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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444997/a-holistic-view-of-the-effects-of-episiotomy-on-pelvic-floor
#1
Dulce A Oliveira, Marco P L Parente, Begoña Calvo, Teresa Mascarenhas, Renato M Natal Jorge
Vaginal delivery is commonly accepted as a risk factor in pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), however, other obstetric procedures (episiotomy) are still controversial. In this work, to analyze the relationship between episiotomy and pelvic floor function, a finite element model (FEM) of the pelvic cavity is used considering the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) with damaged regions from spontaneous vaginal delivery, and from deliveries with episiotomy. Common features assessed at screening of PFD are evaluated during numerical simulations of both Valsalva maneuver and contraction...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441181/inhaled-treprostinil-drug-delivery-during-mechanical-ventilation-and-spontaneous-breathing-using-two-different-nebulizers
#2
Donna K Parker, Shuijie Shen, Jiang Zheng, D Dunbar Ivy, Dave N Crotwell, Justin C Hotz, Robert M DiBlasi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of delivering inhaled treprostinil during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous unassisted ventilation using the Tyvaso Inhalation System and the vibrating mesh nebulizer. We sought to compare differences in fine particle fraction, and absolute inhaled treprostinil mass delivered to neonatal, pediatric, and adult models affixed with a face mask, conventional, and high-frequency ventilation between Tyvaso Inhalation System and with different nebulizer locations between Tyvaso Inhalation System and vibrating mesh nebulizer...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439940/impact-of-operator-experience-and-training-strategy-on-procedural-outcomes-with-leadless-pacing-insights-from-the-micra-transcatheter-pacing-study
#3
Mikhael El Chami, Robert C Kowal, Kyoko Soejima, Philippe Ritter, Gabor Z Duray, Petr Neuzil, Lluis Mont, Alexander Kypta, Venkata Sagi, J Harrison Hudnall, Kurt Stromberg, Dwight Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Leadless pacemaker systems have been designed to avoid the need for a pocket and transvenous lead. However, delivery of this therapy requires a new catheter-based procedure. This study evaluates the role of operator experience and different training strategies on procedural outcomes. METHODS: A total of 726 patients underwent implant attempt with the Micra transcatheter pacing system (TPS) by 94 operators trained in a teaching laboratory using a simulator, cadaver, and large animal models (lab training) or locally at the hospital with simulator/demo model and proctorship (hospital training)...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438697/predicting-drug-loading-in-pla-peg-nanoparticles
#4
M Meunier, A Goupil, P Lienard
Polymer nanoparticles present advantageous physical and biopharmaceutical properties as drug delivery systems compared to conventional liquid formulations. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are often hydrophobic, thus not soluble in conventional liquid delivery. Encapsulating the drugs in polymer nanoparticles can improve their pharmacological and bio-distribution properties, preventing rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Such nanoparticles are commonly made of non-toxic amphiphilic self-assembling block copolymers where the core (poly-[D,L-lactic acid] or PLA) serves as a reservoir for the API and the external part (Poly-(Ethylene-Glycol) or PEG) serves as a stealth corona to avoid capture by macrophage...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437753/p-gp-modulatory-acetyl-11-keto-%C3%AE-boswellic-acid-based-nanoemulsified-carrier-system-for-augmented-oral-chemotherapy-of-docetaxel
#5
Gitu Pandey, Naresh Mittapelly, Guru Raghavendra Valicherla, Ravi Prakash Shukla, Shweta Sharma, Venkatesh Teja Banala, Sandeep Urandur, Arun Kumar Jajoriya, Kalyan Mitra, D P Mishra, J R Gayen, P R Mishra
In spite of being a very potent and promising drug against many types of cancer, docetaxel suffers the disadvantage of low solubility and poor bioavailability rendering it unsuitable for oral administration. Also, the available marketed formulation for intravenous administration has its inherent drawbacks owing to the presence of polysorbate 80. Here, we exploited the anticancer and P-gp inhibitory potential of naturally occurring frankincense oil to fabricate a stable docetaxel loaded nanoemulsified carrier system for oral delivery...
April 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436155/the-mobius-airo-mobile-ct-for-image-guided-proton-therapy-characterization-commissioning
#6
Jasmine A Oliver, Omar A Zeidan, Sanford L Meeks, Amish P Shah, Jason Pukala, Patrick Kelly, Naren R Ramakrishna, Twyla R Willoughby
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mobius AIRO Mobile CT System for localization and image-guided proton therapy. This is the first known application of the AIRO for proton therapy. METHODS: Five CT images of a Catphan(®) 504 phantom were acquired on the AIRO Mobile CT System, Varian EDGE radiosurgery system cone beam CT (CBCT), Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16 slice CT simulator, and Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS 20 slice CT simulator. DoseLAB software v...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435220/formulation-release-characteristics-and-bioavailability-study-of-gastroretentive-floating-matrix-tablet-and-floating-raft-system-of-mebeverine-hcl
#7
Mohamed A El Nabarawi, Mahmoud H Teaima, Rehab A Abd El-Monem, Nagla A El Nabarawy, Dalia A Gaber
To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH) and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin(®) 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433482/variations-of-target-volume-definition-and-daily-target-volume-localization-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-under-abdominal-compression
#8
Chunhui Han, Sagus Sampath, Timothy E Schultheisss, Jeffrey Y C Wong
We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432531/effectiveness-of-nanoencapsulated-methotrexate-against-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-under-dynamic-conditions
#9
O Mitxelena-Iribarren, C L Hisey, M Errazquin-Irigoyen, Y González-Fernández, E Imbuluzqueta, M Mujika, M J Blanco-Prieto, S Arana
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality in the world, with osteosarcoma being one of the most common types among children between 1 and 14 years old. Current treatments including preoperative chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative chemotherapy produce several side effects with limited effectiveness. The use of lipid nanoparticles as biodegradable shells for controlled drug delivery shows promise as a more effective and targeted tumor treatment. However, in vitro validation of these vehicles is limited due to fluid stagnation in current techniques, in which nanoparticles sediment onto the bottom of the wells killing the cells by asphyxiation...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#10
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430590/treatment-of-esophageal-cancer-with-radiation-therapy-a-pan-chinese-survey-of-radiation-oncologists
#11
Yun Zhang, Jing Liu, Wencheng Zhang, Weiye Deng, Jinbo Yue
Lots of controversies were found about the treatment in relation to radiation therapy (RT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We designed a questionnaire of these controversies to do a pan-Chinese survey of radiation oncologists (ROs). For operable ESCC, 53% ROs chose surgery plus postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT), while 40% chose preoperative CRT plus surgery. For target volume of postoperative RT, most ROs (92%) would delineate tumor bed plus involved lymph nodes region before surgery. For definitive RT, most ROs (81%) would give patients higher RT dose to 60-65Gy...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429722/use-of-a-visual-aid-in-addition-to-a-collector-bag-to-evaluate-postpartum-blood-loss-a-prospective-simulation-study
#12
M Brooks, G Legendre, S Brun, P-E Bouet, L Pereira Mendes, B Merlot, L Sentilhes
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the most common causes of mortality in obstetrics worldwide. The accuracy of estimated blood loss is a priority in determining appropriate treatment. Will the additional use of a visual aid improve physicians' accuracy in estimating blood loss compared to the use of a collector bag and baby scale alone? Simulation training sessions created three vaginal delivery scenarios for participants to estimate volumes of blood loss: firstly, using only a collector bag and a baby weight scale and secondly, adding a visual aid depicting known volumes of blood...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429276/enhancing-thermal-stability-of-a-highly-concentrated-insulin-formulation-with-pluronic-f-127-for-long-term-use-in-microfabricated-implantable-devices
#13
Jason Li, Michael K Chu, Brian Lu, Sako Mirzaie, Kuan Chen, Claudia R Gordijo, Oliver Plettenburg, Adria Giacca, Xiao Yu Wu
Development of highly concentrated formulations of protein and peptide drugs is a major challenge due to increased susceptibility to aggregation and precipitation. Numerous drug delivery systems including implantable and wearable controlled-release devices require thermally stable formulations with high concentrations due to limited device sizes and long-term use. Herein we report a highly concentrated insulin gel formulation (up to 80 mg/mL, corresponding to 2200 IU/mL), stabilized with a non-ionic amphiphilic triblock copolymer (i...
April 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424487/power-flow-in-a-large-core-multimode-fiber-under-external-perturbation-and-its-applications
#14
Sen Qian, Yang Xu, Lisheng Zhong, Lei Su
Large core optical multimode fiber provides benefits such as a large light-coupling tolerance, easy handling, and delivery of higher light power without undesirable nonlinear effects. In this research, we exploit the effects of external perturbation on the power flow within the large core fiber and present two relevant applications, namely a perturbation sensor and a doughnut beam tuner. Since conventional multimode fiber power flow model does not take into consideration the perturbation effect, we modify the power flow model so that the influence of time varying perturbation can be theoretically analyzed...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420283/design-and-characteristics-of-gellan-gum-beads-for-modified-release-of-meloxicam
#15
Tomasz Osmałek, Bartłomiej Milanowski, Anna Froelich, Mirosław Szybowicz, Wojciech Białowąs, Marcin Kapela, Piotr Gadziński, Katarzyna Ancukiewicz
The aim of the presented work was to design, formulate and evaluate the properties of low-acyl gellan macro beads with the potential application as carriers for oral delivery of meloxicam (MLX) in the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer. The beads were obtained by means of ionotropic gelation technique. Calcium chloride (1.0%, 9.0 × 10(-2) M) was used as the cross-linking agent. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween®80) mixtures were used for production of the beads. The quantitative compositions of the mixtures were generated with the application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) modulus from the STATISTICA Software...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419781/evaluation-of-stability-of-stereotactic-space-defined-by-cone-beam-ct-for-the-leksell-gamma-knife-icon
#16
Ismail AlDahlawi, Dheerendra Prasad, Matthew B Podgorsak
The Gamma Knife Icon comes with an integrated cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image-guided stereotactic treatment deliveries. The CBCT can be used for defining the Leksell stereotactic space using imaging without the need for the traditional invasive frame system, and this allows also for frameless thermoplastic mask stereotactic treatments (single or fractionated) with the Gamma Knife unit. In this study, we used an in-house built marker tool to evaluate the stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space and its agreement with the standard frame-based stereotactic space...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418660/pegylated-solanesol-for-oral-delivery-of-coenzyme-q10
#17
Benkai Qin, Lei Liu, Yangyang Pan, Yingchun Zhu, Xiaohe Wu, Shiyong Song, Guang Han
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is widely used in preventive or curative treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, CoQ10 exhibits an extremely low solubility in aqueous medium as well as a poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, solanesyl poly(ethylene glycol) succinate (SPGS) and CoQ10 were formulated as CoQ10-SPGS micelles with a high content of CoQ10 to improve the bioavailability of CoQ10 in rat. Findings indicate that, in the CoQ10-SPGS micelles, SPGS is self-assembled into stable nanosized micelles with a CoQ10 loading capacity of more than 39%...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417318/patient-and-healthcare-professionals-preference-for-brenzys-vs-enbrel-autoinjector-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-randomized-crossover-simulated-use-study
#18
Marc Egeth, Jennifer Soosaar, Peter Nash, Denis Choquette, Ricardo Infante, Dena Rosen Ramey, Sevag Sahakian, Angela Lai, Jin Ju Kim, David Wu
INTRODUCTION: Brenzys was developed as an etanercept biosimilar of Enbrel. The aim of this study was to assess preference and perceived ease of use for the new Brenzys autoinjector compared to the currently available marketed Enbrel MYCLIC autoinjector (Australia) and Enbrel SureClick autoinjector (Canada) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Because RA affects manual dexterity, ease of use of an autoinjector is a particularly important consideration in developing effective self-delivery of long-term courses of therapy...
April 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416742/model-driven-optimization-of-antiangiogenics-cytotoxics-combination-application-to-breast-cancer-mice-treated-with-bevacizumab-paclitaxel-doublet-leads-to-reduced-tumor-growth-and-fewer-metastasis
#19
Severine Mollard, Joseph Ciccolini, Diane-Charlotte Imbs, Raouf El Cheikh, Dominique Barbolosi, Sebastien Benzekry
Bevacizumab is the first-in-class antiangiogenic drug and is almost always administrated in combination with cytotoxics. Reports have shown that bevacizumab could induce a transient phase of vascular normalization, thus ensuring a better drug delivery when cytotoxics administration is adjuvant. However, determining the best sequence remains challenging. We have developed a mathematical model describing the impact of antiangiogenics on tumor vasculature. A 3.4 days gap between bevacizumab and paclitaxel was first proposed by our model...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414927/integration-of-free-hand-3d-ultrasound-and-mobile-c-arm-cone-beam-ct-feasibility-and-characterization-for-real-time-guidance-of-needle-insertion
#20
E Marinetto, A Uneri, T De Silva, S Reaungamornrat, W Zbijewski, A Sisniega, S Vogt, G Kleinszig, J Pascau, J H Siewerdsen
This work presents development of an integrated ultrasound (US)-cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for image-guided needle interventions, combining a low-cost ultrasound system (Interson VC 7.5MHz, Pleasanton, CA) with a mobile C-arm for fluoroscopy and CBCT via use of a surgical tracker. Imaging performance of the ultrasound system was characterized in terms of depth-dependent contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. US-CBCT system was evaluated in phantom studies simulating three needle-based procedures: drug delivery, tumor ablation, and lumbar puncture...
April 3, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
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