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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#1
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339915/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zakarpacki-zeolite-clinoptilolite-on-percentages-of-t-and-b-lymphocytes-and-cytokine-concentrations-in-poultry
#2
Lukasz Jarosz, Dagmara Stepien-Pysniak, Zbigniew Gradzki, Malgorzata Kapica, Agata Gacek
The available literature lacks information on the effect of Zakarpacki zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the immune system of poultry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of this zeolite on selected indicators of the immune response in poultry by evaluating the expression of cluster of differentiation ( ) surface molecules on T and B lymphocytes and the concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 in the blood. Ninety one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in the study. The birds were divided into 3 groups of 30 each...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339714/effect-of-whole-yeast-cell-product-supplementation-citristim%C3%A2-on-immune-responses-and-cecal-microflora-species-in-pullet-and-layer-chickens-during-an-experimental-coccidial-challenge
#3
Ashley D Markazi, Victor Perez, Mamduh Sifri, Revathi Shanmugasundaram, Ramesh K Selvaraj
Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of whole yeast cell product supplementation in pullets and layer hens. Body weight gain, fecal and intestinal coccidial oocyst counts, cecal microflora species, cytokine mRNA amounts, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations in the cecal tonsils were analyzed following an experimental coccidial infection. In Experiment I, day-old Leghorn layer chicks were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim®, ADM, Decatur, IL)...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338507/ny-eso-1-protein-cancer-vaccine-with-poly-iclc-and-ok-432-rapid-and-strong-induction-of-ny-eso-1-specific-immune-responses-by-poly-iclc
#4
Tomohira Takeoka, Hirotsugu Nagase, Koji Kurose, Yoshihiro Ohue, Makoto Yamasaki, Shuji Takiguchi, Eiichi Sato, Midori Isobe, Takayuki Kanazawa, Mitsunobu Matsumoto, Kota Iwahori, Atsunari Kawashima, Akiko Morimoto-Okazawa, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Mikio Oka, Linda Pan, Ralph Venhaus, Eiichi Nakayama, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki, Hisashi Wada
We conducted a clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using NY-ESO-1 protein with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) and/or OK-432 against solid tumors. A total of 15 patients were sequentially enrolled in 4 cohorts. Patients in cohort 1 received NY-ESO-1 protein; cohort 2a received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432; cohort 2b received NY-ESO-1 protein+poly-ICLC; cohort 3 received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432+poly-ICLC with Montanide ISA-51. The endpoints of this trial were safety, NY-ESO-1 immune responses, and clinical response...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338179/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-immune-function-of-patients-undergoing-radical-mastectomy-a-double-blind-and-placebo-control-study
#5
X-H Yang, Q Bai, M-M Lv, H-G Fu, T-L Dong, Z Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe and evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the perioperative immune function of patients undergoing a radical mastectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 124 patients undergoing radical mastectomy were divided into the observation group (treated with dexmedetomidine) and the control group (treated with saline) by randomized digital table and double blinded and randomized design. 10 min before anesthesia induction, the patients in the observation group were injected with dexmedetomidine 0...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338177/5-aminolevulinic-acid-photodynamic-therapy-stimulates-local-immunity-in-patients-with-condylomata-acuminata-via-activation-of-t-lymphocytes
#6
J Du, Q Cheng, Z Zhang, J-F Wu, F Li, S-Y Chen, Y-L Wang, X-N Lu, J-H Xu
OBJECTIVE: 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (5-ALA-PDT) for condylomata acuminate (CA) is effective and safe, but how this treatment affects immune reaction is poorly understood. We aimed to explore the effects of PDT on local immunity in CA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis before and after PDT was performed to analyze local changes in the distribution of T lymphocytes, CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and CD1a+ myeloid DCs...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337964/targeting-cd47-enhances-the-efficacy-of-anti-pd-1-and-ctla-4-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-cancer-preclinical-model
#7
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Feijiang Wang, Hongliang Yu, Yesong Guo
Esophageal squamous cell cancer is a highly aggressive cancer with dismal five-year survival rate. CD47 is a cell transmembrane protein that is involved in cell apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and antigen presenting of the immune system. Via interacting with signal regulatory protein-alpha expressed in antigen presenting cells (APCs), CD47 acts as an antiphagocytic mechanism to inhibit APCs dependent antigen presenting. Overxpression of CD47 was found in various cancer types. However, its role in esophageal squamous cell cancer is not clear yet...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337956/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#8
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#9
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337202/murine-cytomegalovirus-disrupts-splenic-dendritic-cell-subsets-via-type-i-interferon-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#10
William T Nash, Alyssa L Gillespie, Michael G Brown
Dendritic cells (DC) are well-known modulators of immunity. This heterogeneous population is composed of defined subsets that exhibit functional specialization and are critical in initiating responses to pathogens. As such, many infectious agents employ strategies to disrupt DC functioning in attempts to evade the immune system. In some instances, this manifests as an outright loss of these cells. Previous work has suggested that, in the absence of an efficient natural killer (NK) cell response, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) induces large amounts of interferon (IFN)-I...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337201/phenotype-and-tissue-residency-of-lymphocytes-in-the-murine-oral-mucosa
#11
Joo-Young Park, Hyunsoo Chung, Youngnim Choi, Jung-Hyun Park
The oral mucosa is a critical barrier tissue that harbors a series of distinct immune cell subsets. Immune surveillance in the oral mucosa is important for both local and systemic immunity because the oral cavity is a heavily utilized route of pathogen entry and also serves as site of pathogen propagation. Nonetheless, composition and phenotype of the lymphocyte pool in the oral mucosa have remained poorly characterized. Utilizing a newly established protocol for mucosal immune cell isolation, here, we report that the oral mucosa features a unique cellular composition of immune cells, which differed not only from secondary lymphoid organs but also from mucosal tissues in the gut and lung...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337197/hypofractionated-irradiation-has-immune-stimulatory-potential-and-induces-a-timely-restricted-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-colon-cancer-tumors
#12
Benjamin Frey, Michael Rückert, Julia Weber, Xaver Mayr, Anja Derer, Michael Lotter, Christoph Bert, Franz Rödel, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
In addition to locally controlling the tumor, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) particularly aims to activate immune cells in the RT-modified microenvironment. Therefore, we examined whether hypofractionated RT can activate dendritic cells (DCs), induce immune cell infiltration in tumors, and how the chronology of immune cell migration into tumors occurs to gain knowledge for future definition of radiation breaks and inclusion of immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer treatments offer only limited survival benefit, and immunobiological principles for additional therapies need to be explored with preclinical models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#13
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336551/gut-microbes-may-up-pd-1-inhibitor-response
#14
(no author information available yet)
Confirming the results of animal studies, new research shows that the composition of patients' microbiome influences their response to checkpoint inhibitors. Patients with melanoma who benefit from PD-1 inhibitors carry a greater variety of species and higher numbers of microbes in the Clostridiales group. Increased abundance of certain bacteria in this group also correlated with higher numbers of CD8+ T cells in patients' tumors.
March 23, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336395/human-immune-compartment-comparisons-optimization-of-proliferative-assays-for-blood-and-gut-t-lymphocytes
#15
Jeffrey Dock, Lance Hultin, Patricia Hultin, Julie Elliot, Otto O Yang, Peter A Anton, Beth D Jamieson, Rita B Effros
The accumulation of peripheral blood late-differentiated memory CD8 T cells with features of replicative (cellular) senescence, including inability to proliferate in vitro, has been extensively studied. Importantly, the abundance of these cells is directly correlated with increased morbidity and mortality in older persons. Of note, peripheral blood contains only 2% of the total body lymphocyte population. By contrast, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the most extensive lymphoid organ, housing up to 60% of total body lymphocytes, but has never been assessed with respect to senescence profiles...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336379/synthetic-nanovaccines-for-immunotherapy
#16
Min Luo, Layla Z Samandi, Zhaohui Wang, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
Although vaccination is historically one of the most successful strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases, development of vaccines for cancer and many chronic infections, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, has remained a challenge. Strong and long-lasting antigen-specific T cell responses are critical for therapy of these diseases. A major challenge in achieving a robust CD8+ T cell response is the requirement of spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336378/optimized-biodegradable-polymeric-reservoir-mediated-local-and-sustained-co-delivery-of-dendritic-cells-and-oncolytic-adenovirus-co-expressing-il-12-and-gm-csf-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
Eonju Oh, Jung-Eun Oh, JinWoo Hong, YoonHo Chung, Yunki Lee, Ki Dong Park, Sungwan Kim, Chae-Ok Yun
Administration of dendritic cells (DCs) combined with oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) expressing antitumor cytokines induces a potent antitumor effect and antitumor immunity by ameliorating the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. However, this combination therapy has significant limitations due to rapid dissemination and inactivation of the therapeutics at the tumor site, necessitating multiple injections of both therapeutics. To overcome these limitations, we have utilized gelatin-based hydrogel to co-deliver oncolytic Ad co-expressing interleukin (IL)-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (oAd) and DCs for sustained release of both therapeutics...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336310/regulatory-role-of-ccl5-rs2280789-and-cxcl10-rs56061981-gene-polymorphisms-on-intracellular-ccl5-and-cxcl10-expression-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Brijendra Singh, Selvaraj Anbalagan, Paramasivam Selvaraj
Genetic variations in chemokine genes influence the chemoattractive properties of T cells which may be associated with outcome of infections. In present study, we have investigated the regulatory role played by In1.1T/C (rs2280789) polymorphism of CCL5 and -135G/A (rs56061981) polymorphism of CXCL10 gene on intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression in T cells. Whole blood cell cultures were stimulated with culture filtrate antigen (CFA) and infected with live M. tuberculosis were used for intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression using flow cytometry...
March 21, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335609/early-and-delayed-antiretroviral-therapy-art-result-in-comparable-reductions-in-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-marker-expression
#19
Rachel Rutishauser, Wendy Hartogensis, Christian D Deguit, Melissa Krone, Rebecca Hoh, Rick Hecht, Christopher D Pilcher, Peter Bacchetti, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Joseph M McCune
In untreated HIV infection, CD8+ T cell exhaustion (i.e., decreased proliferative and effector capacity) is associated with high levels of expression of co-inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, TIGIT, CD160, and 2B4. This is evident for both HIV-specific and non-HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection decreases but may not completely normalize the expression of such "exhaustion markers." Compared to initiation of ART later in the course of disease, initiation soon after infection reduces some parameters of chronic inflammation and adaptive immune dysfunction...
March 23, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334399/association-of-hiv-status-with-local-immune-response-to-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implications-for-immunotherapy
#20
Elizabeth L Yanik, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Farah Succaria, Tracee L McMiller, Maria L Ascierto, Jessica Esandrio, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Toby Cornish, Evan J Lipson, Suzanne L Topalian, Eric A Engels, Janis M Taube
Importance: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
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