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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103440/carbon-nanotubes-mediate-fusion-of-lipid-vesicles
#1
Ramachandra Moorthy Bhaskara, Stephanie M Linker, Martin Vögele, Juergen Koefinger, Gerhard Hummer
The fusion of lipid membranes is opposed by high energetic barriers. In living organisms, complex protein machineries carry out this biologically essential process. Here we show that membrane-spanning carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can trigger spontaneous fusion of small lipid vesicles. In coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we find that a CNT bridging between two vesicles locally perturbs their lipid structure. Their outer leaflets merge as the CNT pulls lipids out of the membranes, creating an hourglass-shaped fusion intermediate with still intact inner leaflets...
January 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103046/food-protein-based-core-shell-nanocarriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-effect-of-shell-composition-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-functional-performance-of-zein-nanocarriers
#2
Mohammed S Alqahtani, Md Saiful Islam, Satheesh Podaralla, Radhey S Kaushik, Joshua J Reineke, Tofuko Woyengo, Omathanu Perumal
The study was aimed at systematically investigating the influence of shell composition on the particle size, stability, release, cell uptake, permeability and in-vivo gastrointestinal distribution of food protein-based nanocarriers for oral delivery applications. Three different core-shell nanocarriers were prepared using food-grade biopolymers including zein-casein (ZC) nanoparticles, zein-lactoferrin (ZLF) nanoparticles and zein-PEG (ZPEG) micelles. Nile red was used as a model hydrophobic dye for in-vitro studies...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102956/experimental-verification-of-4d-monte-carlo-simulations-of-dose-delivery-to-a-moving-anatomy
#3
Sara Gholampourkashi, Miro Vujicic, Jason Belec, Joanna E Cygler, Emily Heath
PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel 4D Monte Carlo simulation tool by comparing calculations to physical measurements using a respiratory motion phantom. METHODS: We used a dynamic Quasar phantom in both stationary and breathing states (sinusoidal motion of amplitude of 1.8 cm and period of 3.3 s) for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linear accelerator. Gafchromic EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system were placed inside the lung insert of the phantom to measure dose profiles and point-dose values at the center of the spherical tumor inside the insert...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102933/what-if-a-tumor-is-significantly-enlarged-just-before-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Hung-Jen Chen, Ji-An Liang, Chih-Yi Chen, Yang-Hao Yu, Chun-Ru Chien
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plays an important role in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor growth before radiotherapy planning (RTP) or during SBRT has been reported in lung cancer patients; however, little is known of growth during the period in-between (i.e. after RTP but before SBRT). An 83-year-old man referred to our hospital and diagnosed with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer was noted to have significant tumor progression on day 1 of cone beam computed tomography just before the planned SBRT delivery...
November 18, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101155/the-5-ht2a-receptor-potassium-chloride-cotransporter-2-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-incision-pain-model
#5
Rong Dong, Buwei Yu, Lijiao Chen, Weifeng Yu
Postoperative pain is a critical problem in clinical pain administration. Due to the unclear formation mechanism of postoperative pain, the treatment of postoperative pain is still in the symptomatic treatment stage and lacking satisfactory analgesic effect. Postoperative pain can be simulated by using a rat incision pain model. We observed changes in pain-related behavior of rats affected by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist, TCB-2, and antagonist, ketanserin, through intrathecal delivery...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100215/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-to-evaluate-the-use-of-community-services-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#6
Reda Lebcir, Eren Demir, Raheelah Ahmad, Christos Vasilakis, David Southern
BACKGROUND: The number of people affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in the United Kingdom driven by population ageing. The treatment of the disease is complex, resource intensive and currently there is no known cure to PD. The National Health Service (NHS), the public organisation delivering healthcare in the UK, is under financial pressures. There is a need to find innovative ways to improve the operational and financial performance of treating PD patients. The use of community services is a new and promising way of providing treatment and care to PD patients at reduced cost than hospital care...
January 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099372/effect-of-sequence-of-simulated-and-clinical-practicum-learning-experiences-on-clinical-competency-of-nursing-students
#7
Jamie Hansen, Marilyn Bratt
Two different sequences of blocks of simulated and clinical practicum learning experiences compared the clinical competency development of nursing students using a randomized crossover design. Competency was measured 3 times: after each block of simulated and clinical experiences and after a final simulated experience. No significant differences in competency scores between the 2 groups across the 3 time points were found. Using alternative models of clinical and simulation learning may help address barriers to the delivery of clinical education faced by schools of nursing...
January 18, 2017: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097872/a-dual-responsive-bola-type-supra-amphiphile-constructed-from-water-soluble-pillar-5-arene-and-naphthalimide-containing-amphiphile-for-intracellular-drug-delivery
#8
Xin Liu, Keke Jia, Yichen Wang, Wei Shao, Chenhao Yao, Luming Peng, Dongmei Zhang, Xiao-Yu Hu, Leyong Wang
Supramolecular construction of multi-stimuli platform for drug delivery is a challenging task. In this work, a pH and GSH (glutathione) dual-responsive bola-type supramolecular amphiphile was successfully fabricated by the complexation between a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and a bolaform naphthalimide guest (G) in water. The resulting bola-type amphiphile further self-assembled into supramolecular binary vesicles, which could be disassembled by low pH and/or high GSH concentration environment. Furthermore, the results of drug loading and releasing tests showed that doxorubicin (DOX), the hydrophobic anticancer drug, could be successfully encapsulated into the Stern region of the obtained supramolecular vesicles and generated the DOX-loaded vesicles with good drug-loading efficiency...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#9
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092926/effect-of-gravity-and-microgravity-on-intracranial-pressure
#10
Justin S Lawley, Lonnie G Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Benjamin D Levine
Astronauts have recently been discovered to have impaired vision, with a presentation that resembles syndromes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This syndrome is considered the most mission critical medical problem identified in the past decade of manned spaceflight. We recruited five men and three women who had an Ommaya reservoir inserted for the delivery of prophylactic central nervous system chemotherapy, but were free of their malignant disease for at least 1 year. ICP was assessed by placing a fluid-filled 25 ga butterfly needle into the Ommaya reservoir...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092515/towards-a-run-to-run-adaptive-artificial-pancreas-in-silico-results
#11
Chiara Toffanin, Roberto Visentin, Mirko Messori, Federico Di Palma, Lalo Magni, Claudio Cobelli
: Contemporary and future outpatient long-term artificial pancreas (AP) studies need to cope with the well-known large intra- and inter-day glucose variability occurring in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects. Here we propose an adaptive Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to account for it and test it in silico. METHODS: A Run-to-Run (R2R) approach adapts the subcutaneous basal insulin delivery during the night and the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CR) during the day, based on some performance indices calculated from subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor data...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092136/computational-fluid-dynamic-modeling-of-nose-to-ceiling-head-positioning-for-sphenoid-sinus-irrigation
#12
John R Craig, James N Palmer, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: After sinus surgery, patients are commonly instructed to irrigate with saline irrigations with their heads over a sink and noses directed inferiorly (nose-to-floor). Although irrigations can penetrate the sinuses in this head position, no study has assessed whether sphenoid sinus penetration can be improved by irrigating with the nose directed superiorly (nose-to-ceiling). The purpose of this study was to use a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of sinus irrigations to assess the difference in sphenoid sinus delivery of irrigations after irrigating in a nose-to-floor vs nose-to-ceiling head position...
January 16, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089874/mathematical-modelling-of-cell-layer-growth-in-a-hollow-fibre-bioreactor
#13
Lloyd A C Chapman, Jonathan P Whiteley, Helen M Byrne, Sarah L Waters, Rebecca J Shipley
Generating autologous tissue grafts of a clinically useful volume requires efficient and controlled expansion of cell populations harvested from patients. Hollow fibre bioreactors show promise as cell expansion devices, owing to their potential for scale-up. However, further research is required to establish how to specify appropriate hollow fibre bioreactor operating conditions for expanding different cell types. In this study we develop a simple model for the growth of a cell layer seeded on the outer surface of a single fibre in a perfused hollow fibre bioreactor...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088574/time-dependence-of-the-enhancement-effect-of-chemical-enhancers-molecular-mechanisms-of-enhancing-kinetics
#14
Xiaochang Liu, Peng Quan, Shanshan Li, Chao Liu, Yuan Zhao, Yongshan Zhao, Liang Fang
Chemical enhancers are widely used for facilitating drug penetration in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). However, there is a lack of knowledge about how the enhancement effect changes over time. In this study, on the basis of kinetic parameters of enhancement effect, molecular details of the dynamic enhancement process was described and a new hypothesis of the recovery mechanism of the skin barrier function was proposed. Using pretreated skin and flurbiprofen patch, the effects of Azone (AZ) and menthyl decanoate (MT-10) were evaluated with in vitro permeation experiment and further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and TEWL...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088371/a-quality-by-design-qbd-study-on-enoxaparin-sodium-loaded-polymeric-microspheres-for-colon-specific-delivery
#15
Dana Hales, Laurian Vlase, Sebastian Alin Porav, Andreea Bodoki, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Marcela Achim, Ioan Tomuță
The aim of this study was to apply quality by design (QbD) for pharmaceutical development of enoxaparin sodium microspheres for colon-specific delivery. The Process Parameters (CPPs) and Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) were identified. A central composite experimental design was used in order to develop the design space of microspheres for colon-specific delivery that have the desired Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP). The CPPs studied were Eudragit® FS-30D/Eudragit® RS-PO ratio, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087456/phase-i-trial-of-total-marrow-and-lymphoid-irradiation-transplant-conditioning-in-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-acute-leukemia
#16
Anthony Stein, Joycelynne Palmer, Ni-Chun Tsai, Monzr M Al Malki, Ibrahim Aldoss, Haris Ali, Ahmed Aribi, Len Farol, Chatchada Karanes, Samer Khaled, An Liu, Margaret O'Donnell, Pablo Parker, Anna Pawlowska, Vinod Pullarkat, Eric Radany, Joseph Rosenthal, Firoozeh Sahebi, Amandeep Salhotra, James F Sanchez, Tim Schultheiss, Ricardo Spielberger, Sandra H Thomas, David Snyder, Ryotaro Nakamura, Guido Marcucci, Stephen J Forman, Jeffrey Wong
Current conditioning regimens provide insufficient disease control in relapsed/refractory acute leukemia (AL) patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with active disease. Intensification of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) is not feasible because of excessive toxicity. Total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) allows for precise delivery and increased intensity treatment via sculpting radiation to sites with high disease burden or high risk for disease involvement, while sparing normal tissue...
January 10, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087355/generation-of-quercetin-cellulose-acetate-phthalate-systems-for-delivery-by-supercritical-antisolvent-process
#17
I García-Casas, A Montes, C Pereyra, E J Martínez de la Ossa
Supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) has been used to precipitate microparticles of quercetin, a plant pigment found in many foods and used for medical treatments, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, together with nanoparticles of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a polymer quite frequently used in drug delivery. Previously, precipitation of nanoparticles of CAP by the same process was studied at different conditions of pressure, temperature, CO2and solution flow rates, nozzle diameter and initial concentration of the solution...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087354/effect-of-piroxicam-on-lipid-membranes-drug-encapsulation-and-gastric-toxicity-aspects
#18
Natalia Wilkosz, Sami Rissanen, Małgorzata Cyza, Renata Szybka, Maria Nowakowska, Alex Bunker, Tomasz Róg, Mariusz Kepczynski
Uptake of piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, from the intestines after oral intake is limited due to its low solubility and its wide use is associated with several side effects related to the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and fluorescent spectroscopy were employed to investigate the interaction of piroxicam in neutral, zwitterionic, and cationic forms with lipid bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and PEGylated lipids. Our study was aimed to assess the potential for encapsulation of piroxicam in liposomal carriers and to shed more light on the process of gastrointestinal tract injury by the drug...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087273/chitosan-cross-linked-with-poly-ethylene-glycol-dialdehyde-via-reductive-amination-as-effective-controlled-release-carriers-for-oral-protein-drug-delivery
#19
Zi-Wei Jing, Zhi-Wei Ma, Chen Li, Yi-Yang Jia, Min Luo, Xi-Xi Ma, Si-Yuan Zhou, Bang-Le Zhang
The covalently cross-linked chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol)1540 derivatives have been developed as a controlled release system with potential for the delivery of protein drug. The swelling characteristics of the hydrogels based on these derivatives as the function of different PEG content and the release profiles of a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) from the hydrogels were evaluated in simulated gastric fluid with or without enzyme in order to simulate the gastrointestinal tract conditions. The derivatives cross-linked with difunctional PEG1540-dialdehyde via reductive amination can swell in alkaline pH and remain insoluble in acidic medium...
December 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081355/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-in-poultry-using-ph-sensitive-tablets
#20
Tao Jiang, Hui-Shan Li, Geon Goo Han, Bijay Singh, Sang-Kee Kang, Jin-Duck Bok, Dae-Duk Kim, Zhong-Shan Hong, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
As alternatives to antibiotics in live stocks, probiotics have been used although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for live stocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxyproyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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