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Neural perception

Nathalie Van Humbeeck, Tom Putzeys, Johan Wagemans
Two stimuli alternately presented at different locations can evoke a percept of a stimulus continuously moving between the two locations. The neural mechanism underlying this apparent motion (AM) is thought to be increased activation of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons tuned to locations along the AM path, although evidence remains inconclusive. AM masking, which refers to the reduced detectability of stimuli along the AM path, has been taken as evidence for AM-related V1 activation. AM-induced neural responses are thought to interfere with responses to physical stimuli along the path and as such impair the perception of these stimuli...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Amedeo Minichino, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Giorgio Cruccu, Serena Piroso, Di Stefano Giulia, Marta Francesconi, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Massimo Biondi, Andrea Truini
OBJECTIVES: Overlapping neural system dysfunctions, mainly involving the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AIC), seem to be related to both pain-perception abnormalities and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) were used to investigate pain-perception and central pain-processing abnormalities in SCZ, bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and to evaluate their relationship with history of psychosis, and social-cognitive and functional impairments...
October 26, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Daniel M Bear, Jean-Marc Lassance, Hopi E Hoekstra, Sandeep Robert Datta
Evolution sculpts the olfactory nervous system in response to the unique sensory challenges facing each species. In vertebrates, dramatic and diverse adaptations to the chemical environment are possible because of the hierarchical structure of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene superfamily: expansion or contraction of OR subfamilies accompanies major changes in habitat and lifestyle; independent selection on OR subfamilies can permit local adaptation or conserved chemical communication; and genetic variation in single OR genes can alter odor percepts and behaviors driven by precise chemical cues...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ana Sánchez Azofra, Trilokesh D Kidambi, Rita J Jeremy, Peggy Conrad, Amie Blanco, Megan Myers, James Barkovich, Jonathan P Terdiman
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Tom A Hummer, K Luan Phan, David W Kern, Martha K McClintock
Evidence suggests the putative human pheromone Δ4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), a natural component of human sweat, increases attention to emotional information when passively inhaled, even in minute amounts. However, the neural mechanisms underlying androstadienone's impact on the perception of emotional stimuli have not been clarified. To characterize how the compound modifies neural circuitry while attending to emotional information, 22 subjects (11 women) underwent two fMRI scanning sessions, one with an androstadienone solution and one with a carrier control solution alone on their upper lip...
September 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder, Ingrid Harle, Onofre Moran-Mendoza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most common forms of interstitial lung disease, with a median survival time of two to five years. Most patients with IPF experience chronic breathlessness, which is closely linked to poor perceived quality of life and significant restriction of daily activities; therefore, effective management of this distressing symptom is a major goal of patient care. Areas covered: This report summarizes the physiology of IPF during rest and exercise, outlines current concepts of the mechanisms of breathlessness, and provides a physiological rationale for optimal management of individual patient...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Georgiana Juravle, Phillipp Reicherts, Mirjam Riechmann-Weinstein, Matthias J Wieser, Andreas von Leupoldt
Emotional processes have an impact on the anticipation and perception of bodily threat sensations, such as breathlessness. However, little is known about the reverse influence of breathlessness on emotional processes, as well as its modulation by anxiety sensitivity (AS). Here, we investigated by means of visually evoked potentials how the perception versus anticipation of resistive-load-induced breathlessness (RLIB) influences emotional processing. High (HA) and low anxious (LA) participants viewed pictures of positive, neutral, or negative content under conditions of perceived RLIB, anticipated RLIB, or an unloaded baseline...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Clarissa J Whitmire, Garrett B Stanley
Adaptation is fundamental to life. All organisms adapt over timescales that span from evolution to generations and lifetimes to moment-by-moment interactions. The nervous system is particularly adept at rapidly adapting to change, and this in fact may be one of its fundamental principles of organization and function. Rapid forms of sensory adaptation have been well documented across all sensory modalities in a wide range of organisms, yet we do not have a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive cellular mechanisms that ultimately give rise to the corresponding percepts, due in part to the complexity of the circuitry...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Xiao Gao, Xiao Deng, Xin Wen, Ying She, Petra Corianne Vinke, Hong Chen
Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20...
2016: PloS One
Richard A Normann, Eduardo Fernandez
This paper briefly describes some of the recent progress in the development of penetrating microelectrode arrays and highlights the use of two of these devices, Utah electrode arrays and Utah slanted electrode arrays, in two therapeutic interventions: recording volitional skeletal motor commands from the central nervous system, and recording motor commands and evoking somatosensory percepts in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The paper also briefly explores other potential sites for microelectrode array interventions that could be profitably pursued and that could have important consequences in enhancing the quality of life of patients that has been compromised by disorders of the central and PNSs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tetsuya Iidaka
Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Kevin C Dieter, Jocelyn L Sy, Randolph Blake
Normal binocular vision emerges from the combination of neural signals arising within separate monocular pathways. It is natural to wonder whether both eyes contribute equally to the unified cyclopean impression we ordinarily experience. Binocular rivalry, which occurs when the inputs to the two eyes are markedly different, affords a useful means for quantifying the balance of influence exerted by the eyes (called sensory eye dominance, SED) and for relating that degree of balance to other aspects of binocular visual function...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
David P McGovern, Kevin S Walsh, Jason Bell, Fiona N Newell
Both spatial and temporal context influence our perception of visual stimuli. For instance, both nearby moving stimuli and recently viewed motion can lead to biases in the perceived direction of a moving stimulus. Due to similarities in the spatial tuning properties of these spatial and temporal context-dependent effects, it is often assumed that they share a functional goal in motion processing and arise from common neural mechanisms. However, the psychophysical evidence concerning this assumption is inconsistent...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Katherine K M Stavropoulos, Michaela Viktorinova, Adam Naples, Jennifer Foss-Feig, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: Difficulty with emotion perception is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is also associated with the broader autism phenotype. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the neural underpinnings of conscious and non-conscious perceptions of affect in typically developing individuals with varying levels of autistic-like traits, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ). We investigated the relationship between autistic traits and face processing efficiency using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
William C Scott, Christopher K Giardina, Andrew K Pappa, Tatyana E Fontenot, Meredith L Anderson, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown, Harold C Pillsbury, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
HYPOTHESIS: The compound action potential (CAP) is a purely neural component of the cochlea's response to sound, and may provide information regarding the existing neural substrate in cochlear implant (CI) subjects that can help account for variance in speech perception outcomes. BACKGROUND: Measurement of the "total response" (TR), or sum of the magnitudes of spectral components in the ongoing responses to tone bursts across frequencies, has been shown to account for 40 to 50% of variance in speech perception outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
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