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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#1
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210237/perception-science-in-the-age-of-deep-neural-networks
#2
EDITORIAL
Rufin VanRullen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208069/neural-activity-during-production-of-rorschach-responses-an-fmri-study
#3
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207899/human-cortical-neural-correlates-of-visual-fatigue-during-binocular-depth-perception-an-fnirs-study
#4
Tingting Cai, Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Shijing Wu, Xinge Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°). By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO) responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS) were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#5
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203219/toward-a-dynamic-probabilistic-model-for-vestibular-cognition
#6
Andrew W Ellis, Fred W Mast
We suggest that research in vestibular cognition will benefit from the theoretical framework of probabilistic models. This will aid in developing an understanding of how interactions between high-level cognition and low-level sensory processing might occur. Many such interactions have been shown experimentally; however, to date, no attempt has been made to systematically explore vestibular cognition by using computational modeling. It is widely assumed that mental imagery and perception share at least in part neural circuitry, and it has been proposed that mental simulation is closely connected to the brain's ability to make predictions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202735/a-higher-order-theory-of-emotional-consciousness
#7
Joseph E LeDoux, Richard Brown
Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202254/robust-interactions-between-the-effects-of-auditory-and-cutaneous-electrical-stimulations-on-cell-activities-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#8
Akihisa Kimura
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our every day life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014)...
February 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#9
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197836/does-direction-of-walking-impact-binocular-rivalry-between-competing-patterns-of-optic-flow
#10
Richard Paris, Bobby Bodenheimer, Randolph Blake
When dissimilar monocular images are viewed simultaneously by the two eyes, stable binocular vision gives way to unstable vision characterized by alternations in dominance between the two images in a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. These alternations in perception reveal the existence of inhibitory interactions between neural representations associated with conflicting visual inputs. Binocular rivalry has been studied since the days of Wheatstone, but one recent strategy is to investigate its susceptibility to influences caused by one's own motor activity...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195556/how-neuroscience-can-inform-the-study-of-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities
#11
Dennis J McFarland
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195526/regulating-the-access-to-awareness-brain-activity-related-to-probe-related-and-spontaneous-reversals-in-binocular-rivalry
#12
Brian A Metzger, Kyle E Mathewson, Evelina Tapia, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton, Diane M Beck
Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195521/a-computational-model-of-perceptual-and-mnemonic-deficits-in-medial-temporal-lobe-amnesia
#13
Patrick S Sadil, Rosemary A Cowell
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195520/creating-colored-letters-familial-markers-of-grapheme-color-synesthesia-in-parietal-lobe-activation-and-structure
#14
Olympia Colizoli, Jaap M J Murre, H Steven Scholte, Romke Rouw
Perception is inherently subjective, and individual differences in phenomenology are well illustrated by the phenomenon of synesthesia (highly specific, consistent, and automatic cross-modal experiences, in which the external stimulus corresponding to the additional sensation is absent). It is unknown why some people develop synesthesia and others do not. In the current study, we tested whether neural markers related to having synesthesia in the family were evident in brain function and structure. Relatives of synesthetes (who did not have any type of synesthesia themselves) and matched controls read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned before and after reading using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#15
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195019/do-you-see-the-forest-or-the-tree-neural-gain-and-breadth-versus-focus-in-perceptual-processing
#16
Eran Eldar, Yael Niv, Jonathan D Cohen
When perceiving rich sensory information, some people may integrate its various aspects, whereas other people may selectively focus on its most salient aspects. We propose that neural gain modulates the trade-off between breadth and selectivity, such that high gain focuses perception on those aspects of the information that have the strongest, most immediate influence, whereas low gain allows broader integration of different aspects. We illustrate our hypothesis using a neural-network model of ambiguous-letter perception...
December 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190731/early-binocular-input-is-critical-for-development-of-audiovisual-but-not-visuotactile-simultaneity-perception
#17
Yi-Chuan Chen, Terri L Lewis, David I Shore, Daphne Maurer
Temporal simultaneity provides an essential cue for integrating multisensory signals into a unified perception. Early visual deprivation, in both animals and humans, leads to abnormal neural responses to audiovisual signals in subcortical and cortical areas [1-5]. Behavioral deficits in integrating complex audiovisual stimuli in humans are also observed [6, 7]. It remains unclear whether early visual deprivation affects visuotactile perception similarly to audiovisual perception and whether the consequences for either pairing differ after monocular versus binocular deprivation [8-11]...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188629/orthogonal-topography-in-the-parallel-input-architecture-of-songbird-hvc
#18
Kevin C Elliott, Wei Wu, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson, Frank Johnson
Neural activity within the cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) encodes the learned songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC activity is driven and/or modulated by a group of five afferent nuclei (the Medial Magnocellular nucleus of the Anterior Nidopallium, MMAN; Nucleus Interface, NIf; nucleus Avalanche, Av; the Robust nucleus of the Arcopallium, RA; the Uvaeform nucleus, Uva). While earlier evidence suggested that HVC receives a uniformly distributed and non-topographic pattern of afferent input, recent evidence suggests this view is incorrect (Basista et al...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187892/interactive-radiographic-image-retrieval-system
#19
Malay Kumar Kundu, Manish Chowdhury, Sudeb Das
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Content based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems enable fast diagnosis through quantitative assessment of the visual information and is an active research topic over the past few decades. Most of the state-of-the-art CBMIR systems suffer from various problems: computationally expensive due to the usage of high dimensional feature vectors and complex classifier/clustering schemes. Inability to properly handle the "semantic gap" and the high intra-class versus inter-class variability problem of the medical image database (like radiographic image database)...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185950/can-responses-to-basic-non-numerical-visual-features-explain-neural-numerosity-responses
#20
Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
Humans and many animals can distinguish between stimuli that differ in numerosity, the number of objects in a set. Human and macaque parietal lobes contain neurons that respond to changes in stimulus numerosity. However, basic non-numerical visual features can affect neural responses to and perception of numerosity, and visual features often co-vary with numerosity. Therefore, it is debated whether numerosity or co-varying low-level visual features underlie neural and behavioral responses to numerosity. To test the hypothesis that non-numerical visual features underlie neural numerosity responses in a human parietal numerosity map, we analyze responses to a group of numerosity stimulus configurations that have the same numerosity progression but vary considerably in their non-numerical visual features...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
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