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Michelle M Miller-Thomas, Tammie L S Benzinger
PET/MR imaging benefits neurologic clinical care and research by providing spatially and temporally matched anatomic MR imaging, advanced MR physiologic imaging, and metabolic PET imaging. MR imaging sequences and PET tracers can be modified to target physiology specific to a neurologic disease process, with applications in neurooncology, epilepsy, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and psychiatric and neurologic research. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging provides efficient acquisition of multiple temporally matched datasets, and opportunities for motion correction and improved anatomic assignment of PET data...
May 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Elena Biasibetti, Alberto Valazza, Maria T Capucchio, Laura Annovazzi, Luigi Battaglia, Daniela Chirio, Marina Gallarate, Marta Mellai, Elisabetta Muntoni, Elena Peira, Chiara Riganti, Davide Schiffer, Pierpaolo Panciani, Michele Lanotte
Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies are tested before human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin, grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic...
March 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Marco Skardelly, Elena Dangel, Julia Gohde, Susan Noell, Felix Behling, Guilherme Lepski, Christian Borchers, Marilin Koch, Jens Schittenhelm, Sotirios Bisdas, Aline Naumann, Frank Paulsen, Daniel Zips, Ulrike von Hehn, Rainer Ritz, Marcos Soares Tatagiba, Ghazaleh Tabatabai
BACKGROUND: The impact of prolonging temozolomide (TMZ) maintenance beyond six cycles in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) remains a topic of discussion. We investigated the effects of prolonged TMZ maintenance on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we included patients with GBM who were treated with radiation therapy with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ. For analysis, patients were considered who either completed six TMZ maintenance cycles (group B), continued with TMZ therapy beyond six cycles (group C), or stopped TMZ maintenance therapy within the first six cycles (group A)...
March 30, 2017: Oncologist
Patrick Roth, Dorothee Gramatzki, Michael Weller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glioblastoma represents one of the major challenges in neurooncology and approximately half of the patients are 60 years or older. We summarize the particular situation of elderly glioblastoma patients with a focus on therapeutic considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Favorable molecular markers such as mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2 genes are virtually absent in glioblastomas in elderly patients. Treatment options are similar to the situation in young patients and comprise surgical resection, radiation therapy, and alkylating chemotherapy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Elena Biasibetti Alberto Valazza Maria T Capucchio Laura Annovazzi Luigi Battaglia Daniela Chirio Marina Gallarate Marta Mellai Elisabetta Muntoni Elena Peira Chiara Riganti Davide Schiffer Pierpaolo Panciani And Michele Lanotte
Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies aretestedbefore human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin,grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
S V Chernov, D A Rzaev, A V Kalinovsky, A B Dmitriev, A R Kasymov, A V Zotov, E V Gormolysova, E K Uzhakova
Resection of anterior clinoidal meningiomas is a challenging task due to their localization, frequent involvement of the major cerebral arteries and cranial nerves, a high risk of postoperative neurological deficits, and low radicalness of surgery. AIM: To evaluate the radicalness of microsurgical removal and a neurological deficit in the early postoperative period in patients with anterior clinoidal meningiomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 35 patients with anterior clinoidal meningiomas underwent surgery at the Department of Neurooncology of the Novosibirsk Federal Neurosurgical Center in the period from 2013 to July 2016...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Hugues Duffau
The traditional principle underlying oncological neurosurgery is to remove a tumor mass displacing the brain in order to increase survival. Recently, advances in connectomics enabled an improved understanding of cerebral processing, and led to a paradigmatic shift in tumor surgery based upon interactions between neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences. First, glioma is not a focal tumor invaginated within the parenchyma but a diffuse neoplastic disease migrating in the brain. This concept resulted in a new surgical ideology, i...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Aline Monezi Montel, Raquel Gouvêa Dos Santos, Pryscila Rodrigues da Costa, Elisângela de Paula Silveira-Lacerda, Alzir Azevedo Batista, Wagner Gouvêa Dos Santos
Novel metal complexes have received great attention in the last decades due to their potential anticancer activity. Notably, ruthenium-based complexes have emerged as good alternative to the currently used platinum-based drugs for cancer therapy, providing less toxicity and side effects to patients. Glioblastoma is an aggressive and invasive type of brain tumor and despite of advances is the field of neurooncology there is no effective treatment until now. Therefore, we sought to investigate the potential antiproliferative activity of phosphine-ruthenium-based complexes on human glioblastoma cell lines...
April 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
N Tursynov, M Grigolashvili, Sh Kauynbekova, S Grigolashvili
The experience of Medtronic Stealth Station S7 neuronavigation system in surgical treatment of patients with brain tumors is presented in this article. The study included 280 patients in age from 17 to 70 years, 128 women (46.6%), 152 men (53.4%) with tumors of the cerebral hemispheres. Basic topical diagnosis was based on MRI data. Intracerebral tumors were diagnosed in 248 patients, extracerebral in 32. Lesions of the dominant hemisphere of the brain were observed in 146 (52.1%) patients. We operated with navigation technologies...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
Oun Al-Iedani, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Karen Ribbons, Saadallah Ramadan
Multi voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an important imaging tool that combines imaging and spectroscopic techniques. MRSI of the human brain has been beneficially applied to different clinical applications in neurology, particularly in neurooncology but also in multiple sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy. However, a major challenge in conventional MRSI is the longer acquisition time required for adequate signal to be collected. Fast MRSI of the brain in vivo is an alternative approach to reduce scanning time and make MRSI more clinically suitable...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
Rouzbeh Banan, Christian Hartmann
BACKGROUND: The understanding of molecular alterations of tumors has severely changed the concept of classification in all fields of pathology. The availability of high-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing allows for a much more precise definition of tumor entities. Also in the field of brain tumors a dramatic increase of knowledge has occurred over the last years partially calling into question the purely morphologically based concepts that were used as exclusive defining criteria in the WHO 2007 classification...
March 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
David Breuskin, Jacek Szczygielski, Steffi Urbschat, Yoo-Jin Kim, Joachim Oertel
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative distinction of brain tumor from surrounding brain is a crucial challenge in neuro-oncologic surgery. We directly compared confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) findings with intraoperative instantaneous sections by the neuropathologist in a blinded fashion. METHODS: The imaging device comprises a rigid endoscope with Hopkins rod lenses and a red wave length laser with a scanning depth of 80 μm. Brain tumor samples of 100 patients were investigated...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
Alice Indini, Elisabetta Schiavello, Veronica Biassoni, Luca Bergamaschi, Maria Chiara Magni, Nadia Puma, Stefano Chiaravalli, Federica Pallotti, Ettore Seregni, Barbara Diletto, Emilia Pecori, Lorenza Gandola, Geraldina Poggi, Maura Massimino
To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Simona Gaudino, Rosellina Russo, Tommaso Verdolotti, Massimo Caulo, Cesare Colosimo
INTRODUCTION: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is an umbrella term that includes diffusion (DWI) and diffusion tensor (DTI), perfusion (PWI), spectroscopy (MRS), and functional (fMRI) imaging. These advanced modalities have improved the imaging of brain tumors and provided valuable additional information for treatment planning. Despite abundant literature on advanced MRI techniques in adult brain tumors, few reports exist for pediatric brain ones, potentially because of technical challenges...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Michael Platten, Lukas Bunse, Wolfgang Wick, Theresa Bunse
Immunotherapeutic concepts in neurooncology have been developed for many decades but have mainly been hampered by poor definition of relevant antigens and selective measures to target the central nervous system. Independent of the recent remarkable successes in clinical immunooncology with checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines, immunotherapy of brain tumors in general and gliomas in particular has evolved with novel neurooncology-specific concepts over the past years providing new phase 1 approaches of individualized immunotherapy to first phase three clinical trials...
October 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Timothy P Heffron
In addition to each of the factors that govern the identification of a successful oncology drug candidate, drug discovery aimed at treating neurological cancer must also consider the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The high level of expression of efflux transporters (e.g., P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp)) at the BBB limits many small molecules from freely reaching the brain, where neurooncologic malignancies reside. Furthermore, many of the targets identified for the potential treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies suggest that kinase inhibitors, capable of penetrating the BBB to reach their target, would be desirable...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Marcel A Kamp, Philipp J Slotty, Jan F Cornelius, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Marion Rapp, Michael Sabel
The surgical resection of cerebral metastases is one key element in a multimodal therapy of brain oligometastatic patients. Standard surgery alone is often not sufficient to achieve local control. Various reasons have been discussed including microscopic and macroscopic tumor rests after surgery and different growth patterns of cerebral metastases: In this review, we assessed the surgical standard technique and then analyzed the growth pattern of cerebral metastases and discussed its oncologic impact and new strategies in the surgical management of cerebral metastases...
July 9, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Wolfgang Wick, Patrick Roth, Christian Hartmann, Peter Hau, Makoto Nakamura, Florian Stockhammer, Michael C Sabel, Antje Wick, Susanne Koeppen, Ralf Ketter, Peter Vajkoczy, Ilker Eyupoglu, Rolf Kalff, Torsten Pietsch, Caroline Happold, Norbert Galldiks, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Michael Bamberg, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Platten, Andreas von Deimling, Christoph Meisner, Benedikt Wiestler, Michael Weller
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment and precise classification for anaplastic glioma are needed. METHODS: The objective for long-term follow-up of NOA-04 is to optimize the treatment sequence for patients with anaplastic gliomas. Patients were randomized 2:1:1 to receive the standard radiotherapy (RT) (arm A), procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) (arm B1), or temozolomide (TMZ) (arm B2). RESULTS: Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment-failure (TTF), defined as progression after 2 lines of therapy or any time before if no further therapy was administered...
November 2016: Neuro-oncology
Michel Reich, Edwina Girard, Emilie Le Rhun
OBJECTIVE: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a neurooncological complication of advanced cancer that has a poor prognosis. The incidence of LM is increasing due to advances in neuroimaging. At the same time, the development of new systemic treatments with poor central nervous system penetration has improved outcomes and survival. However, diagnosis of LM remains quite difficult due to clinical polymorphism, inconsistent imaging abnormalities, and the inconsistent presence of neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid...
June 27, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
L H Pecker, A Timsar, P P Pary, G A Denomme, V R Criss, N L C Luban, E I Hwang, E C C Wong
Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia (CIHA) is the second most common cause of drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Prompt recognition of this drug reaction is essential because brisk hemolysis can be deadly. The extent to which ceftriaxone antibodies persist after CIHA is unknown; rechallenging patients who have experienced CIHA is not recommended. We report a case of CIHA in a neurooncology patient, which is the first to show anticeftriaxone antibodies with Rh specificity and persisted for 8 months after the drug reaction...
October 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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