether performance for cued (attended) and uncued (unattended) targets was influenced by oscillatory phase across a range of frequencies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459370/visual-working-memory-is-independent-of-the-cortical-spacing-between-memoranda
#6
William J Harrison, Paul M Bays
The sensory recruitment hypothesis states that visual short term memory is maintained in the same visual cortical areas that initially encode a stimulus' features. Although it is well established that the distance between features in visual cortex determines their visibility, a limitation known as crowding, it is unknown whether short term memory is similarly constrained by the cortical spacing of memory items. Here we investigated whether the cortical spacing between sequentially presented memoranda affects the fidelity of memory in humans (of both sexes)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456782/other-people-s-money-the-role-of-reciprocity-and-social-uncertainty-in-decisions-for-others
#7
Ivo Vlaev, Brian Wallace, Nicholas Wright, Antoinette Nicolle, Paul Dolan, Raymond Dolan
Many important decisions are taken not by the person who will ultimately gain or lose from the outcome, but on their behalf, by somebody else. We examined economic decision-making about risk and time in situations in which deciders chose for others who also chose for them. We propose that this unique setting, which has not been studied before, elicits perception of reciprocity that prompts a unique bias in preferences. We found that decision-makers are less patient (more discounting), and more risk averse for losses than gains, with other peoples' money, especially when their choices for others are more uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454231/influence-of-heading-perception-in-the-control-of-posture
#8
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Monica Perazzolo, Salvatore Squatrito
The optic flow visual input directly influences the postural control. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between visually induced heading perception and postural stability, using optic flow stimulation. The dots were accelerated to simulate a heading direction to the left or to the right of the vertical midline. The participants were instructed to indicate the perceived optic flow direction by making a saccade to the simulated heading direction. We simultaneously acquired electromyographyc and center of pressure (COP) signals...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449804/an-early-sensitive-period-induces-long-lasting-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-nervous-system
#9
Juan P Grosso, Jesica A Barneto, Rodrigo A Velarde, Eduardo A Pagano, Jorge A Zavala, Walter M Farina
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449017/why-do-hearing-aids-fail-to-restore-normal-auditory-perception
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas A Lesica
Hearing loss is a widespread condition that is linked to declines in quality of life and mental health. Hearing aids remain the treatment of choice, but, unfortunately, even state-of-the-art devices provide only limited benefit for the perception of speech in noisy environments. While traditionally viewed primarily as a loss of sensitivity, hearing loss is also known to cause complex distortions of sound-evoked neural activity that cannot be corrected by amplification alone. This Opinion article describes the effects of hearing loss on neural activity to illustrate the reasons why current hearing aids are insufficient and to motivate the use of new technologies to explore directions for improving the next generation of devices...
February 12, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#11
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444842/task-specific-sensory-coding-strategies-are-matched-to-detection-and-discrimination-performance
#12
K M Allen, G Marsat
The acquisition of sensory information is limited by the neural encoding method used, constraining perceptual abilities. The most relevant aspects of stimuli may change as behavioral context changes, making efficient encoding of information more challenging. Sensory systems must balance rapid detection of a stimulus with perception of fine details that enable discrimination between similar stimuli. We show that in a species of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus , two coding strategies are employed for these separate behavioral tasks...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441469/gaze-anchoring-guides-real-but-not-pantomime-reach-to-grasp-support-for-the-action-perception-theory
#13
Jessica R Kuntz, Jenni M Karl, Jon B Doan, Ian Q Whishaw
Reach-to-grasp movements feature the integration of a reach directed by the extrinsic (location) features of a target and a grasp directed by the intrinsic (size, shape) features of a target. The action-perception theory suggests that integration and scaling of a reach-to-grasp movement, including its trajectory and the concurrent digit shaping, are features that depend upon online action pathways of the dorsal visuomotor stream. Scaling is much less accurate for a pantomime reach-to-grasp movement, a pretend reach with the target object absent...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441362/the-coupling-between-auditory-and-motor-cortices-is-rate-restricted-evidence-for-an-intrinsic-speech-motor-rhythm
#14
M Florencia Assaneo, David Poeppel
The relation between perception and action remains a fundamental question for neuroscience. In the context of speech, existing data suggest an interaction between auditory and speech-motor cortices, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. We fill a basic gap in our understanding of the sensorimotor processing of speech by examining the synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions over different speech rates, a fundamental parameter delimiting successful perception. First, using magnetoencephalography, we measure synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions while participants listen to syllables at various rates...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441034/reduced-mu-power-in-response-to-unusual-actions-is-context-dependent-in-1-year-olds
#15
Miriam Langeloh, David Buttelmann, Daniel Matthes, Susanne Grassmann, Sabina Pauen, Stefanie Hoehl
During social interactions infants predict and evaluate other people's actions. Previous behavioral research found that infants' imitation of others' actions depends on these evaluations and is context-dependent: 1-year-olds predominantly imitated an unusual action (turning on a lamp with one's forehead) when the model's hands were free compared to when the model's hands were occupied or restrained. In the present study, we adapted this behavioral paradigm to a neurophysiological study measuring infants' brain activity while observing usual and unusual actions via electroencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436055/deep-recurrent-neural-network-reveals-a-hierarchy-of-process-memory-during-dynamic-natural-vision
#16
Junxing Shi, Haiguang Wen, Yizhen Zhang, Kuan Han, Zhongming Liu
The human visual cortex extracts both spatial and temporal visual features to support perception and guide behavior. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) provide a computational framework to model cortical representation and organization for spatial visual processing, but unable to explain how the brain processes temporal information. To overcome this limitation, we extended a CNN by adding recurrent connections to different layers of the CNN to allow spatial representations to be remembered and accumulated over time...
February 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432767/suppress-to-feel-and-remember-less-neural-correlates-of-explicit-and-implicit-emotional-suppression-on-perception-and-memory
#17
Yuta Katsumi, Sanda Dolcos
Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432110/the-cochlear-implant-eeg-artifact-recorded-from-an-artificial-brain-for-complex-acoustic-stimuli
#18
Luise Wagner, Natasha Maurits, Bert Maat, Deniz Baskent, Anita E Wagner
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings provide objective estimates of listeners' cortical processing of sounds and of the status of their speech perception system. For profoundly deaf listeners with cochlear implants (CIs), the applications of EEG are limited because the device adds electric artifacts to the recordings. This restricts the possibilities for the neural-based metrics of speech processing by CI users, for instance to gauge cortical reorganization due to individual's hearing loss history. This paper describes the characteristics of the CI artifact as recorded with an artificial head substitute, and reports how the artifact is affected by the properties of the acoustical input signal versus the settings of the device...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430753/reduced-low-frequency-power-and-phase-locking-reflect-restoration-in-the-auditory-continuity-illusion
#19
Mathis Kaiser, Daniel Senkowski, Yadira Roa Romero, Lars Riecke, Julian Keil
Interruptions in auditory input can be perceptually restored if they coincide with a masking sound, resulting in a continuity illusion. Previous studies have shown that this continuity illusion is associated with reduced low-frequency neural oscillations in the auditory cortex. However, the precise contribution of oscillatory amplitude changes and phase alignment to auditory restoration remains unclear. Using electroencephalography, we investigated induced power changes and phase locking in response to 3 Hz amplitude-modulated tones during the interval of an interrupting noise...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#20
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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