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Neural perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647484/neural-representation-of-geometry-and-surface-properties-in-object-and-scene-perception
#1
Matthew X Lowe, Jason Rajsic, Jason P Gallivan, Susanne Ferber, Jonathan S Cant
Multiple cortical regions are crucial for perceiving the visual world, yet the processes shaping representations in these regions are unclear. To address this issue, we must elucidate how perceptual features shape representations of the environment. Here, we explore how the weighting of different visual features affects neural representations of objects and scenes, focusing on the scene-selective parahippocampal place area (PPA), but additionally including the retrosplenial complex (RSC), occipital place area (OPA), lateral occipital (LO) area, fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA)...
June 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#2
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642679/assessment-of-ipsilateral-efferent-effects-in-human-via-ecochg
#3
Eric Verschooten, Elizabeth A Strickland, Nicolas Verhaert, Philip X Joris
Development of electrophysiological means to assess the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system in humans is important to further our understanding of the function of that system and for the refinement and validation of psychoacoustical and otoacoustic emission methods which are thought to probe the MOC. Based on measurements in anesthetized animals it has been hypothesized that the MOC-reflex (MOCR) can enhance the response to signals in noise, and several lines of evidence support such a role in humans. A difficulty in these studies is the isolation of efferent effects...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#4
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636141/binocular-facilitation-of-cone-specific-visual-evoked-potentials-in-colour-deficiency
#5
Jeff Rabin, Andrew Kryder, Dan Lam
BACKGROUND: Neural compensatory mechanisms have been proposed, which preserve the binocular visual field in glaucoma, as well as cognition in Alzheimer's disease and motor function in Parkinson's disease. It is conceivable that comparable mechanisms operate to preserve function in congenital and/or dystrophic disease. In hereditary colour vision deficiency (CVD), we observed significant facilitation in the amplitude of the binocular cone-specific visual evoked potential (VEP) compared to the monocular amplitude for the cone type corresponding to the CVD...
June 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#6
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633972/the-neural-basis-of-form-and-form-motion-integration-from-static-and-dynamic-translational-glass-patterns-a-rtms-investigation
#7
Andrea Pavan, Filippo Ghin, Rita Donato, Gianluca Campana, George Mather
A long-held view of the visual system is that form and motion are independently analysed. However, there is physiological and psychophysical evidence of early interaction in the processing of form and motion. In this study, we used a combination of Glass patterns (GPs) and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to investigate in human observers the neural mechanisms underlying form-motion integration. GPs consist of randomly distributed dot pairs (dipoles) that induce the percept of an oriented stimulus...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633028/visual-perception-neural-networks-for-stereopsis
#8
Jenny C A Read, Bruce G Cumming
How does our brain use differences between the images in our two eyes, binocular disparities, to generate depth perception? New work shows that a type of neural network trained on natural binocular images can learn parameters that match key properties of visual cortex. Most information is conveyed by cells which sense differences between the two eyes' images.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#9
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#10
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628004/visual-field-map-clusters-in-human-frontoparietal-cortex
#11
Wayne E Mackey, Jonathan Winawer, Clayton E Curtis
The visual neurosciences have made enormous progress in recent decades, in part because of the ability to drive visual areas by their sensory inputs, allowing researchers to reliably define visual areas across individuals and across species. Similar strategies for parcellating higher-order cortex have proven elusive. Here, using a novel experimental task and nonlinear population receptive field modeling we map and characterize the topographic organization of several regions in human frontoparietal cortex. We discover representations of both polar angle and eccentricity that are organized into clusters, similar to visual cortex, where multiple gradients of polar angle of the contralateral visual field share a confluent fovea...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#12
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624640/neural-correlates-of-preserved-facial-affect-perception-in-high-functioning-schizophrenia
#13
Tatiana M Karpouzian, Matthew P Schroeder, Samantha V Abram, Harry Wanar, Eva C Alden, Shaun M Eack, John G Csernansky, Matthew J Smith
Individuals with 'high functioning' schizophrenia (HF-SCZ) may have preserved facial affect perception (FAP) compared to individuals with 'low functioning' schizophrenia (LF-SCZ). The neural mechanisms supporting preserved FAP in HF-SCZ have yet to be evaluated. This study compared brain activation during FAP performance in HF-SCZ, LF-SCZ, and controls. Results demonstrated greater activation in the precuneus in CON compared to both SCZ groups, while HF-SCZ activated this region intermediate to controls and LF-SCZ...
June 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#14
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#15
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616858/intensity-dependence-in-high-level-facial-expression-adaptation-aftereffect
#16
Sang Wook Hong, K Lira Yoon
Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions...
June 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#17
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611575/ica-derived-eeg-correlates-to-mental-fatigue-effort-and-workload-in-a-realistically-simulated-air-traffic-control-task
#18
Deepika Dasari, Guofa Shou, Lei Ding
Electroencephalograph (EEG) has been increasingly studied to identify distinct mental factors when persons perform cognitively demanding tasks. However, most of these studies examined EEG correlates at channel domain, which suffers the limitation that EEG signals are the mixture of multiple underlying neuronal sources due to the volume conduction effect. Moreover, few studies have been conducted in real-world tasks. To precisely probe EEG correlates with specific neural substrates to mental factors in real-world tasks, the present study examined EEG correlates to three mental factors, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611219/inhibitory-engrams-in-perception-and-memory
#19
Helen C Barron, Tim P Vogels, Timothy E Behrens, Mani Ramaswami
Nervous systems use excitatory cell assemblies to encode and represent sensory percepts. Similarly, synaptically connected cell assemblies or "engrams" are thought to represent memories of past experience. Multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that brain systems create and use inhibitory replicas of excitatory representations for important cognitive functions. Such matched "inhibitory engrams" can form through homeostatic potentiation of inhibition onto postsynaptic cells that show increased levels of excitation...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607224/evaluation-of-focused-multipolar-stimulation-for-cochlear-implants-a-preclinical-safety-study
#20
Robert K Shepherd, Andrew K Wise, Ya Lang Enke, Paul M Carter, James B Fallon
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) have a limited number of independent stimulation channels due to the highly conductive nature of the fluid-filled cochlea. Attempts to develop highly focused stimulation to improve speech perception in CI users includes the use of simultaneous stimulation via multiple current sources. Focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation is an example of this approach and has been shown to reduce interaction between stimulating channels. However, compared with conventional biphasic current pulses generated from a single current source, FMP is a complex stimulus that includes extended periods of stimulation before charge recovery is achieved, raising questions on whether chronic stimulation with this strategy is safe...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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