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Neural perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219748/symmetric-objects-become-special-in-perception-because-of-generic-computations-in-neurons
#1
R T Pramod, S P Arun
Symmetry is a salient visual property: It is easy to detect and influences perceptual phenomena from segmentation to recognition. Yet researchers know little about its neural basis. Using recordings from single neurons in monkey IT cortex, we asked whether symmetry-being an emergent property-induces nonlinear interactions between object parts. Remarkably, we found no such deviation: Whole-object responses were always the sum of responses to the object's parts, regardless of symmetry. The only defining characteristic of symmetric objects was that they were more distinctive compared with asymmetric objects...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214391/stroking-and-tapping-the-skin-behavioral-and-electrodermal-effects
#2
Roberta Etzi, Carlotta Carta, Alberto Gallace
Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213134/anticipated-moments-temporal-structure-in-attention
#3
REVIEW
Anna C Nobre, Freek van Ede
We have come to recognize the brain as a predictive organ, anticipating attributes of the incoming sensory stimulation to guide perception and action in the service of adaptive behaviour. In the quest to understand the neural bases of the modulatory prospective signals that prioritize and select relevant events during perception, one fundamental dimension has until recently been largely overlooked: time. In this Review, we introduce the burgeoning field of temporal attention and illustrate how the brain makes use of various forms of temporal regularities in the environment to guide adaptive behaviour and influence neural processing...
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213104/musical-imagery-involves-wernicke-s-area-in-bilateral-and-anti-correlated-network-interactions-in-musicians
#4
Yizhen Zhang, Gang Chen, Haiguang Wen, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu
Musical imagery is the human experience of imagining music without actually hearing it. The neural basis of this mental ability is unclear, especially for musicians capable of engaging in accurate and vivid musical imagery. Here, we created a visualization of an 8-minute symphony as a silent movie and used it as real-time cue for musicians to continuously imagine the music for repeated and synchronized sessions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The activations and networks evoked by musical imagery were compared with those elicited by the subjects directly listening to the same music...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212918/the-influence-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-on-eeg-omega-complexity-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#5
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Using behavioral measures and ERP technique, researchers discovered at least two factors could influence the final perception of depth in Panum's limiting case, which are the vertical disparity gradient and the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. Although certain ERP components have been proved to be sensitive to the different levels of these two factors, some methodological limitations existed in this technique. In this study, we proposed that the omega complexity of EEG signal may serve as an important supplement of the traditional ERP technique...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209204/reward-circuitry-plasticity-in-pain-perception-and-modulation
#7
REVIEW
Marcos F DosSantos, Brenda de Souza Moura, Alexandre F DaSilva
Although pain is a widely known phenomenon and an important clinical symptom that occurs in numerous diseases, its mechanisms are still barely understood. Owing to the scarce information concerning its pathophysiology, particularly what is involved in the transition from an acute state to a chronic condition, pain treatment is frequently unsatisfactory, therefore contributing to the amplification of the chronic pain burden. In fact, pain is an extremely complex experience that demands the recruitment of an intricate set of central nervous system components...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205618/different-responses-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-related-alpha-activity-to-ambient-luminance-changes
#8
Alessandro Benedetto, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Rufin VanRullen
Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203678/multiple-oscillatory-rhythms-determine-the-temporal-organization-of-perception
#9
Luca Ronconi, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Claudia Bonmassar, David Melcher
Incoming sensory input is condensed by our perceptual system to optimally represent and store information. In the temporal domain, this process has been described in terms of temporal windows (TWs) of integration/segregation, in which the phase of ongoing neural oscillations determines whether two stimuli are integrated into a single percept or segregated into separate events. However, TWs can vary substantially, raising the question of whether different TWs map onto unique oscillations or, rather, reflect a single, general fluctuation in cortical excitability (e...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203121/using-a-memory-systems-lens-to-view-the-effects-of-estrogens-on-cognition-implications-for-human-health
#10
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202845/robotic-assisted-gait-as-a-tool-for-rehabilitation-of-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Ledycnarf J Holanda, Patrícia M M Silva, Thiago C Amorim, Matheus O Lacerda, Camila R Simão, Edgard Morya
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a total or partial deficit of sensory and motor pathways. Impairments of this injury compromise muscle recruitment and motor planning, thus reducing functional capacity. SCI patients commonly present psychological, intestinal, urinary, osteomioarticular, tegumentary, cardiorespiratory and neural alterations that aggravate in chronic phase. One of the neurorehabilitation goals is the restoration of these abilities by favoring improvement in the quality of life and functional independence...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202824/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-enhances-human-temporal-discrimination-ability
#12
Fuyuki Oyama, Keita Ishibashi, Koichi Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: Time perception associated with durations from 1 s to several minutes involves activity in the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). It is unclear whether altering the activity of the rPPC affects an individual's timing performance. Here, we investigated the human timing performance under the application of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the rPPC. METHODS: We measured the participants' duration-discrimination threshold by administering a behavioral task during the tDCS application...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199846/re-examining-the-influence-of-attention-and-consciousness-on-visual-afterimage-duration
#13
Susan L Travis, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
The relationship between visual attention and conscious perception has been the subject of debate across a number of fields, including philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience. Whereas some researchers view attention and awareness as inextricably linked, others propose that the two are supported by distinct neural mechanisms that can be fully dissociated. In a pioneering study, van Boxtel, Tsuchiya, and Koch (2010b) reported evidence for a dissociation between attention and conscious perception using a perceptual adaptation task in which participants' perceptual awareness and visual attention were manipulated independently...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194577/cerebral-cortex-development-an-outside-in-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Gulistan Agirman, Loic Broix, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex is a complex structure that contains different classes of neurons distributed within six layers and regionally organized into a highly specialized area. Cortical layering arises during embryonic development in an inside-out manner as forebrain progenitors proliferate and generate distinct waves of interneurons and projection neurons. Radial glial cells (RGCs) derive from neuroepithelial cells and are the founding cortical progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, RGCs expand their pool by proliferative divisions...
November 30, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193423/assessing-body-awareness-and-autonomic-reactivity-factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-body-perception-questionnaire-short-form-bpq-sf
#15
Ana Cabrera, Jacek Kolacz, Guillem Pailhez, Andrea Bulbena-Cabre, Antonio Bulbena, Stephen W Porges
Body awareness and reactivity dysfunction are characteristic of a range of psychiatric disorders. Although the neural pathways communicating between the body and brain that contribute to these experiences involve the autonomic nervous system, few research tools for studying subjective bodily experiences have been informed by these neural circuits. This paper describes the factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity of the Body Awareness and Autonomic Reactivity subscales of the Body Perception Questionnaire-Short Form (BPQ-SF)...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191479/the-spatiotemporal-pattern-of-pure-tone-processing-a-single-trial-eeg-fmri-study
#16
Qiang Li, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Jing Guo, Guangjie Yuan, Shifu Wu
Although considerable research has been published on pure tone processing, its spatiotemporal pattern is not well understood. Specifically, the link between neural activity in the auditory pathway measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) markers of pure tone processing in the P1, N1, P2, and N4 components is not well established. In this study, we used single-trial EEG-fMRI as a multi-modal fusion approach to integrate concurrently acquired EEG and fMRI data, in order to understand the spatial and temporal aspects of the pure tone processing pathway...
November 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190334/the-ventral-posterior-lateral-thalamus-preferentially-encodes-externally-applied-versus-active-movement-implications-for-self-motion-perception
#17
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189635/when-the-body-becomes-no-more-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-the-neural-correlates-of-scrambled-versus-intact-sexualized-bodies
#18
Philippe Bernard, Joanne Content, Paul Deltenre, Cécile Colin
Recent research found that configural information is less important for the processing of sexualized bodies than for the processing of nonsexualized bodies. The present investigation aims to expand these findings by directly manipulating configural versus analytic processing of sexualized and nonsexualized bodies. We posited that disrupting first-order relational information through scrambling should be associated with larger N170 amplitudes (scrambling effect) for nonsexualized bodies, whereas the scrambling manipulation should not modulate N170 amplitudes associated with sexualized bodies and objects...
November 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184491/computational-and-experimental-approaches-to-visual-aesthetics
#19
REVIEW
Anselm Brachmann, Christoph Redies
Aesthetics has been the subject of long-standing debates by philosophers and psychologists alike. In psychology, it is generally agreed that aesthetic experience results from an interaction between perception, cognition, and emotion. By experimental means, this triad has been studied in the field of experimental aesthetics, which aims to gain a better understanding of how aesthetic experience relates to fundamental principles of human visual perception and brain processes. Recently, researchers in computer vision have also gained interest in the topic, giving rise to the field of computational aesthetics...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184478/visual-prosthesis-interfacing-stimulating-electrodes-with-retinal-neurons-to-restore-vision
#20
REVIEW
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Lilach Bareket, Josef Goding, Ulises A Aregueta-Robles, Gregg J Suaning
The bypassing of degenerated photoreceptors using retinal neurostimulators is helping the blind to recover functional vision. Researchers are investigating new ways to improve visual percepts elicited by these means as the vision produced by these early devices remain rudimentary. However, several factors are hampering the progression of bionic technologies: the charge injection limits of metallic electrodes, the mechanical mismatch between excitable tissue and the stimulating elements, neural and electric crosstalk, the physical size of the implanted devices, and the inability to selectively activate different types of retinal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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