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simulation delivery

Jessica A Nash, Albert L Kwansa, James Samuel Peerless, Ho Shin Kim, Yaroslava G Yingling
Nanoparticles (NPs) play increasingly important roles in nanotechnology and nanomedicine where nanoparticle surface chemistry allows for control over interactions with other nanoparticles and biomolecules. In particular, for applications in drug and gene delivery, a fundamental understanding of the NP-nucleic acid interface allows for development of more efficient and effective nanoparticle carriers. Computational modeling can provide insights of processes occurring at the inorganic NP-nucleic interface, in detail which is difficult to access by experimental methods...
October 24, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Phil J Peacock, Anna Woodman, Wendy McCay, Sarah E Bates
INTRODUCTION: Non-pediatric trainees working in pediatrics in the UK are expected to attend newborn deliveries and provide initial newborn life support if needed. In Swindon, new junior doctors receive a 90-minute teaching session at the start of their pediatrics rotation, but the content has not previously been standardized, and it may be several weeks before a doctor attends a newborn delivery. Thus, the confidence and competence in newborn resuscitation of doctors attending deliveries can vastly vary...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Lei Li, Guohua Jiang, Weijiang Yu, Depeng Liu, Hua Chen, Yongkun Liu, Zaizai Tong, Xiangdong Kong, Juming Yao
To overcome multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers modified by L-valine (LV, used as a target ligand to facilitate the absorption of the small intestine) and phenylboronic acid (PBA, used as a glucose-responsive unit) have been designed and evaluated in this study. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited low cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Trishal Boodhna, David P Crabb
BACKGROUND: Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF). Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Lauren E Marshall, Roy Koomullil, Andra R Frost, Joel L Berry
A preclinical testing model for cancer therapeutics that replicates in vivo physiology is needed to accurately describe drug delivery and efficacy prior to clinical trials. To develop an in vitro model of breast cancer that mimics in vivo drug/nutrient delivery as well as physiological size and bio-composition, it is essential to describe the mass transport quantitatively. The objective of the present study was to develop in vitro and computational models to measure mass transport from a perfusion system into a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Heni Rachmawati, Annisa Rahma, Loaye Al Shaal, Rainer H Müller, Cornelia M Keck
We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The average diameter of particles, microscopic appearance, and sedimentation of each preparation was observed and compared...
October 18, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
David A Winkler
Nanoparticles are finding many applications in medicine and other field like photonics. Magnetic nanoparticles have additional advantages in medicine over non-magnetic hard nanoparticles, as their magnetic properties make them ideal for hyperthermic applications in therapy and for sensitive diagnostic imaging applications. I review the literature on computational models of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles specifically. Such models have the potential to accelerate the design of magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications...
October 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Cigdem Yucel Falco, Javier Sotres, Ana Rascón, Jens Risbo, Marité Cárdenas
HYPOTHESIS: Chitosan and sulfated oat β-glucan are materials suitable to create a prebiotic coating for targeted delivery to gastrointestinal system, using the layer by layer technology. EXPERIMENT: Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the multilayer formation capacity and characterize the resulting coatings in terms of morphology and material properties such as structure and rigidity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lihui Weng, Hsiang-Jer Tseng, Parinaz Rostamzadeh, Jafar Golzarian
Drug loadable bioresorbable microspheres (BRMS) are specially designed for the treatment of hypervascular tumors through arterial embolization. These microspheres consist of carboxymethyl chitosan crosslinked with carboxymethyl cellulose, and are available at different size ranges varying from 50 to 900 µm in diameter. Similar to commercially available non-resorbable drug eluting microspheres, LC Bead(®) microspheres (LCB), BRMS were capable of loading more than 99 % of doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, from the solution within 2 h with highly similar kinetics (difference factor f 1 = 0...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ahmad Bani-Jaber, Iyad Alshawabkeh, Samaa Abdullah, Imad Hamdan, Adel Ardakani, Maha Habash
Due to its unique properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, high amphiphilic property, and micelle formation, casein (CS) has been increasingly studied for drug delivery. We used CS as a drug carrier in solid dispersions (SDs) and evaluated the effect of its degradation by trypsin on drug dissolution from the dispersions. SDs of CS and mefenamic acid (MA) were prepared by physical mixing, kneading, and coprecipitation methods. In comparison to pure MA, the dispersions were evaluated for drug-protein interaction, loss of drug crystalinity, and drug morphology by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy...
October 17, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Naola Austin, Sara Goldhaber-Fiebert, Kay Daniels, Julie Arafeh, Veronique Grenon, Dana Welle, Steven Lipman
As pioneers in the field of patient safety, anesthesiologists are uniquely suited to help develop and implement safety strategies to minimize preventable harm on the labor and delivery unit. Most existing obstetric safety strategies are not comprehensive, lack input from anesthesiologists, are designed with a relatively narrow focus, or lack implementation details to allow customization for different units. This article attempts to address these gaps and build more comprehensive strategies by discussing the available evidence and multidisciplinary authors' local experience with obstetric simulation drills and optimization of team communication...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jenny M Pedersen, Yoo-Sik Shim, Vaibhav Hans, Martin B Phillips, Jeffrey M Macdonald, Glenn Walker, Melvin E Andersen, Harvey J Clewell, Miyoung Yoon
Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shuo Wang, Sujin Kim, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The "linear parametric neurotransmitter PET" (lp-ntPET) model was introduced to capture the time course of transient endogenous neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus from dynamic PET data. We previously used this novel analysis tool to probe the short-lived dopamine (DA) response induced by cigarette smoking in the PET scanner. It allowed us to find a sex difference in the DA signature of cigarette smoking. To make best use of this tool to characterize neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus, the sensitivity of lp-ntPET to detect such responses must be maximized...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Yanan Shi, Keke Li, Baocheng Tian, Maolei Xu, Qingzhi Lv, Juanjuan Zhao, Jingtian Han, Dongxiao Feng
Daily subcutaneous injection of human growth hormone has been used for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and growth failure but has led to poor patient compliance and renal toxicity. Thus, it is crucial to develop favorable growth hormone delivery systems to improve patient compliance. In the present study, to increase the oral bioavailability of growth hormone and improve patient compliance, enteric-coated capsules filled with monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared to facilitate oral growth hormone delivery...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Samuel Smith
Shoulder dystocia is an obstetrical emergency that may result in significant neonatal complications. It requires rapid recognition and a coordinated response. Standardization of care, teamwork and communication, and clinical simulation are the key components of patient safety programs in obstetrics. Simulation-based team training and institutional protocols for the management of shoulder dystocia are emerging as integral components of many labor and delivery safety initiatives because of their impact on technical skills and team performance...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kristina M Shumard, Jeffrey M Denney, Kristen Quinn, Arnold S Grandis, Paul W Whitecar, John Bailey, Rubymel J Jijon-Knupp, Chenchen Huang, Kendra Kesty, Brian C Brost, Joshua F Nitsche
OBJECTIVE: Simulation training has been demonstrated to increase medical student confidence with vaginal deliveries; however, effect on skill performance is still lacking. To determine if integration of simulation training into the OB/GYN clerkship improves performance of vaginal deliveries, we assessed the effectiveness of simulation in third-year medical students. METHODS: During the OB/GYN clerkship, third-year students were assigned to receive vaginal delivery simulation (n=54) or cervical exam simulation (n=56), with each group serving as a simulation naïve control for the other skill...
October 2016: Family Medicine
Panagiotis Angelikopoulos, Lev Sarkisov, Zoe Cournia, Paraskevi Gkeka
Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising platform for imaging and drug delivery applications. A number of recent molecular simulation and theoretical studies explored how these NPs interact with model lipid membranes. However, interactions between ligand-coated NPs leading to possible cooperative effects and association have not been investigated. In this coarse-grained molecular dynamics study, we focus on a specific case of several anionic, ligand-coated NPs embedded in a lipid membrane. Several new effects are observed...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Michael Welter, Heiko Rieger
Tumor vasculature, the blood vessel network supplying a growing tumor with nutrients such as oxygen or glucose, is in many respects different from the hierarchically organized arterio-venous blood vessel network in normal tissues. Angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), vessel cooption (the integration of existing blood vessels into the tumor vasculature), and vessel regression remodel the healthy vascular network into a tumor-specific vasculature. Integrative models, based on detailed experimental data and physical laws, implement, in silico, the complex interplay of molecular pathways, cell proliferation, migration, and death, tissue microenvironment, mechanical and hydrodynamic forces, and the fine structure of the host tissue vasculature...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tiziana Frusca, Maria-Teresa Gervasi, Davide Paolini, Matteo Dionisi, Francesca Ferre, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disease which represents a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Accurate prediction of PE risk could provide an increase in health benefits and better patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic impact of introducing Elecsys sFlt-1/PlGF ratio test, in addition to standard practice, for the prediction of PE in women with suspected preeclampsia in the Italian NHS. METHODS: A decision tree model has been developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of pregnant women from the first presentation of clinical suspicion of PE in the 2nd and 3rd trimester until delivery...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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