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simulation delivery

Donald M Hilty, Carolyn Turvey, Tiffany Hwang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychiatric practice continues to evolve and play an important role in patients' lives, the field of medicine, and health care delivery. Clinicians must learn a variety of clinical care systems and lifelong learning (LLL) is crucial to apply knowledge, develop skills, and adjust attitudes. Technology is rapidly becoming a key player-in delivery, lifelong learning, and education/training. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence base for telepsychiatry/telemental health via videoconferencing has been growing for three decades, but a greater array of technologies have emerged in the last decade (e...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Gonçalo Marcelo, Inês C Ferreira, Raquel Viveiros, Teresa Casimiro
A novel class of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on Itaconic acid:Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were developed as a potential body-friendly oral drug delivery system for metronidazole (MZ), a pH-independent drug, simulating a real environment. Itaconic acid-based copolymers were synthesized with two different molar ratios of template:monomer:crosslinker (T:M:C), 1:5:25 and 1:5:50, in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) in high yields. Further, impregnation of MZ was performed in scCO2 environment...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Maria Aponte, Francesca Ungaro, Ivana d'Angelo, Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Antonio Calignano, Agnese Miro
This study reports novel food-grade granules for co-delivery of L. plantarum 299v and a standardized extract of Olea europaea leaves (Phenolea®) as oral carrier of probiotics and hydroxytyrosol. Different granule formulations containing either L. plantarum 299v (Lac), or the olive leave extract (Phe) or their combination (Lac-Phe) have been successfully produced through wet granulation employing excipients generally regarded as safe as granulating/binding agents. L. plantarum cells withstood the manufacturing process and were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than 6 months...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Xiaolei Xie, Tianhua He, Jian Kang, David S Siscovick, Yan Li, José A Pagán
China has the largest population of adults with hypertension in the world. Recent clinical trials have shown that intensive hypertension control can help patients achieve lower blood pressure and reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but this level of hypertension control also incurs additional costs to patients and society and may result in a substantial increase in adverse events. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of intensive hypertension control to inform health policymakers and health care delivery systems in China in their decision-making regarding hypertension treatment strategies...
March 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Matthew J Drago, Ursula Guillén, Maria Schiaratura, Jennifer Batza, Annette Zygmunt, Anja Mowes, David Munson, John M Lorenz, Christiana Farkouh-Karoleski, Haresh Kirpalani
Objective How Latino parents perceive and understand antenatal counseling for extreme prematurity, < 26 weeks of gestational age (GA), is not clear. We aim to characterize Latino parental perceptions of antenatal counseling in order to construct and validate a Spanish decision-aid (SDA) to improve parental knowledge of prematurity after antenatal consults. Methods This is a three-phased, prospective, multicenter study. First, interviews of 22 Latino parents with a history of birth < 26 weeks GA were conducted...
March 8, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Joseph M DeCunha, Shirin A Enger
PURPOSE: Renewed interest is being expressed in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT). A number of unresolved issues exist in the discipline. Providing a homogeneous and adequate dose to the target remains difficult in IVBT. The guidewire that delivers the device to the target, arterial plaques, and stent struts are all known to reduce the dose delivered to target. The viability and efficacy of a proposed IVBT delivery system designed to resolve the issue of guidewire attenuation is evaluated and compared to that of a popular and commercially available IVBT device...
March 5, 2018: Brachytherapy
Chufen Yang, Zhaolin Xue, Yinglin Liu, Jiayu Xiao, Jingrui Chen, Lijuan Zhang, Jianwei Guo, Wenjing Lin
To improve the drug release rate in well-controlled manner, a new pH-sensitive triblock amphiphilic copolymer methyl poly(ethylene glycol) ether-b-poly(β-amino esters)-b-poly lactic acid (MPEG-b-PBAE-b-PLA) and its self-assembled micelles were developed for anticancer drug delivery. The average molecular weight and molecular structure of MPEG-b-PBAE-b-PLA were confirmed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and1 H NMR. The formation of self-assembled micelles, the microstructures at different pH values, and the distribution of doxorubicin (DOX) were investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation combined with experimental techniques...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Adolfo Marican, Fabián Avila-Salas, Oscar Valdés, Sergio Wehinger, Jorge Villaseñor, Natalia Fuentealba, Mauricio Arenas-Salinas, Yerko Argandoña, Verónica Carrasco-Sánchez, Esteban F Durán-Lara
This study describes the in-silico rational design, synthesis and evaluation of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels containing γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CDHSAs) as platforms for the sustained release of prednisone (PDN). Through in-silico studies using semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculations, the effectiveness of 20 dicarboxylic acids to generate a specific cross-linked hydrogel capable of supporting different amounts of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was evaluated. According to the interaction energies calculated with the in-silico studies, the hydrogel made from PVA cross-linked with succinic acids (SA) was shown to be the best candidate for containing γ-CD...
March 7, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Xinguang Cui, Eva Gutheil
An excellent understanding of the airflow properties is critical to improve the drug delivery efficiency via the extrathoracic airway. The present numerical study focuses on the investigation the characteristics of important airflow structures such as the secondary vortices, the impinging jet and the recirculation zone under unsteady inspiration flow conditions in a circular idealized mouth-throat model using large eddy simulation (LES). Five inhalation cycles are simulated, the last one of which is analyzed in detail at five different times...
March 5, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Zhigao Niu, Eleni Samaridou, Emilie Jaumain, Julie Coëne, Gabriela Ullio, Neha Shrestha, Josep Garcia, Matilde Durán-Lobato, Sulay Tovar, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, M Mar Arroyo-Jiménez, Rocío Ramos-Membrive, Iván Peñuelas, Aloïse Mabondzo, Véronique Préat, Meritxell Teixidó, Ernest Giralt, María José Alonso
The objective of this work was the development of a new drug nanocarrier intended to overcome the barriers associated to the oral modality of administration and to assess its value for the systemic or local delivery of peptides. The nanocarrier was rationally designed taking into account the nature of the intestinal barriers and was loaded with insulin, which was selected as a model peptide. The nanocarrier consisted of a nanocomplex between insulin and a hydrophobically-modified cell penetrating peptide (CPP), enveloped by a protecting polymer...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zhen Li, Yonghui Zhang, Chun Chan, Chunyi Zhi, Xiaolin Cheng, Jun Fan
Two-dimensional (2D) materials can mechanically insert into cell membranes and extract lipids out, thus leading to the destruction of cell integrity. On the one hand, the cytotoxicity of 2D materials can be harnessed in surface engineering to resist biofouling; on the other hand, it causes great concern on in vivo biomedical applications ranging from drug delivery to nano-imaging. To understand the nature of this cytotoxic behavior and find strategies to control it, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the lipid extraction of hexagonal boron nitride (BN) nanosheets from lipid membranes...
March 8, 2018: ACS Nano
Shengfeng Peng, Ziling Li, Liqiang Zou, Wei Liu, Chengmei Liu, David Julian McClements
Curcumin is a bioactive phytochemical that can be utilized as a nutraceutical or pharmaceutical in functional foods, supplements, and medicines. However, the application of curcumin as a nutraceutical in commercial food and beverage products is currently limited by its low water-solubility, chemical instability, and poor oral bioavailability. In this study, all-natural colloidal delivery systems were developed to overcome these challenges, which consisted of saponin-coated curcumin nanoparticles formed using a pH-driven loading method...
March 8, 2018: Food & Function
Azzurra Agostini, Umberto Capasso Palmiero, Sara D A Barbieri, Monica Lupi, Davide Moscatelli
Ibuprofen (IBU) is a widespread drug used to treat both acute and chronic disorders. It is generally taken orally but the free drug can induce the irritation of the gastric mucosa due to its acid nature. In literature, different approaches have been adopted to prevent the release in the stomach, such as physical entrapment with film-coated tablets and drug-conjugates. Nevertheless, these solutions have many disadvantages, including the fast release of the drug and the difficulty to swallow the tablet, especially for children who may vomit or refuse the tablet...
March 8, 2018: Nanotechnology
Aidan Leong, Patries Herst, Paul Kane
INTRODUCTION: The ability to understand treatment plan dosimetry and apply this understanding clinically is fundamental to the role of the radiation therapist. This study evaluates whether or not the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) contributes to teaching treatment planning concepts to a cohort of first-year radiation therapy students. METHODS: We directly compared a custom-developed VERT teaching module with a standard teaching module with respect to the understanding of treatment planning concepts using a cross-over design...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Quaker E Harmon, Olga Basso, Clarice R Weinberg, Allen J Wilcox
Preterm delivery is one of the strongest predictors of neonatal mortality. A given exposure may increase neonatal mortality directly, or indirectly by increasing the risk of preterm birth. Efforts to assess these direct and indirect effects are complicated by the fact that neonatal mortality arises from two distinct denominators (i.e. two risk sets). One risk set comprises fetuses, susceptible to intrauterine pathologies (such as malformations or infection), which can result in neonatal death. The other risk set comprises live births, who (unlike fetuses) are susceptible to problems of immaturity and complications of delivery...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mikael Frisk, Annie Jonsson, Stefan Sellman, Patrik Flisberg, Mikael Rönnqvist, Uno Wennergren
Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning...
2018: PloS One
Stephan Walrand, Michel Hesse, Francois Jamar, Renaud Lhommel
Our literature survey revealed a physical effect unknown to the nuclear medicine community, i.e. internal bremsstrahlung emission, and the existence of long energy resolution tails in crystal scintillation. None of these effects has ever been modelled in PET Monte Carlo simulations. This study investigates whether these two effects could be at the origin of two unexplained observations in 90Y imaging by PET: the increasing tails in the radial profile of true coincidences; the presence of spurious extra-hepatic counts post radioembolization in non-TOF PET and their absence in TOF PET...
March 7, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Fabrizio Bracco, Gabriele de Tonetti, Michele Masini, Marcello Passarelli, Francesca Geretto, Danilo Celleno
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) is now widespread and is often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, CRM skills need to be mapped to specific and observable behavioral markers. For this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Oliver T Mytton, Christopher Jackson, Arno Steinacher, Anna Goodman, Claudia Langenberg, Simon Griffin, Nick Wareham, James Woodcock
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme was introduced in 2009 in England to systematically assess all adults in midlife for cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, its current benefit and impact on health inequalities are unknown. It is also unclear whether feasible changes in how it is delivered could result in increased benefits. It is one of the first such programmes in the world. We sought to estimate the health benefits and effect on inequalities of the current NHS Health Check programme and the impact of making feasible changes to its implementation...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
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