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simulation and delivery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333203/biomimetic-microfluidic-platform-for-the-quantification-of-transient-endothelial-monolayer-permeability-and-therapeutic-transport-under-mimicked-cancerous-conditions
#1
Christopher George Uhl, Vladimir R Muzykantov, Yaling Liu
Therapeutic delivery from microvasculature to cancerous sites is influenced by many factors including endothelial permeability, vascular flow rates/pressures, cancer secretion of cytokines and permeabilizing agents, and characteristics of the chosen therapeutics. This work uses bi-layer microfluidics capable of studying dye and therapeutic transport from a simulated vessel to a cancerous region while allowing for direct visualization and quantification of endothelial permeability. 2.5 to 13 times greater dye transport was observed when utilizing small dye sizes (FITC) when compared to larger molecules (FITC-Dextran 4 kDa and FITC-Dextran 70 kDa), respectively...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332497/dosimetric-analysis-of-microscopic-disease-in-sbrt-for-lung-cancers
#2
Ronghu Mao, Lingling Tian, You Zhang, Lei Ren, Renqi Gao, Fang-Fang Yin, Hong Ge
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to theoretically and experimentally evaluate the dosimetry in the microscopic disease regions surrounding the tumor under stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancer. METHODS: For simplicity, the tumor was considered moving along 1 dimension with a periodic function. The probability distribution function of the tumor position was generated according to the motion pattern and was used to estimate the delivered dose in the microscopic disease region...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328117/rotating-of-low-refractive-index-microparticles-with-a-quasi-perfect-optical-vortex
#3
Yansheng Liang, Ming Lei, Shaohui Yan, Manman Li, Yanan Cai, Zhaojun Wang, Xianghua Yu, Baoli Yao
Low-refractive-index microparticles, such as hollow microspheres, have shown great significance in some applications, such as biomedical sensing and targeted drug delivery. However, optical trapping and manipulation of low-refractive-index microparticles are challenging, owing to the repelling force exerted by typical optical traps. In this paper, we demonstrated optical trapping and rotating of large-sized low-refractive-index microparticles by using quasi-perfect optical vortex (quasi-POV) beams, which were generated by Fourier transform of high-order quasi-Bessel beams...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327653/preparation-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-quercetin-loaded-mixed-micelles-for-oral-delivery
#4
Zhen Lu, Cuiping Bu, Weicheng Hu, Hui Zhang, Mengrui Liu, Meiqi Lu, Guangxi Zhai
Quercetin (QT) is a plant polyphenol with various pharmacological properties. However, the low water solubility limits its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, QT-loaded sodium taurocholate-Pluronic P123 (QT-loaded ST/P123) mixed micelles were developed and characterized, and the effect of the formulation on improving the water solubility of QT was investigated. QT-loaded ST/P123 mixed micelles were prepared by thin film hydration-direct dissolution and optimized by uniform design. The optimal formulation possessed high drug loading (12...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327220/patient-perceptions-and-preferences-for-a-mealtime-insulin-delivery-patch
#5
Mark Peyrot, Darlene Dreon, Vivien Zraick, Brett Cross, Meng H Tan
INTRODUCTION: A basal-bolus insulin regimen is needed to achieve glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) below 7.0% in people with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 (T2D) diabetes who have significant loss of beta-cell function. Nonadherence to therapy is common and negatively affects the ability to reach treatment goals. We examined patient assessment of a new, wearable mealtime insulin-delivery system (patch) relative to their current mealtime insulin-delivery system (syringe, pen, or pump). The patch is designed to deliver only boluses of fast-acting insulin (no basal insulin), mechanically controlled by the patient...
January 11, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324869/exploring-the-binding-sites-and-binding-mechanism-for-hydrotrope-encapsulated-griseofulvin-drug-on-%C3%AE-tubulin-protein
#6
Shubhadip Das, Sandip Paul
The protein γ-tubulin plays an important role in centrosomal clustering and this makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating cancers. Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has recently been used to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancer cells. It can also affect the microtubule dynamics by targeting the γ-tubulin protein. So far, the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are not properly identified and the exact mechanism by which the drug binds to it is an area of intense speculation and research...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324608/quality-assurance-practices-in-obstetric-care-a-survey-of-hospitals-in-california
#7
Lisbet S Lundsberg, Henry C Lee, Grace Villarin Dueñas, Kimberly D Gregory, Holly K Grossetta Nardini, Christian M Pettker, Jessica L Illuzzi, Xiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess hospital practices in obstetric quality management activities and identify institutional characteristics associated with utilization of evidence-supported practices. METHODS: Data for this study came from a statewide survey of obstetric hospitals in California regarding their organization and delivery of perinatal care. We analyzed responses from 185 hospitals that completed quality assurance sections of the survey to assess their practices in a broad spectrum of quality enhancement activities...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324362/x-ray-system-simulation-software-tools-for-radiology-and-radiography-education
#8
Stephen M Kengyelics, Laura A Treadgold, Andrew G Davies
OBJECTIVES: To develop x-ray simulation software tools to support delivery of radiological science education for a range of learning environments and audiences including individual study, lectures, and tutorials. METHODS: Two software tools were developed; one simulated x-ray production for a simple two dimensional radiographic system geometry comprising an x-ray source, beam filter, test object and detector. The other simulated the acquisition and display of two dimensional radiographic images of complex three dimensional objects using a ray casting algorithm through three dimensional mesh objects...
December 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317618/development-of-an-oral-once-weekly-drug-delivery-system-for-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Ameya R Kirtane, Omar Abouzid, Daniel Minahan, Taylor Bensel, Alison L Hill, Christian Selinger, Anna Bershteyn, Morgan Craig, Shirley S Mo, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Cody Cleveland, Jaimie Rogner, Young-Ah Lucy Lee, Lucas Booth, Farhad Javid, Sarah J Wu, Tyler Grant, Andrew M Bellinger, Boris Nikolic, Alison Hayward, Lowell Wood, Philip A Eckhoff, Martin A Nowak, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy is significantly compromised by medication non-adherence. Long-acting enteral systems that can ease the burden of daily adherence have not yet been developed. Here we describe an oral dosage form composed of distinct drug-polymer matrices which achieved week-long systemic drug levels of the antiretrovirals dolutegravir, rilpivirine and cabotegravir in a pig. Simulations of viral dynamics and patient adherence patterns indicate that such systems would significantly reduce therapeutic failures and epidemiological modelling suggests that using such an intervention prophylactically could avert hundreds of thousands of new HIV cases...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317434/investigating-low-velocity-fluid-flow-in-tumors-using-convection-mri
#10
Simon Walker-Samuel, Thomas A Roberts, Rajiv Ramasawmy, Jake S Burrell, Sean P Johnson, Bernard M Siow, Simon Richardson, Miguel R Goncalves, Douglas Pendse, Simon P Robinson, R Barbara Pedley, Mark F Lythgoe
Several distinct fluid flow phenomena occur in solid tumors, including intravascular blood flow and interstitial convection. Interstitial fluid pressure is often raised in solid tumors, which can limit drug delivery. To probe low-velocity flow in tumors resulting from raised interstitial fluid pressure, we developed a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique named convection-MRI, which uses a phase-contrast acquisition with a dual-inversion vascular nulling preparation to separate intra- and extra-vascular flow...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316664/retransmission-avoidance-for-reliable-data-delivery-in-underwater-wsns
#11
Babar Ali, Arshad Sher, Nadeem Javaid, Saif Ul Islam, Khursheed Aurangzeb, Syed Irtaza Haider
The energy-efficient and reliable delivery of data packets in resource constraint underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is one of the key considerations to enhance the network lifetime. The traditional re-transmissions approach consumes the node battery and increases the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affects the reliable data packet delivery in the network. To ensure the reliability and conserve the node battery, in this paper, we propose adaptive forwarding layer multipath power control routing protocol to reduce the energy dissipation, achieve the data reliability and avoid the energy hole problem...
January 7, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316070/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-severe-lacerations-during-forceps-delivery-in-a-single-teaching-hospital-where-simulation-training-is-held-annually
#12
Yasuko Sano, Chihiro Hirai, Shintaro Makino, Xianglan Li, Jun Takeda, Atsuo Itakura, Satoru Takeda
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of severe lacerations during forceps delivery and the risk factors associated with such delivery in a hospital where simulation training is held annually. METHODS: The medical records of 857 women who underwent forceps delivery at term with singleton cephalic presentation from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. The relationship between clinical characteristics and birth canal trauma was analyzed. Birth canal trauma included third and fourth degree perineal lacerations...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315247/a-localization-free-interference-and-energy-holes-minimization-routing-for-underwater-wireless-sensor-networks
#13
Anwar Khan, Ismail Ahmedy, Mohammad Hossein Anisi, Nadeem Javaid, Ihsan Ali, Nawsher Khan, Mohammed Alsaqer, Hasan Mahmood
Interference and energy holes formation in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) threaten the reliable delivery of data packets from a source to a destination. Interference also causes inefficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes in that more power is consumed in the retransmission of the lost packets. Energy holes are dead nodes close to the surface of water, and their early death interrupts data delivery even when the network has live nodes. This paper proposes a localization-free interference and energy holes minimization (LF-IEHM) routing protocol for UWSNs...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313693/poloxamer-407-tpgs-mixed-micelles-as-promising-carriers-for-cyclosporine-ocular-delivery
#14
Maria Aurora Grimaudo, Silvia Pescina, Cristina Padula, Patrizia Santi, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Sara Nicoli
Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant agent approved for the treatment of dry eye disease and used off-label for other ocular pathologies. Its formulation and ocular bioavailability is a real challenge due to the large molecular weight (1.2 kDa), high lipophilicity and low water solubility. The aim of the work was to develop an aqueous micellar formulation for an efficient cyclosporine delivery to the ocular tissues, using a water soluble derivative of vitamin E (TPGS: d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) and a poloxamer (poloxamer 407) as excipients...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313395/formulation-optimization-and-pharmacokinetics-evaluation-of-oral-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-for-poorly-water-soluble-drug-cinacalcet-and-no-food-effect
#15
Mengyuan Cao, Xu Xue, Xixi Pei, Yiwen Qian, Lan Liu, Lili Ren, Guoguang Chen
The present research indicated that a new self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) were used to reduce the food effect of poorly water-soluble drug cinacalcet and enhance the bioavailability in beagle dogs by oral gavage. Ethyl oleate, OP-10 and PEG-200 was selected as the oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant of cinacalcet-SMEDDS by the solubility and phase diagram studies. Central Composite Design-Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the ratio of surfactant and co-surfactant, the amount of oil for optimizing the SMEDDS formation...
January 9, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311415/dose-calculation-and-verification-of-the-vero-gimbal-tracking-treatment-delivery
#16
Heru Prasetio, Jens Wölfelschneider, Marc Ziegler, Marco Serpa, Barbara Witulla, Christoph Bert
The Vero linear accelerator delivers dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) treatment using a gimbal motion. However, the availability of treatment planning systems (TPS) to simulate DTT is limited. This study aims to implement and verify the gimbal tracking beam geometry in the dose calculation . Methods: Gimbal tracking was implemented by rotating the reference CT outside the TPS according to the ring, gantry, and gimbal tracking position obtained from the tracking log file. The dose was calculated using these rotated CTs...
January 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305251/cardiac-arrest-during-pregnancy-ongoing-clinical-conundrum-an-expert-review
#17
REVIEW
Carolyn M Zelop, Sharon Einav, Jill M Mhyre, Stephanie Martin
While global maternal mortality has decreased in the last 25 years, the maternal mortality ratio in the United States has actually increased. Maternal mortality is a complex phenomenon involving multifaceted socioeconomic and clinical parameters including inequalities in access to health care, racial and ethnic disparities, maternal comorbidities and epidemiologic ascertainment bias. Escalating maternal mortality underscores the importance of clinician preparedness to respond to maternal cardiac arrest that may occur in any maternal health care setting...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304317/strategies-to-improve-management-of-shoulder-dystocia-under-the-ahrq-safety-program-for-perinatal-care
#18
Jill McArdle, Asta Sorensen, Christina I Fowler, Samantha Sommerness, Katrina Burson, Leila Kahwati
OBJECTIVE: To assess implementation of safety strategies to improve management of births complicated by shoulder dystocia in labor and delivery units. DESIGN: Mixed-methods implementation evaluation. SETTING/LOCAL PROBLEM: Labor and delivery units (N = 18) in 10 states participating in the Safety Program for Perinatal Care (SPPC). Shoulder dystocia is unpredictable, requiring rapid and coordinated action. PARTICIPANTS: Key informants were labor and delivery unit staff who implemented SPPC safety strategies...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300375/the-cost-and-diagnostic-yield-of-exome-sequencing-for-children-with-suspected-genetic-disorders-a-benchmarking-study
#19
Nick Dragojlovic, Alison M Elliott, Shelin Adam, Clara van Karnebeek, Anna Lehman, Jill C Mwenifumbo, Tanya N Nelson, Christèle du Souich, Jan M Friedman, Larry D Lynd
PurposeThis study aimed to generate benchmark estimates for the cost, diagnostic yield, and cost per positive diagnosis of diagnostic exome sequencing (ES) in heterogeneous pediatric patient populations and to illustrate how the design of an ES service can influence its cost and yield.MethodsA literature review and Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate benchmark estimates for singleton and trio ES. A cost model for the Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service (CAUSES) study, which is testing a proposed delivery model for diagnostic ES in British Columbia, is used to illustrate the potential effects of changing the service design...
January 4, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300329/reliability-aware-cooperative-node-sleeping-and-clustering-in-duty-cycled-sensors-networks
#20
Jeungeun Song, Yiming Miao, Enmin Song, M Shamim Hossain, Mohammed F Alhamid
Duty-cycled sensor networks provide a new perspective for improvement of energy efficiency and reliability assurance of multi-hop cooperative sensor networks. In this paper, we consider the energy-efficient cooperative node sleeping and clustering problems in cooperative sensor networks where clusters of relay nodes jointly transmit sensory data to the next hop. Our key idea for guaranteeing reliability is to exploit the on-demand number of cooperative nodes, facilitating the prediction of personalized end-to-end (ETE) reliability...
January 4, 2018: Sensors
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