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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675841/early-life-conditions-that-impact-song-learning-in-male-zebra-finches-also-impact-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-song-in-females
#1
Kendra B Sewall, Rindy C Anderson, Jill A Soha, Susan Peters, Stephen Nowicki
Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674235/deep-embedding-convolutional-neural-network-for-synthesizing-ct-image-from-t1-weighted-mr-image
#2
Lei Xiang, Qian Wang, Dong Nie, Lichi Zhang, Xiyao Jin, Yu Qiao, Dinggang Shen
Recently, more and more attention is drawn to the field of medical image synthesis across modalities. Among them, the synthesis of computed tomography (CT) image from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image is of great importance, although the mapping between them is highly complex due to large gaps of appearances of the two modalities. In this work, we aim to tackle this MR-to-CT synthesis task by a novel deep embedding convolutional neural network (DECNN). Specifically, we generate the feature maps from MR images, and then transform these feature maps forward through convolutional layers in the network...
March 30, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670552/computational-approach-to-musical-consonance-and-dissonance
#3
Lluis L Trulla, Nicola Di Stefano, Alessandro Giuliani
In sixth century BC, Pythagoras discovered the mathematical foundation of musical consonance and dissonance. When auditory frequencies in small-integer ratios are combined, the result is a harmonious perception. In contrast, most frequency combinations result in audible, off-centered by-products labeled "beating" or "roughness;" these are reported by most listeners to sound dissonant. In this paper, we consider second-order beats, a kind of beating recognized as a product of neural processing, and demonstrate that the data-driven approach of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) allows for the reconstruction of the order in which interval ratios are ranked in music theory and harmony...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670188/assessing-the-quality-of-supplementary-sensory-feedback-using-the-crossmodal-congruency-task
#4
Daniel Blustein, Adam Wilson, Jon Sensinger
Advanced neural interfaces show promise in making prosthetic limbs more biomimetic and ultimately more intuitive and useful for patients. However, approaches to assess these emerging technologies are limited in scope and the insight they provide. When outfitting a prosthesis with a feedback system, such as a peripheral nerve interface, it would be helpful to quantify its physiological correspondence, i.e. how well the prosthesis feedback mimics the perceived feedback in an intact limb. Here we present an approach to quantify this aspect of feedback quality using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) task...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668394/it-s-the-other-way-around-early-modulation-of-sensory-distractor-processing-induced-by-late-response-conflict
#5
Bernhard Pastötter, Christian Frings
Understanding the neural processes that maintain goal-directed behavior is a major challenge for the study of attentional control. Although much of the previous work on the issue has focused on prefrontal brain areas, little is known about the contribution of sensory brain processes to the regulation of attentional control. The present EEG study examined brain oscillatory activities invoked in the processing of response conflict in a lateralized Eriksen single-flanker task, in which target letters were presented at fixation and single distractor letters were presented either left or right to the targets...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668392/recognizing-facial-slivers
#6
Sharon Gilad-Gutnick, Elia Samuel Harmatz, Kleovoulos Tsourides, Galit Yovel, Pawan Sinha
We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human participants ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666600/the-temporal-prediction-of-stress-in-speech-and-its-relation-to-musical-beat-perception
#7
REVIEW
Eleonora J Beier, Fernanda Ferreira
While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666593/interaction-in-spoken-word-recognition-models-feedback-helps
#8
James S Magnuson, Daniel Mirman, Sahil Luthra, Ted Strauss, Harlan D Harris
Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666566/-enheduanna-a-manifesto-of-falling-live-brain-computer-cinema-performance-performer-and-audience-participation-cognition-and-emotional-engagement-using-multi-brain-bci-interaction
#9
Polina Zioga, Frank Pollick, Minhua Ma, Paul Chapman, Kristian Stefanov
The fields of neural prosthetic technologies and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have witnessed in the past 15 years an unprecedented development, bringing together theories and methods from different scientific fields, digital media, and the arts. More in particular, artists have been amongst the pioneers of the design of relevant applications since their emergence in the 1960s, pushing the boundaries of applications in real-life contexts. With the new research, advancements, and since 2007, the new low-cost commercial-grade wireless devices, there is a new increasing number of computer games, interactive installations, and performances that involve the use of these interfaces, combining scientific, and creative methodologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662447/neural-mechanisms-underlying-time-perception-and-reward-anticipation
#10
Nihal Apaydın, Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, İpek Çelikağ, Halise D Özgüven, Bora Baskak, Metehan Çiçek
Findings suggest that the physiological mechanisms involved in the reward anticipation and time perception partially overlap. But the systematic investigation of a potential interaction between time and reward systems using neuroimaging is lacking. Eighteen healthy volunteers (all right-handed) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that employs a visual paradigm that consists monetary reward to assess whether the functional neural representations of time perception and reward prospection are shared or distinct...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657069/not-all-errors-are-the-same-erp-sensitivity-to-error-typicality-in-foreign-accented-speech-perception
#11
Sendy Caffarra, Clara D Martin
Intercultural communication has become more and more frequent in the recent globalized society. When native listeners try to understand non-native speakers, they have to deal with different types of grammatical errors, some being frequently encountered and others being less common. Event-Related Potential technique (ERP) The present Event-Related Potential (ERP) study investigated how native listeners process different types of morphosyntactic errors in foreign accented speech and whether they are sensitive to error typicality...
March 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655940/audio-visual-speech-processing-in-age-related-hearing-loss-stronger-integration-and-increased-frontal-lobe-recruitment
#12
Stephanie Rosemann, Christiane M Thiel
Hearing loss is associated with difficulties in understanding speech, especially under adverse listening conditions. In these situations, seeing the speaker improves speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired participants. On the neuronal level, previous research has shown cross-modal plastic reorganization in the auditory cortex following hearing loss leading to altered processing of auditory, visual and audio-visual information. However, how reduced auditory input effects audio-visual speech perception in hearing-impaired subjects is largely unknown...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650304/the-design-and-validation-of-a-hybrid-digital-signal-processing-plug-in-for-traditional-cochlear-implant-speech-processors
#13
Fatemeh Hajiaghababa, Hamid R Marateb, Saeed Kermani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649048/improved-speech-perception-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-interleaved-high-rate-pulse-trains
#14
Christina L Runge, Fang Du, Yi Hu
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation with a cochlear implant (CI) elicits abnormally high neural synchrony, which poses significant challenges for speech perception. Previous investigations showed that constant-amplitude high-rate pulse trains (HRPs) desynchronize neural responses and improve stimulus encoding. The study objective was to investigate the effects of HRP on speech perception in adult CI users. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, within-subject design. SETTING: Tertiary CI center...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642425/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-are-positively-associated-with-visual-spatial-functioning-in-older-adults-an-fmri-study
#15
Catherine M Mewborn, Cutter A Lindbergh, Talia L Robinson, Marissa A Gogniat, Douglas P Terry, Kharine R Jean, Billy Randy Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Lloyd Stephen Miller
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two xanthophyll carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous work has demonstrated their importance for eye health and preventing diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. An emerging literature base has also demonstrated the importance of L and Z in cognition, neural structure, and neural efficiency. The present study aimed to better understand the mechanisms by which L and Z relate to cognition, in particular, visual-spatial processing and decision-making in older adults...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627584/motor-facilitation-during-observation-of-implied-motion-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Ludovico Mineo, Alexander Fetterman, Carmen Concerto, Michael Warren, Carmenrita Infortuna, David Freedberg, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
The phenomenon of motor resonance (the increase in motor cortex excitability during observation of actions) has been previously described. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated a similar effect during perception of implied motion (IM). The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be activated during action observation. Furthermore, the role of this brain area in motor resonance to IM is yet to be investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate DLPFC aiming to investigate whether stimulation with different polarities would affect the amplitude of motor evoked potential collected during observation of images with and without IM...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626609/homozygous-lamc3-mutation-links-to-structural-and-functional-changes-in-visual-attention-networks
#17
REVIEW
Buse M Urgen, Yasemin Topac, F Seyhun Ustun, Pinar Demirayak, Kader K Oguz, Tulay Kansu, Serap Saygi, Tayfun Ozcelik, Huseyin Boyaci, Katja Doerschner
The occipital lobe contains a substantial part of the neural machinery involved in visual perception. Mutations in the LAMC3 gene have recently been shown to cause complex bilateral occipital cortical gyration abnormalities. However, to what extent these structural changes impact visual behavior is not known. We recorded responses for two screening test batteries targeting visual function (Leuven - Perceptual Organization Screening Test, Cortical Vision Screening Test) and measured eye fixation performance in a visual attention experiment from a patient with homozygous LAMC3 gene mutation...
April 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624619/time-estimation-and-beta-segregation-an-eeg-study-and-graph-theoretical-approach
#18
Amir Hossein Ghaderi, Shadi Moradkhani, Arvin Haghighatfard, Fatemeh Akrami, Zahra Khayyer, Fuat Balcı
Elucidation of the neural correlates of time perception constitutes an important research topic in cognitive neuroscience. The focus to date has been on durations in the millisecond to seconds range, but here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine brain functional connectivity during much longer durations (i.e., 15 min). For this purpose, we conducted an initial exploratory experiment followed by a confirmatory experiment. Our results showed that those participants who overestimated time exhibited lower activity of beta (18-30 Hz) at several electrode sites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624116/evaluation-of-congo-red-staining-in-degenerating-porcine-photoreceptors-in-vitro-protective-effects-by-structural-and-trophic-support
#19
Camilla Mohlin, Dick Delbro, Anders Kvanta, Kjell Johansson
Congo red (CR) is a histological stain used for the detection of extracellular amyloids mediating various neurodegenerative diseases. Given that damaged photoreceptors appear to degenerate similarly to other nerve cells, CR staining was evaluated in experimentally injured porcine retina. CR staining appeared mostly as discrete cytosolic deposits with no obvious plaque formation during the investigated time period. Increases of CR labeling coincided temporally with the known accumulation of mislocalized opsins and increases of cell death...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623054/the-duration-of-auditory-sensory-memory-for-vowel-processing-neurophysiological-and-behavioral-measures
#20
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Speech perception behavioral research suggests that rates of sensory memory decay are dependent on stimulus properties at more than one level (e.g., acoustic level, phonemic level). The neurophysiology of sensory memory decay rate has rarely been examined in the context of speech processing. In a lexical tone study, we showed that long-term memory representation of lexical tone slows the decay rate of sensory memory for these tones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term memory representation of vowels slows the rate of auditory sensory memory decay in a similar way to that of lexical tone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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