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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106139/spatio-temporal-tolerance-of-visuo-tactile-illusions-in-artificial-skin-by-recurrent-neural-network-with-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#1
Alexandre Pitti, Ganna Pugach, Philippe Gaussier, Sotaro Shimada
Perceptual illusions across multiple modalities, such as the rubber-hand illusion, show how dynamic the brain is at adapting its body image and at determining what is part of it (the self) and what is not (others). Several research studies showed that redundancy and contingency among sensory signals are essential for perception of the illusion and that a lag of 200-300 ms is the critical limit of the brain to represent one's own body. In an experimental setup with an artificial skin, we replicate the visuo-tactile illusion within artificial neural networks...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#2
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#3
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#4
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097054/hydrogel-scaffolds-promote-neural-gene-expression-and-structural-reorganization-in-human-astrocyte-cultures
#5
V Bleu Knight, Elba E Serrano
Biomaterial scaffolds have the potential to enhance neuronal development and regeneration. Understanding the genetic responses of astrocytes and neurons to biomaterials could facilitate the development of synthetic environments that enable the specification of neural tissue organization with engineered scaffolds. In this study, we used high throughput transcriptomic and imaging methods to determine the impact of a hydrogel, PuraMatrix™, on human glial cells in vitro. Parallel studies were undertaken with cells grown in a monolayer environment on tissue culture polystyrene...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096408/rhythm-judgments-reveal-a-frequency-asymmetry-in-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound-synchrony
#6
Magdalena Wojtczak, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
In modern Western music, melody is commonly conveyed by pitch changes in the highest-register voice, whereas meter or rhythm is often carried by instruments with lower pitches. An intriguing and recently suggested possibility is that the custom of assigning rhythmic functions to lower-pitch instruments may have emerged because of fundamental properties of the auditory system that result in superior time encoding for low pitches. Here we compare rhythm and synchrony perception between low- and high-frequency tones, using both behavioral and EEG techniques...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#7
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds - e.g. a baby's cry - can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089606/parasacral-transcutaneous-electrical-neural-stimulation-ptens-once-a-week-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-in-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lidyanne Ilidia da Silva de Paula, Liliana Fajardo de Oliveira, Brysa Paiva Cruz, Dayana Maria de Oliveira, Laís Maini Miranda, Mauro de Moraes Ribeiro, Raphaela Ornellas Duque, André Avarese de Figueiredo, José de Bessa, José Murillo Bastos Netto
INTRODUCTION: Overactive bladder (OAB) is the most prevalent voiding disorder in childhood, and its main manifestation is urinary urgency. In general, urotherapy and anticholinergics are the first choices of treatment. Parasacral Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation (PTENS) was introduced as an alternative for the treatment of detrusor overactivity in children, but treatment protocols described to date require several sessions per week or long-lasting sessions, making it difficult for the child to adhere to the treatment...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081196/how-social-ties-influence-consumer-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#10
Jing Luan, Zhong Yao, Yan Bai
A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080973/changes-in-interoceptive-processes-following-brain-stimulation
#11
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Sandra Mai, Thomas Kammer
The processing and perception of individual internal bodily signals (interoception) has been differentiated to comprise different levels and processes involved. The so-called heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) offers an additional possibility to examine automatic processing of cardiac signals. Knowledge on neural structures potentially supporting different facets of interoception is still sparse. One way to get insights into neuroanatomical function is to manipulate the activity of different brain structures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080962/-bodily-precision-a-predictive-coding-account-of-individual-differences-in-interoceptive-accuracy
#12
REVIEW
Vivien Ainley, Matthew A J Apps, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Manos Tsakiris
Individuals differ in their awareness of afferent information from within their bodies, which is typically assessed by a heartbeat perception measure of 'interoceptive accuracy' (IAcc). Neural and behavioural correlates of this trait have been investigated, but a theoretical explanation has yet to be presented. Building on recent models that describe interoception within the free energy/predictive coding framework, this paper applies similar principles to IAcc, proposing that individual differences in IAcc depend on 'precision' in interoceptive systems, i...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080124/statistical-learning-of-parts-and-wholes-a-neural-network-approach
#13
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079187/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-3d-perception-for-event-based-neuromorphic-stereo-vision-systems
#14
Marc Osswald, Sio-Hoi Ieng, Ryad Benosman, Giacomo Indiveri
Stereo vision is an important feature that enables machine vision systems to perceive their environment in 3D. While machine vision has spawned a variety of software algorithms to solve the stereo-correspondence problem, their implementation and integration in small, fast, and efficient hardware vision systems remains a difficult challenge. Recent advances made in neuromorphic engineering offer a possible solution to this problem, with the use of a new class of event-based vision sensors and neural processing devices inspired by the organizing principles of the brain...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077668/auditory-adaptation-improves-tactile-frequency-perception
#15
Lexi E Crommett, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Jeffrey M Yau
Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals shape tactile processing is unclear: perceptual interactions between contemporaneous sounds and vibrations are consistent with multiple neural mechanisms. Here we used a crossmodal adaptation paradigm, which separated auditory and tactile stimulation in time, to test the hypothesis that tactile frequency perception depends on neural circuits that also process auditory frequency...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073940/vividness-of-visual-imagery-depends-on-the-neural-overlap-with-perception-in-visual-areas
#16
Nadine Dijkstra, Sander Bosch, Marcel A J van Gerven
: Research into the neural correlates of individual differences in imagery vividness point to an important role of the early visual cortex. However, there is also great fluctuation of vividness within individuals, such that only looking at differences between people necessarily obscures the picture. In this study we show that variation in moment-to-moment experienced vividness of visual imagery, within human subjects, depends on the activity of a large network of brain areas, including frontal, parietal and visual areas...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073936/human-exploration-of-enclosed-spaces-through-echolocation
#17
Virginia L Flanagin, Sven Schörnich, Michael Schranner, Nadine Hummel, Ludwig Wallmeier, Magnus Wahlberg, Thomas Stephan, Lutz Wiegrebe
: Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071765/neural-codes-of-seeing-architectural-styles
#18
Heeyoung Choo, Jack L Nasar, Bardia Nikrahei, Dirk B Walther
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071712/independent-aftereffects-of-fat-and-muscle-implications-for-neural-encoding-body-space-representation-and-body-image-disturbance
#19
Daniel Sturman, Ian D Stephen, Jonathan Mond, Richard J Stevenson, Kevin R Brooks
Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070928/convergent-gustatory-and-viscerosensory-processing-in-the-human-dorsal-mid-insula
#20
Jason A Avery, Stephen J Gotts, Kara L Kerr, Kaiping Burrows, John E Ingeholm, Jerzy Bodurka, Alex Martin, W Kyle Simmons
The homeostatic regulation of feeding behavior requires an organism to be able to integrate information from its internal environment, including peripheral visceral signals about the body's current energy needs, with information from its external environment, such as the palatability of energy-rich food stimuli. The insula, which serves as the brain's primary sensory cortex for representing both visceral signals from the body and taste signals from the mouth and tongue, is a likely candidate region in which this integration might occur...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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