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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#1
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737908/edible-nanoencapsulation-vehicles-for-oral-delivery-of-phytochemicals-a-perspective-paper
#2
Jie Xiao, Yong Cao, Qingrong Huang
Edible nanoencapsulation vehicles (ENVs) designed for the delivery of phytochemicals have gained increasing research interest. The major driving force for this trend is the potential bioavailability enhancement effect for phytochemicals when delivered via ENVs. ENVs affect the bioefficacy of phytochemicals by influencing their dispersion and gastrointestinal stability, rate and site of release, transportation efficiency across endothelial layer, systemic circulation and biodistribution, as well as the regulation of gut microflora...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737409/low-buffer-capacity-and-alternating-motility-along-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-implications-for-in-vivo-dissolution-and-absorption-of-ionizable-drugs
#3
Bart Hens, Yasuhiro Tsume, Marival Bermejo, Paulo Paixao, Mark Koenigsknecht, Jason R Baker, William L Hasler, R Lionberger, Jianghong Fan, Joseph Dickens, Kerby A Shedden, Bo Wen, Jeffrey Wysocki, Raimar Löbenberg, Allen Lee, Ann F Fioritto, Gregory E Amidon, Alex Yu, Gail Benninghoff, Niloufar Salehi, Arjang Talattof, Duxin Sun, Gordon L Amidon
In this study, we determined the pH and buffer capacity of human gastrointestinal (GI) fluids (aspirated from the stomach, duodenum, proximal jejunum and mid/distal jejunum) as a function of time, from 37 healthy subjects after oral administration of an 800 mg immediate-release tablet of ibuprofen (reference listed drug; RLD) under typical prescribed bioequivalence (BE) study protocol conditions in both fasted and fed state (simulated by ingestion of a liquid meal). Simultaneously, motility was continuously monitored using water-perfused manometry...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736930/technical-note-mobile-accelerator-guidance-using-an-optical-tracker-during-docking-in-ioert-procedures
#4
Eugenio Marinetto, Juan González Victores, Mónica García-Sevilla, Mercedes Muñoz, Felipe Ángel Calvo, Carlos Balaguer, Manuel Desco, Javier Pascau
PURPOSE: Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) involves the delivery of a high radiation dose during tumor resection in a shorter time than other radiation techniques, thus improving local control of tumors. However, a linear accelerator device is needed to produce the beam safely. Mobile linear accelerators have been designed as dedicated units that can be moved into the operating room and deliver radiation in situ. Correct and safe dose delivery is a key concern when using mobile accelerators...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736284/adam-a-breathing-phantom-for-lung-sbrt-quality-assurance
#5
Stefania Pallotta, Silvia Calusi, Leonardo Foggi, Riccardo Lisci, Laura Masi, Livia Marrazzo, Cinzia Talamonti, Lorenzo Livi, Gabriele Simontacchi
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy treatment of moving lesions is a challenging task in which different strategies can be used to adequately treat the tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue. The complexity of these strategies requires accurate and appropriate quality assurance tests. For this purpose, ADAM (Anthropomorphic Dynamic breAthing Model), a new phantom which simulates realistic patient breathing, was developed aiming to test the image quality and dose delivery in lung cancer treatments...
July 20, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735415/cfd-simulation-of-aerosol-delivery-to-a-human-lung-via-surface-acoustic-wave-nebulization
#6
Morteza Yousefi, Oveis Pourmehran, Mofid Gorji-Bandpy, Kiao Inthavong, Leslie Yeo, Jiyuan Tu
Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734644/postmastectomy-radiation-therapy-technique-and-cardiopulmonary-sparing-a-dosimetric-comparative-analysis-between-photons-and-protons-with-free-breathing-versus-deep-inspiration-breath-hold
#7
Sagar A Patel, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Jacqueline A Nyamwanda, Rachel B Jimenez, Alphonse G Taghian, Shannon M MacDonald, Nicolas Depauw
PURPOSE: Dosimetric studies have suggested greater cardiopulmonary sparing with protons over photons for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Modern techniques such as deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) can help spare the heart. This analysis compares photon and proton delivery with and without DIBH. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten women with left breast cancer referred for PMRT on a prospective clinical trial with unfavorable cardiac anatomy underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography simulation...
June 21, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733603/sediment-transport-drives-tidewater-glacier-periodicity
#8
Douglas Brinkerhoff, Martin Truffer, Andy Aschwanden
Most of Earth's glaciers are retreating, but some tidewater glaciers are advancing despite increasing temperatures and contrary to their neighbors. This can be explained by the coupling of ice and sediment dynamics: a shoal forms at the glacier terminus, reducing ice discharge and causing advance towards an unstable configuration followed by abrupt retreat, in a process known as the tidewater glacier cycle. Here we use a numerical model calibrated with observations to show that interactions between ice flow, glacial erosion, and sediment transport drive these cycles, which occur independent of climate variations...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733016/interaction-between-cavitation-microbubble-and-cell-a-simulation-of-sonoporation-using-boundary-element-method-bem
#9
Xiasheng Guo, Chenliang Cai, Guangyao Xu, Yanye Yang, Juan Tu, PinTong Huang, Dong Zhang
Sonoporation has been widely accepted as a significant tool for gene delivery as well as some bio-effects like hemolysis, bringing in high demands of looking into its underlying mechanism. A two-dimensional (2D) boundary element method (BEM) model was developed to investigate microbubble-cell interaction, especially the morphological and mechanical characteristics around the close-to-bubble point (CP) on cell membrane. Based on time evolution analysis of sonoporation, detailed information was extracted from the model for analysis, including volume expansion ratio of the bubble, areal expansion ratio of the cell, jet velocity and CP displacement...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732987/fish-oil-based-vitamin-d-nanoencapsulation-by-ultrasonication-and-bioaccessibility-analysis-in-simulated-gastro-intestinal-tract
#10
Niharika Walia, Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan, Lingyun Chen, Chidambaram Ramalingam
Recently, nanoemulsions have been employed for different applications including food and drug industries for efficient nutrient delivery system. In this study, vitamin D (a lipophilic molecule) was encapsulated in fish oil for higher oral bioavailability. The oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated by ultrasonication technique with a droplet size range of 300-450nm and a shelf life of more than 90days. The influence of oil, water and surfactant concentration was investigated by phase diagram. The formulated nanoemulsion had encapsulation efficiency in the range of 95...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732948/real-time-monitoring-of-controllable-cavitation-erosion-in-a-vessel-phantom-with-passive-acoustic-mapping
#11
Shukuan Lu, Aiwei Shi, Bowen Jing, Xuan Du, Mingxi Wan
Cavitation erosion in blood vessel plays an important role in ultrasound thrombolysis, drug delivery, and other clinical applications. The controllable superficial vessel erosion based on ultrasonic standing wave (USW) has been used to effectively prevent vessel ruptures and haemorrhages, and optical method is used to observe the experiments. But optical method can only work in transparent media. Compared with standard B-mode imaging, passive acoustic mapping (PAM) can monitor erosion in real time and has better sensitivity of cavitation detection...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732914/spermine-modified-starch-based-carrier-for-gene-delivery-structure-transfection-activity-relationships
#12
Xiaoyi Huang, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Lin Li
This study aims at developing starch based gene carriers with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. Starch molecules with molecular weight of about 50kDa were cationically modified by spermine to obtain spermine modified starch (SMS) based gene carriers. Plasmid pAcGFP1-C1 (pDNA) was chosen as the model gene material and formed self-assembly nanocomplexes with SMS. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of SMS/pDNA complexes were tested in HepG2 cell lines. Results showed that SMS/pDNA complexes formed by SMS-DS3 with the highest primary amine content (1...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732525/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-embedded-simulation-in-occupational-therapy-clinical-practice-education-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Christine Imms, Eli Mang Yee Chu, Stephen Guinea, Loretta Sheppard, Elspeth Froude, Rob Carter, Susan Darzins, Samantha Ashby, Susan Gilbert-Hunt, Nigel Gribble, Kelli Nicola-Richmond, Merrolee Penman, Elena Gospodarevskaya, Erin Mathieu, Mark Symmons
BACKGROUND: Clinical placements are a critical component of the training for health professionals such as occupational therapists. However, with growing student enrolments in professional education courses and workload pressures on practitioners, it is increasingly difficult to find sufficient, suitable placements that satisfy program accreditation requirements. The professional accrediting body for occupational therapy in Australia allows up to 200 of the mandatory 1000 clinical placement hours to be completed via simulation activities, but evidence of effectiveness and efficiency for student learning outcomes is lacking...
July 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732020/setting-strategy-of-delay-optimization-oriented-smac-contention-window-size
#14
Yuan Rao, Cheng Deng, Jun Su, Yan Qiao, Jun Zhu, Ru-Chuan Wang
Some frame components, such as SYNC (frame synchronization) and RTS/CTS (Ready to Send/Clear to Send), are not taken into consideration when the traditional setting strategies conduct the optimization of SMAC (Sensor MAC) contention window size. This paper proposes mathematical models that allow the analysis of data packets forwarding delay within one SMAC virtual cluster. Simulation results in OMNeT++ show good agreements with the proposed mathematical models, validating the models' correctness. The curve analyses of the models confirm the existence of delay-optimization-oriented contention window size that is closely related to the number of simultaneously contending nodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730652/effects-of-collimator-angle-couch-angle-and-starting-phase-on-motion-tracking-dynamic-conformal-arc-therapy-4d-dcat
#15
Zhengzheng Xu, Rutao Yao, Matthew B Podgorsak, Iris Z Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to find an optimized configuration of collimator angle, couch angle, and starting tracking phase to improve the delivery performance in terms of MLC position errors, maximal MLC leaf speed, and total beam-on time of DCAT plans with motion tracking (4D DCAT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Nontracking conformal arc plans were first created based on a single phase (maximal exhalation phase) of a respiratory motion phantom with a spherical target...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730431/protocols-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-rna-nanostructures
#16
Taejin Kim, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used as one of the main research tools to study a wide range of biological systems and bridge the gap between X-ray crystallography or NMR structures and biological mechanism. In the field of RNA nanostructures, MD simulations have been used to fix steric clashes in computationally designed RNA nanostructures, characterize the dynamics, and investigate the interaction between RNA and other biomolecules such as delivery agents and membranes.In this chapter we present examples of computational protocols for molecular dynamics simulations in explicit and implicit solvent using the Amber Molecular Dynamics Package...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728972/numerical-characterisation-of-one-step-and-three-step-solar-air-heating-collectors-used-for-cocoa-bean-solar-drying
#17
Elder Mendoza Orbegoso, Rafael Saavedra, Daniel Marcelo, Raúl La Madrid
In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728434/economic-model-predictive-control-of-bihormonal-artificial-pancreas-system-based-on-switching-control-and-dynamic-r-parameter
#18
Fengna Tang, Youqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Blood glucose (BG) regulation is a long-term task for people with diabetes. In recent years, more and more researchers have attempted to achieve automated regulation of BG using automatic control algorithms, called the artificial pancreas (AP) system. In clinical practice, it is equally important to guarantee the treatment effect and reduce the treatment costs. The main motivation of this study is to reduce the cure burden. METHODS: The dynamic R-parameter economic model predictive control (R-EMPC) is chosen to regulate the delivery rates of exogenous hormones (insulin and glucagon)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725006/diffusive-displacive-deformations-and-local-phase-transformation-govern-the-mechanics-of-layered-crystals-the-case-study-of-tobermorite
#19
Lei Tao, Rouzbeh Shahsavari
Understanding the deformation mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of materials is the key to fundamental and engineering advances in materials' performance. Herein, we focus on crystalline calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) as a model system with applications in cementitious materials, bone-tissue engineering, drug delivery and refractory materials, and use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate its loading geometry dependent mechanical properties. By comparing various conventional (e.g. shear, compression and tension) and nano-indentation loading geometries, our findings demonstrate that the former loading leads to size-independent mechanical properties while the latter results in size-dependent mechanical properties at the nanometer scales...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723767/return-of-the-cadaver-key-role-of-anatomic-dissection-for-plastic-surgery-resident-training
#20
Swenn Maxence Krähenbühl, Paul Čvančara, Thomas Stieglitz, Raphaël Bonvin, Murielle Michetti, Marjorie Flahaut, Sébastien Durand, Lina Deghayli, Lee Ann Applegate, Wassim Raffoul
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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