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early enteral feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079708/parenteral-nutrition-in-the-critically-ill
#1
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049257/nasoenteric-tube-versus-jejunostomy-for-enteral-nutrition-feeding-following-major-upper-gastrointestinal-operations-a-meta-analysis
#2
Lidong Wang, Zhong Tian, Yuan Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Following major upper gastrointestinal surgical procedures, early enteral nutrition to the jejunum is strongly recommended, either through a nasoenteric tube or a percutaneous transperitoneal jejunal feeding tube (jejunostomy). However, to date there has been no consensus as to the best enteral feeding strategy. Our aim was to determine the safest and most efficacious early enteral nutrition supplement strategy following major upper gastrointestinal operations...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031472/seasonal-abundance-and-phenology-of-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae-on-different-pepper-cultivars-in-the-mid-atlantic-united-states
#3
C R Philips, T P Kuhar, G P Dively, G Hamilton, J Whalen, K Kamminga
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since its initial establishment, it has spread throughout the east coast as far south as Georgia, and as far north as New Hampshire. While information is available regarding H. halys behavior and life history in some crops, relatively little information is available for vegetables such as peppers. Key questions include understanding when H. halys enters pepper fields to feed and how best to predict infestations, what population levels create economic damage, and if peppers that vary in capsaicin levels also vary in susceptibility to attack...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017668/exposure-to-a-maternal-cafeteria-diet-changes-open-field-behaviour-in-the-developing-offspring
#4
Abigail Speight, William G Davey, Emily McKenna, Jörg-Peter W Voigt
The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997410/influence-of-nutrition-therapy-on-the-intestinal-microbiome
#5
Monika A Krezalek, Andrew Yeh, John C Alverdy, Michael Morowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the relationship between nutritional therapies and the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiome of the critically ill displays a near complete loss of health-promoting microbiota with overgrowth of virulent healthcare-associated pathogens. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of admission to the ICU has been advocated in medical and surgical patients to avoid derangements of the intestinal epithelium and the microbiome associated with starvation...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#6
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957725/glutamine-fish-oil-and-antioxidants-in-critical-illness-metaplus-trial-post-hoc-safety-analysis
#7
Zandrie Hofman, Sophie Swinkels, Arthur R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND: The role of plasma glutamine, fish oil and antioxidants concentrations in the treatment effect of immune-modulating high-protein versus high-protein enteral nutrition on 6-month mortality in critically ill patients is explored, as unexpected negative outcomes of recent large randomized controlled trials on immune-modulating nutrients have raised questions about safety of these interventions. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the MetaPlus randomized controlled trial which was performed in a total of 301 medical, surgical and trauma critically ill patients in fourteen European intensive care units...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931635/complications-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#8
REVIEW
Tomas Hucl, Julius Spicak
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has become the method of choice for mid-to long-term enteral feeding. The majority of complications that occur are minor, but the rare major complications may be life threatening. Some complications occur soon after tube placement, others develop later, when the gastrostomy tract has matured. Older patients with comorbidities and infections appear to be at a greater risk of developing complications. Apart from being aware of indications and contraindications, proper technique of PEG placement, including correct positioning of the external fixation device, and daily tube care are important preventive measures...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924537/targeting-aflatoxin-biosynthetic-genes
#9
Ali Y Srour, Ahmad M Fakhoury, Robert L Brown
Chemical detoxification and physical destruction of aflatoxins in foods and feed commodities are mostly unattainable in a way that preserves the edibility of the food. Therefore, preventing mycotoxins in general and aflatoxins in particular from entering the food chain is a better approach. This requires early detection of the aflatoxin-causing organisms. Detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing fungi has always been a challenge, especially within species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Culture-based methods require a high level of expertise and a list of sophisticated equipment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#10
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893064/effect-of-increased-enteral-protein-intake-on-growth-in-human-milk-fed-preterm-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Christoph Maas, Michaela Mathes, Christine Bleeker, Julia Vek, Wolfgang Bernhard, Cornelia Wiechers, Andreas Peter, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
Importance: Protein, supplied in currently available commercial fortifiers, may be inadequate to meet the requirements of very preterm infants; in addition, intraindividual and interindividual variability of human milk protein and energy content potentially contribute to unsatisfactory early postnatal growth. Objective: To determine effects on growth of different levels of enteral protein supplementation in predominantly human milk-fed preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical and partially blinded single-center trial was conducted in a neonatal tertiary referral center in Germany...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865429/maternal-education-is-associated-with-disparities-in-breastfeeding-at-time-of-discharge-but-not-at-initiation-of-enteral-feeding-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
Lena Carolin Herich, Marina Cuttini, Ileana Croci, Francesco Franco, Domenico Di Lallo, Dante Baronciani, Katia Fares, Giancarlo Gargano, Massimiliano Raponi, Jennifer Zeitlin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857647/nutrition-chez-le-br%C3%A3-l%C3%A3
#13
G Perro
Nutrition is a challenge for burn patients. Emphasized points are early enteral amounts by means of a naso-gastric tube, semi-recumbent position > 30°, gastro-intestinal survey improved by kinetics, weight evolution, nutritional amounts assessment to prevent proteino-energetic deficiency. Feeding is difficult with children, as with seniors often associating a preexisting starvation. Nutritional supplements are useful in medium severity patients. For overweight patients, hypo caloric and hyperprotidic diet is the better choice...
March 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834592/the-anterior-temporal-artery-an-underutilized-but-robust-donor-for-revascularization-of-the-distal-middle-cerebral-artery
#14
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Dylan Griswold, Pooneh Mokhtari, Andre Payman, Arnau Benet
OBJECTIVE The anterior temporal artery (ATA) supplies an area of the brain that, if sacrificed, does not cause a noticeable loss of function. Therefore, the ATA may be used as a donor in intracranial-intracranial (IC-IC) bypass procedures. The capacities of the ATA as a donor have not been studied previously. In this study, the authors assessed the feasibility of using the ATA as a donor for revascularization of different segments of the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS The ATA was studied in 15 cadaveric specimens (8 heads, excluding 1 side)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821030/prognostic-scores-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Z Balcı, M Ö Kılıç, K Şenol, A Erdoğan, M Tez
Predicting the course of an attack of acute pancreatitis still represents a challenge for the physicians.Some early interventions such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy, admission to the intensive care unit, enteral feeding, and prophylactic antibiotics have been proven to decrease morbidity and mortality in patients of high-risk groups. However, acute pancreatitis has a potential of morbidity and mortality, and therefore early diagnosis and objective assessment of severity of the disease is fundamental...
July 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798779/expanding-the-differential-diagnosis-for-transaminitis-in-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Adam C Nadelson, Victor D Babatunde, Eric U Yee, Vilas R Patwardhan
Aminotransferase elevations have been described in patients with anorexia nervosa. Hypothesized etiologies have included ischemic hepatitis, refeeding-induced transaminitis, and the process of autophagy. Supervised enteral nutrition is the mainstay of treatment for severe anorexia, but an increase in aminotransferase levels after initiation of enteral feeding presents clinicians with a diagnostic dilemma. We present a 31-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa (body mass index [BMI] of 13.5 kg/m(2)) who experienced a worsening of aminotransferase elevations even after the initiation of enteral feeding...
October 31, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795911/combined-application-of-nasogastric-tubes-and-nasointestinal-tubes-in-neurosurgical-intensive-care-patients-with-stress-ulceration-a-novel-solution-to-treatment-and-early-enteral-nutrition
#17
Tianshu Lu, Jingyu Guan
OBJECTIVE: Stress ulcers occur frequently in neurosurgical intensive care patients and can pose serious risks. We summarized the clinical experience of the combined application of nasointestinal tubes for early restoration of enteral nutrition and of nasogastric (NG) tubes for stress ulceration treatment in patients hospitalized in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2011, a series of 67 patients with stress ulceration hospitalized in a neurosurgical intensive care unit were randomized to two groups...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790606/nutrition-a-primary-therapy-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Bryan Wilson, Katri Typpo
Appropriate nutrition is an essential component of intensive care management of children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is linked to patient outcomes. One out of every two children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies. Early and adequate enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with improved 60-day survival after pediatric critical illness, and, yet, despite early EN guidelines, critically ill children receive on average only 55% of goal calories by PICU day 10...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778074/chylous-ascites-management-after-pancreatic-surgery
#19
Nicolas Tabchouri, Eric Frampas, Frederic Marques, Claire Blanchard, Adam Jirka, Nicolas Regenet
BACKGROUND: Postoperative chylous ascites (CA) following pancreatic surgery is uncommon. If left untreated, it leads to malnutrition, immunodeficiency and increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to seek out risk factors associated with CA onset and conservative treatment (CT) failure in order to determine better management of CA following pancreatic resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent pancreatic surgery between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775609/meta-analysis-of-early-nutrition-the-benefits-of-enteral-feeding-compared-to-a-nil-per-os-diet-not-only-in-severe-but-also-in-mild-and-moderate-acute-pancreatitis
#20
Katalin Márta, Nelli Farkas, Imre Szabó, Anita Illés, Áron Vincze, Gabriella Pár, Patrícia Sarlós, Judit Bajor, Ákos Szűcs, József Czimmer, Dóra Mosztbacher, Andrea Párniczky, Kata Szemes, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Hegyi
The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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