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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229397/emerging-causes-of-arbovirus-encephalitis-in-north-america-powassan-chikungunya-and-zika-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Christopher T Doughty, Sigal Yawetz, Jennifer Lyons
Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Powassan virus almost exclusively causes encephalitis, but cases are rare, sporadic, and restricted to portions of North America and Russia. Chikungunya virus has spread widely across the world, causing millions of infections...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#2
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220327/genetic-characterization-of-cacipacor%C3%A3-virus-from-ticks-collected-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#3
Glauciane Garcia de Figueiredo, Alberto Anastacio Amarilla, William Marciel de Souza, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Mário Luis Garcia de Figueiredo, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó, Soraya Jabur Badra, Yin Xiang Setoh, Alexander A Khromykh, Victor Hugo Aquino, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Cacipacoré virus (CPCV) is a potential emerging virus classified in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. In the present study, we present the genetic characterization of a CPCV isolated from ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The CPCV isolate shares the typical genomic organization of flaviviruses with 10,857 nucleotides in length and a single open reading frame of 10,284 nucleotides encoding a polyprotein of 3,427 amino acids...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#4
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202075/tick-borne-pathogens-induce-differential-expression-of-genes-promoting-cell-survival-and-host-resistance-in-ixodes-ricinus-cells
#5
Karen L Mansfield, Charlotte Cook, Richard J Ellis, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Nicholas Johnson, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente, Anthony R Fooks
BACKGROUND: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187808/diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-encephalitis
#6
J J Halperin
Encephalitis is typically viral (approximately half of diagnosed cases) or autoimmune (about a quarter) with the remainder remaining undiagnosable at this time. All require general supportive care but only a minority requires intensive care admission - in these intubation, to protect the airway or to treat status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs, may be needed. In some dysautonomia with wide blood pressure fluctuations is the principal concern. Remarkably, in addition to supportive care, specific treatment options are available for the majority - immune-modulating therapy for those with autoimmune disorders, antiviral therapy for herpes simplex 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster encephalitis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#7
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170029/a-cluster-of-fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-organ-transplant-setting
#8
Dariusz Lipowski, Marta Szablowska, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Ewa Rzadkiewicz, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Anna Milecka, Wojciech Wenski, Michał Ciszek, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, Ewa Ignacak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167278/the-host-cell-response-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus
#9
Tea Carletti, Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Alessandro Marcello
Tick-borne encephalitis virus is the most prevalent autochthonous arbovirus in Europe and an important travel-associated virus. Complications of the infection could lead to lethal encephalitis in susceptible individuals. However, despite its clinical relevance and expanding geographical distribution, most of our knowledge on its pathogenesis is inferred from studies on other flaviviruses. Molecular details of the host cell response to infection are scarce leading to a poor understanding of the antiviral pathways and viral countermeasures that are critical to determine the outcome of the infection...
February 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159412/new-tools-in-nucleoside-toolbox-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-reproduction-inhibitors
#10
Alexey A Orlov, Mikhail S Drenichev, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Pavel N Solyev, Liubov I Kozlovskaya, Vladimir A Palyulin, Galina G Karganova, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin
Design and development of nucleoside analogs is an established strategy in the antiviral drug discovery field. Nevertheless, for many viruses the coverage of structure-activity relationships (SAR) in the nucleoside chemical space is not sufficient. Here we present the nucleoside SAR exploration for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of Flavivirus genus. Promising antiviral activity may be achieved by introduction of large hydrophobic substituents in the position 6 of adenosine or bulky silyl groups to the position 5'...
January 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153343/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-china-a-review-of-epidemiology-and-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Yi Xing, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Adriano Arguedas, Junfeng Yang
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been shown to be endemic in northern and western China, including the three mountain areas in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang. In addition, serology evidence shows that there is human infection in south-west provinces of China, including Xizang (Tibet) and Yunnan. TBE in China is caused by the Far Eastern TBE virus subtype and there is no biphasic course for disease presentation. The majority of TBE cases in China have occurred in people who were living or working in forests...
January 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153052/distribution-and-molecular-characteristics-of-rickettsiae-found-in-ticks-across-central-mongolia
#12
Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Michael E von Fricken, Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren, Pagbajab Nymadawa, Bekhochir Baigalmaa, Ya-Wei Wang, Benjamin D Anderson, Jia-Fu Jiang, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding tick-borne diseases in Mongolia, despite having 26% of the population still living nomadic pastoral lifestyles. A total of 1497 adult unfed ticks: 261 Ixodes persulcatus, 795 Dermacentor nuttalli, and 441 Hyalomma asiaticum, were collected from three ecologically distinct regions in Central Mongolia. Tick pools (n = 299) containing ~5 ticks each, were tested for Rickettsia and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-PCR, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143786/compliance-with-vaccination-against-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-germany
#13
Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze patients' compliance with vaccination against Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in Germany. METHODS: The present study included 7,266 patients from 638 general practices and 4,194 patients from 114 pediatric practices. Patients were included if they had received the first dose of one of two vaccines against TBE virus (FSME-Immune® and Encepur®). The immunization schedule of these vaccines consisted of three injections...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141800/modeling-powassan-virus-infection-in-peromyscus-leucopus-a-natural-host
#14
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Greg Saturday, Dana Scott, Marshall E Bloom
The tick-borne flavivirus, Powassan virus (POWV) causes life-threatening encephalitis in humans in North America and Europe. POWV is transmitted by ixodid tick vectors that feed on small to medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, which may serve as either reservoir, bridge or amplification hosts. Intraperitoneal and intracranial inoculation of 4-week old Peromyscus leucopus mice with 103 PFU of POWV did not result in overt clinical signs of disease. However, following intracranial inoculation, infected mice seroconverted to POWV and histopathological examinations revealed that the mice uniformly developed mild lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and microgliosis in the brain and spinal cord from 5 to 15 days post infection (dpi), suggesting an early inflammatory response...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103209/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2015
#15
Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086865/rnai-reveals-proteins-for-metabolism-and-protein-processing-associated-with-langat-virus-infection-in-ixodes-scapularis-black-legged-tick-ise6-cells
#16
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Monika Gulia-Nuss, Richard J Kuhn, Catherine A Hill
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs) cause thousands of human cases of encephalitis worldwide each year, with some TBF infections progressing to hemorrhagic fever. TBFs are of medical and veterinary importance and strategies to reduce flavivirus transmission by the tick vector may have significant application. Analyses of the proteome of ISE6 cells derived from the black legged tick, Ixodes scapularis infected with the TBF, Langat virus (LGTV), have provided insights into proteins and cellular processes involved with LGTV infection...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077444/protein-interactions-during-the-flavivirus-and-hepacivirus-life-cycle
#17
Gisa Gerold, Janina Bruening, Bettina Weigel, Thomas Pietschmann
Protein-protein interactions govern biological functions in cells, in the extracellular milieu and at the border between cells and extracellular space. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on protein interactions to produce progeny inside host cells and to spread from cell to cell. Usage of host proteins by viruses can have severe consequences e.g. apoptosis, metabolic disequilibria or altered cell proliferation and mobility. Understanding protein interactions during virus infection can thus educate us on viral infection and pathogenesis mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073402/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-from-questing-ticks-at-natural-foci-reveals-similarities-between-quasispecies-pools-of-the-virus
#18
Naveed Asghar, John H-O Pettersson, Patrik Dinnetz, Åshild Andreassen, Magnus Johansson
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10,000 to 15,000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035113/serological-surveillance-of-vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-among-hunters-in-eastern-poland
#19
Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Aleksander J Michalski, Marcin Kołodziej, Alicja Mełgieś, Anna Pańczuk, Henryk Konon, Marcin Niemcewicz
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029552/epilepsia-partialis-continua-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
Epilepsia partialis contina (EPC) in a narrow definition is a variant of simple focal motor status epilepticus in which frequent repetitive muscle jerks, usually arrhythmic, continue over prolonged periods of time. In a broader definition (used in this review) it also includes non-motor manifestations otherwise known as aura continua. EPC may occur as a single episode, repetitive episodes, it may be chronic progressive or non-progressive. It appears as an unusual manifestation of epilepsy in which more typical paroxysmal events are partly or entirely replaced by the sustained repetition of seizure fragments in rapid succession...
January 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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