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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#1
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633547/lipid-based-nanosystem-of-edaravone-development-optimization-characterization-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#2
Ankit Parikh, Krishna Kathawala, Chun Chuan Tan, Sanjay Garg, Xin-Fu Zhou
Edaravone (EDR) is a well-recognized lipophilic free radical scavenger for diseases including neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. However, its oral use is restricted due to poor oral bioavailability (BA). The aim of present research was to enable its oral use by developing a lipid-based nanosystem (LNS). The components of LNS including oil, surfactants, and co-surfactants were selected based on their potential to maximize the solubilization in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, reduce its glucuronidation and improve transmembrane permeability...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633119/polymer-grafted-magnetic-halloysite-nanotube-for-controlled-and-sustained-release-of-cationic-drug
#3
Meriem Fizir, Pierre Dramou, Kai Zhang, Cheng Sun, Chuong Pham-Huy, Hua He
In this research, novel polymer grafted-magnetic halloysite nanotubes with norfloxacin loaded (NOR-MHNTs) and controlled-release, was achieved by surface-initiated precipitation polymerization. The magnetic halloysite nanotubes exhibited better adsorption of NOR (72.10mgg(-1)) compared with the pristine HNTs (30.80mgg(-1)). Various parameters influencing the drug adsorption of the MHNTs for NOR were studied. Polymer grafted NOR-MHNTs has been designed using flexible docking in computer simulation to choose optimal monomers...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629862/sustained-delivery-of-bsa-hsa-from-biocompatible-plant-cellulose-nanocrystals-for-in-vitro-cholesterol-release-from-endothelial-cells
#4
Rubbel Singla, Sourabh Soni, Yogendra S Padwad, Amitabha Acharya, Sudesh Kumar Yadav
Nanocomposites of plant cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed by binding model proteins BSA and HSA onto CNCs by physical adsorption and chemical conjugation methods The spectroscopy and microscopy studies confirmed the protein binding onto CNCs. Phosphate buffer saline (pH=4.0, 7.4) and simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF/SIF; pH=1.1/6.5) showed maximum protein release of ∼62% over a period of time. The released proteins were found to retain both structural integrity as well as≥90% of bioactivity...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629084/facilitation-of-transscleral-drug-delivery-by-drug-loaded-magnetic-polymeric-particles
#5
Zeynab Mousavikhamene, Mohammad J Abdekhodaie, Hamid Ahmadieh
A unique method was used to facilitate ocular drug delivery from periocular route by drug loaded magnetic sensitive particles. Injection of particles in periocular space along the eye axis followed by application of magnetic field in front of the eye would trigger the magnetic polymeric particles to move along the direction of magnetic force and reside against the outer surface of the sclera. This technique prevents removal of drug in the periocular space, observed in conventional transscleral drug delivery systems and hence higher amount of drug can enter the eye in a longer period of time...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629036/intestine-targeted-delivery-potency-of-the-o-carboxymethyl-chitosan-gum-arabic-coacervate-effects-of-coacervation-acidity-and-possible-mechanism
#6
Guo-Qing Huang, Li-Na Liu, Xiao-Na Han, Jun-Xia Xiao
The potential of the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC)-gum Arabic (GA) coacervate as an intestine-targeted delivery system for hydrophobic compounds was concerned. OCMC-GA coacervates and emulsified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microcapsules were prepared in pH3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 and their swelling behaviors as well as BSA release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids were measured. All the coacervates showed higher swelling ratios in the simulated gastric solution than in the simulated intestine and colon solutions and the values increased as the coacervation pH increased from 3...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627472/molecular-dynamics-as-a-tool-for-in-silico-screening-of-skin-permeability
#7
Paolo Rocco, Francesco Cilurzo, Paola Minghetti, Giulio Vistoli, Alessandro Pedretti
Prediction of skin permeability can have manifold applications ranging from drug delivery to toxicity prediction. Along with the semi-empirical or mechanistic models proposed in the last decades, Molecular Dynamics simulations have recently become a fruitful tool for investigating membrane permeability, in particular as they allow the involved mechanisms to be modelled at a molecular level. Despite their significant structural complexity, Molecular Dynamics simulations can also be utilized to study permeation through the lipid matrix that characterizes the stratum corneum...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627356/aquatic-therapy-for-children-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-and-mixed-methods-process-evaluation
#8
Daniel Hind, James Parkin, Victoria Whitworth, Saleema Rex, Tracey Young, Lisa Hampson, Jennie Sheehan, Chin Maguire, Hannah Cantrill, Elaine Scott, Heather Epps, Marion Main, Michelle Geary, Heather McMurchie, Lindsey Pallant, Daniel Woods, Jennifer Freeman, Ellen Lee, Michelle Eagle, Tracey Willis, Francesco Muntoni, Peter Baxter
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare disease that causes the progressive loss of motor abilities such as walking. Standard treatment includes physiotherapy. No trial has evaluated whether or not adding aquatic therapy (AT) to land-based therapy (LBT) exercises helps to keep muscles strong and children independent. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of recruiting boys with DMD to a randomised trial evaluating AT (primary objective) and to collect data from them; to assess how, and how well, the intervention and trial procedures work...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624886/pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-modified-acetylcysteine-infusion-regimens-used-in-the-treatment-of-paracetamol-poisoning
#9
Anselm Wong, Cornelia Landersdorfer, Andis Graudins
PURPOSE: Paracetamol overdose is common and is treated with acetylcysteine to prevent the development of hepatotoxicity. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) is the toxic metabolite of paracetamol overdose. We aimed to assess the expected acetylcysteine concentration time profiles following delivery of modified acetylcysteine regimens proposed for those at high and low risk of hepatotoxicity. In addition, we will determine acetylcysteine concentrations post-cessation of abbreviated infusions...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622144/a-technological-advance-for-21st-century-obstetricians-the-electronically-controlled-vacuum-extractor
#10
Nicola Perone
OBJECTIVE: To describe an innovative electronically-controlled vacuum extractor (VE) in detail and to illustrate its performance characteristics, as observed in a laboratory study. DESIGN: Thirty simulated, vacuum-assisted deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): (1) The ability to measure in real-time of the pull applied and to sound an alert, when the traction approaches the negative pressure under the cup, to prevent its detachment. (2) The recording and printing of a graphic representation of the pull applied (vacuum delivery graph)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621369/transport-of-nanoparticles-across-pulmonary-surfactant-monolayer-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#11
Yan Xu, Li Deng, Hao Ren, Xianren Zhang, Fang Huang, Tongtao Yue
Pulmonary nanodrug delivery is an emerging concept, especially for targeted lung cancer therapy. Once inhaled, the nanoparticles (NPs) acting as drug carriers need to efficiently cross the pulmonary surfactant monolayer (PSM) of lung alveoli, which act as the first barrier for external particles entering the lung. Herein, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, we study how inhaled NPs interact with the PSM, particularly focusing on the transport of NPs with different properties across the PSM. While hydrophilic NPs translocate directly across the PSM, transport of hydrophobic NPs is achieved as the PSM wraps them...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620913/efficacy-of-oral-lipid-based-formulations-of-apomorphine-and-its-diester-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#12
Nrupa Borkar, Daniel R Andersson, Mingshi Yang, Anette Müllertz, René Holm, Huiling Mu
OBJECTIVES: Apomorphine is used to symptomatically treat Parkinson's disease (PD). Oral delivery of apomorphine is generally limited by its short plasma half-life and a hepatic first-pass metabolism. This study was aimed at evaluating the behavioural response of apomorphine and its prodrug administered in oral lipid-based formulations. METHODS: The behavioural response of apomorphine and its prodrug administered in oral lipid-based formulations was evaluated using a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model simulating PD symptomatology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619402/global-health-values-of-a-multidirectional-near-peer-training-program-in-surgery-pathology-anatomy-research-methodology-and-medical-education-for-haitian-rwandan-and-canadian-medical-students
#13
Malik Elharram, Trish Dinh, Annie Lalande, Susan Ge, Sophie Gao, Geoffroy Noël
BACKGROUND: As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616417/the-comparison-the-effect-of-training-by-means-of-simulation-and-oral-method-on-midwives-skill-in-management-of-shoulder-dystocia
#14
Masoumeh Kordi, Fatemeh Erfanian, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Fatemeh Dastfan, Keivan Shariati Nejad
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder dystocia is one of the obstetric emergencies that are accompanied to serious risks for mother and fetus. It necessitates making the method of training of shoulder dystocia management more efficient, i.e., better management and giving services with higher quality. Thus, this study was carried out to compare the impact of training by simulation and oral technique on the skill of the employed midwives in obstetric clinics at Mashhad city (Iran) in shoulder dystocia management during 2012...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613303/buckling-in-armored-droplets
#15
François Sicard, Alberto Striolo
The buckling mechanism in droplets stabilized by solid particles (armored droplets) is tackled at a mesoscopic level using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We consider one spherical water droplet in a decane solvent coated with nanoparticle monolayers of two different types: Janus (particles whose surface shows two regions with different wetting properties) and homogeneous. The chosen particles yield comparable initial three-phase contact angles, selected to maximize the adsorption energy at the interface...
June 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613167/a-light-illumination-enhancement-device-for-photoacoustic-imaging-i-in-vivo-i-animal-study
#16
Jaesok Yu, Joel S Schuman, Jung-Kun Lee, Sang Goo Lee, Jin Ho Chang, Kang Kim
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging detects acoustic signals generated by thermal expansion of light excited tissue or contrast agents. PA signal amplitude and image quality directly depend on the light fluence at the target depth. With conventional PA imaging systems, approximately 30% energy of incident light at the near-infrared region would be lost due to reflection on the skin surface. Such light loss directly leads to a reduction of PA signal and image quality. A new light delivery scheme that collects and re-distributes reflected light energy was recently suggested, which is called the light catcher...
June 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612288/magnetic-resonance-image-guidance-in-external-beam-radiation-therapy-planning-and-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Ilamurugu Arivarasan, Chandrasekaran Anuradha, Shanmuga Subramanian, Ayyalusamy Anantharaman, Velayudham Ramasubramanian
The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in radiation oncology is improving dramatically. This review article discusses the necessity of image guidance and how MR finds a significant place in radiotherapy planning and delivery. The challenges to and current solutions for an in-house MR simulation, dedicated MR simulator, estimation of electron density using MR image sets and development of MR-compatible treatment planning systems are presented. This article also reviews the feasibility, advantages and limitations of MR image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) and its drive toward the integration of radiation beams with MR technology...
June 13, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612189/the-inclusion-of-chitosan-in-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanoparticles-impact-on-the-delivery-system-characteristics-and-on-the-adsorbed-ovalbumin-secondary-structure
#18
Sandra Jesus, Elizangela H Fragal, Adley F Rubira, Edvani C Muniz, Artur J M Valente, Olga Borges
This report extensively explores the benefits of including chitosan into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) to obtain an improved protein/antigen delivery system. Blend NPs (PCL/chitosan NPs) showed improved protein adsorption efficacy (84%) in low shear stress and aqueous environment, suggesting that a synergistic effect between PCL hydrophobic nature and the positive charges of chitosan present at the particle surface was responsible for protein interaction. Additionally, thermal analysis suggested the blend NPs were more stable than the isolated polymers and cytotoxicity assays in a primary cell culture revealed chitosan inclusion in PCL NPs reduced the toxicity of the delivery system...
June 13, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610893/an-insight-into-the-molecular-mechanism-of-the-temporary-enhancement-effect-of-isopulegol-decanoate-on-the-skin
#19
Xiaochang Liu, Meiying Liu, Chao Liu, Peng Quan, Yongshan Zhao, Liang Fang
Chemical enhancers are widely used to facilitate drug permeation in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) and the effect of chemical enhancers is desired to be temporary. Though temporary enhancement effect of chemical enhancers has been widely discussed, there is still a lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanism of temporary enhancement effect. Using the skin permeation of flurbiprofen as a probe, the temporary enhancement effect of isopulegol decanoate (ISO-10) was evaluated with in vitro permeation experiment and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610879/preactivated-thiolated-glycogen-as-mucoadhesive-polymer-for-drug-delivery
#20
Mara Perrone, Antonio Lopalco, Angela Lopedota, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Valentino Laquintana, Justin Douglas, Massimo Franco, Elisa Liberati, Vincenzo Russo, Serena Tongiani, Nunzio Denora, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The purpose of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel thiolated glycogen, so-named S-preactivated thiolated glycogen, as a mucosal drug delivery systems and the assessment of its mucoadhesive properties. In this regard, glycogen-cysteine and glycogen-cysteine-2-mercaptonicotinic acid conjugates were synthesized. Glycogen was activated by an oxidative ring opening with sodium periodate resulting in reactive aldehyde groups to which cysteine was bound via reductive amination. The obtained thiolated polymer displayed 2203...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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