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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932882/sustained-release-liquisolid-compact-tablets-containing-artemether-lumefantrine-as-alternate-day-regimen-for-malaria-treatment-to-improve-patient-compliance
#1
Petra Obioma Nnamani, Agatha Adaora Ugwu, Emmanuel Chinedu Ibezim, Franklin Chimaobi Kenechukwu, Paul Achile Akpa, John-Dike Nwabueze Ogbonna, Nicholas Chinedu Obitte, Amelia Ngozi Odo, Maike Windbergs, Claus-Michael Lehr, Anthony Amaechi Attama
The present study aimed to develop low-dose liquisolid tablets of two antimalarial drugs artemether-lumefantrine (AL) from a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) of lumefantrine (LUM) and estimate the potential of AL as an oral delivery system in malariogenic Wistar mice. LUM-NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization using Precirol(®) ATO 5/Transcutol(®) HP and tallow fat/Transcutol(®) HP optimized systems containing 3:1 ratios of the lipids, respectively, as the matrices. LUM-NLC characteristics, including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, yield, pH-dependent stability, and interaction studies, were investigated...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930604/an-automated-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-suturing-and-coaxial-fastener-system-for-mitral-chordae-replacement-strength-feasibility-and-healing
#2
Candice Y Lee, Joshua K Wong, Jude S Sauer, Heather R Gorea, Angelo J Martellaro, Andrew R Sifain, Peter A Knight
OBJECTIVE: Mitral valve (MV) chordae replacements can be technically challenging. Technology that remotely delivers and accurately secures artificial chordae may reduce the learning curve and improve the reliability of MV repairs. METHODS: The technology involved two devices: a remote suturing device for delivery of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) suture to the papillary muscle and a Coaxial titanium suture fastener (TF) device with integrated saline infusion for real-time determination of chordae length during fixation...
December 7, 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929704/impact-of-holding-position-during-inhalation-on-drug-release-from-a-reservoir-a-blister-and-a-capsule-type-dry-powder-inhaler
#3
Tetsuri Kondo, Toshimori Tanigaki, Haruko Yokoyama, Makoto Hibino, Sakurako Tajiri, Kenichro Akazawa, Yasuhiko Yamada, Stanley M Cassan
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drug release may be impaired by tilting some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). METHODS: Using an inhalation simulator, we measured drug release from Turbuhaler® (TBH), Diskus® (DKS) and Breezhaler® (BZH) at several peak inhaled flow rates (PIFs) while the DPIs were held level and tilted (80 degrees). Drug release was then measured from all three DPI's at 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees of tilt, and capsule rotation was also recorded. RESULTS: Drug release from TBH was flow-dependent while that from DKS and BZH was flow-independent...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926843/membrane-anchoring-and-ion-entry-dynamics-in-p-type-atpase-copper-transport
#4
Christina Grønberg, Oleg Sitsel, Erik Lindahl, Pontus Gourdon, Magnus Andersson
Cu(+)-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu(+)-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu(+) entry using molecular-dynamics simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu(+) delivery...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925657/population-pharmacokinetics-of-cefazolin-in-serum-and-adipose-tissue-from-overweight-and-obese-women-undergoing-cesarean-delivery
#5
Mordechai Grupper, Joseph L Kuti, Morgan L Swank, Lindsay Maggio, Brenna L Hughes, David P Nicolau
The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis dosing regimen of cefazolin for cesarean delivery (CD) in overweight and obese women is unknown. This study was done to compare the duration that cefazolin concentrations remain above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in adipose tissue (AT). Serum and AT concentrations from 3 previous studies in CD patients were comodeled using the nonparametric adaptive grid algorithm in Pmetrics. AT concentrations for 5000 overweight and obese patients receiving 1-, 2-, and 3-g cefazolin regimens were simulated to calculate the probability that free drug concentrations remained above an MIC of 2 μg/mL at 1, 1...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923696/correlating-gastric-emptying-of-amphotericin-b-and-paracetamol-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-with-changes-in-particle-surface-chemistry
#6
Hilda Amekyeh, Nashiru Billa, Clive Roberts
Oral delivery of pharmaceuticals requires that they retain their physical and chemical attributes during transit within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, for the manifestation of desired therapeutic profiles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers to improve the absorption of hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we examine the stability of amphotericin B (AmB) and paracetamol (PAR) SLNs in simulated GI fluids during gastric emptying. On contact with the simulated fluids, the particles increased in size due to ingress of the dissolution media into the particles...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922569/mode-of-information-delivery-does-not-effect-anesthesia-trainee-performance-during-simulated-perioperative-pediatric-critical-events-a-trial-of-paper-versus-electronic-cognitive-aids
#7
Scott C Watkins, Shilo Anders, Anna Clebone, Elisabeth Hughes, Vikram Patel, Laura Zeigler, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew D McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive aids (CAs), including emergency manuals and checklists, have been recommended as a means to address the failure of healthcare providers to adhere to evidence-based standards of treatment during crisis situations. Unfortunately, users of CAs still commit errors, omit critical steps, fail to achieve perfect adherence to guidelines, and frequently choose to not use CA during both simulated and real crisis events. We sought to evaluate whether the mode in which a CA presents information (ie, paper vs...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917376/evaluation-of-an-intervention-to-improve-essential-obstetric-and-newborn-care-access-and-quality-in-cotopaxi-ecuador
#8
Edward Broughton, Jorge Hermida, Kathleen Hill, Nancy Sloan, Mario Chavez, Daniel Gonzalez, Juana Maria Freire, Ximena Gudino
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in health-care utilization, disadvantages persist among rural, less educated, and indigenous populations in Ecuador. The United States Agency for International Development-funded Cotopaxi Project created a provincial-level network of health services, including community agents to improve access, quality, and coordination of essential obstetric and newborn care. We evaluated changes in participating facilities compared to non-participating controls. METHODS: The 21 poorest parishes (third-level administrative unit) in Cotopaxi were targeted from 2010 to 2013 for a collaborative health system performance improvement...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914338/dopamine-conjugated-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-for-protein-delivery-to-macrophages
#9
Song Yi Lee, Hyun-Jong Cho
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-dopamine (PLGA-D)-based nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of protein to macrophages. PLGA-D was synthesized via amide bond formation between the amine group of D and the carboxylic acid group of PLGA. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, model protein) was encapsulated in PLGA NPs and PLGA-D NPs, which had an approximately 200nm mean diameter, <0.2 polydispersity index, and negative zeta potential value. There was no increment in the mean diameters of BSA-loaded NPs after 24h of incubation in biological fluid-simulated media (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914041/paliperidone-loaded-nanolipomer-system-for-sustained-delivery-and-enhanced-intestinal-permeation-superiority-to-polymeric-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#10
Hala Mahmoud Helal, Sana Mohamed Mortada, Marwa Ahmed Sallam
Paliperidone (PPD) is the most recent second-generation atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. An immediate release dose causes extrapyramidal side effects. In this work, a novel nanolipomer carrier system for PPD with enhanced intestinal permeability and sustained release properties has been developed and optimized. PPD was successfully encapsulated into a lipomer consisting of a specific combination of biocompatible materials including poly-ε-caprolactone as a polymeric core, Lipoid S75, and Gelucire® 50/13 as a lipid shell and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizing agent...
December 2, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#11
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910712/development-of-a-nanogel-formulation-for-transdermal-delivery-of-tenoxicam-a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-approach-for-quantitative-prediction-of-skin-absorption
#12
Mohammed H Elkomy, Shahira F El Menshawe, Hussein M Eid, Ahmed M A Ali
This study investigates potentials of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) based gel for transdermal delivery of tenoxicam (TNX) and describes a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) modeling approach for predicting concentration-time profile in skin. A 2(3) factorial design was adopted to study the effect of formulation factors on SLN properties and determine the optimal formulation. SLN-gel tolerability was investigated using rabbit skin irritation test. Its anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced rat paw edema test...
December 2, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910290/radiation-therapy-staffing-model-2014
#13
Leigh J Smith, Rachel Kearvell, Anthony J Arnold, Kevina Choma, Aniko Cooper, Michael R Young, Donna L Matthews, Bronwyn Hilder, Debbie Howson, Katherine Fox, Katheryn Churcher
INTRODUCTION: In 2001, the Radiation Therapy Advisory Panel (RTAP) of the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) (formerly known as Australian Institute of Radiography) published a model for radiation therapist staffing in Australian radiation oncology departments. Between 2012-2013, the model was reviewed to ensure it reflected current radiation therapy practice, technology, and to facilitate forward planning of the radiation therapy workforce. METHOD: Twenty-four sites from all states participated and provided data on megavoltage simulation, planning and treatment delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898429/dosimetric-improvements-with-a-novel-breast-stereotactic-radiotherapy-device-for-delivery-of-preoperative-partial-breast-irradiation
#14
James W Snider Iii, Yildirim Mutaf, Elizabeth Nichols, Andrea Hall, Patrick Vadnais, William F Regine, Steven J Feigenberg
OBJECTIVE: Partial-breast irradiation (PBI) with external-beam radiotherapy has produced higher than expected rates of fair-to-poor cosmesis. Worsened outcomes have been correlated with larger volumes of breast tissue exposed to radiation. A novel breast-specific stereotactic radiotherapy (BSRT) device (BSRTD) has been developed at our institution and has shown promise in delivering highly conformal dose distributions. We compared normal tissue sparing with this device with that achieved with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-PBI...
November 30, 2016: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897141/measured-and-monte-carlo-simulated-electron-backscatter-to-the-monitor-chamber-for-the-varian-truebeam-linac
#15
Samantha A M Lloyd, Isabelle M Gagne, Magdalena Bazalova-Carter, Sergei Zavgorodni
To accurately simulate therapeutic electron beams using Monte Carlo methods, backscatter from jaws into the monitor chamber must be accounted for via the backscatter factor, S b. Measured and simulated values of S b for the TrueBeam are investigated. Two approaches for measuring S b are presented. Both require service mode operation with the dose and pulse forming networking servos turned off in order to assess changes in dose rate with field size. The first approach samples an instantaneous dose rate, while the second approach times the delivery of a fixed number of monitor units to assess dose rate...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897011/a-spatiotemporal-model-to-simulate-chemotherapy-regimens-for-heterogeneous-bladder-cancer-metastases-to-the-lung
#16
Kimberly R Kanigel Winner, James C Costello
Tumors are composed of heterogeneous populations of cells. Somatic genetic aberrations are one form of heterogeneity that allows clonal cells to adapt to chemotherapeutic stress, thus providing a path for resistance to arise. In silico modeling of tumors provides a platform for rapid, quantitative experiments to inexpensively study how compositional heterogeneity contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, we have built a spatiotemporal model of a lung metastasis originating from a primary bladder tumor, incorporating in vivo drug concentrations of first-line chemotherapy, resistance data from bladder cancer cell lines, vascular density of lung metastases, and gains in resistance in cells that survive chemotherapy...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895993/non-stationary-reconstruction-for-dynamic-fluorescence-molecular-tomography-with-extended-kalman-filter
#17
Xin Liu, Hongkai Wang, Zhuangzhi Yan
Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) plays an important role in drug delivery research. However, the majority of current reconstruction methods focus on solving the stationary FMT problems. If the stationary reconstruction methods are applied to the time-varying fluorescence measurements, the reconstructed results may suffer from a high level of artifacts. In addition, based on the stationary methods, only one tomographic image can be obtained after scanning one circle projection data. As a result, the movement of fluorophore in imaged object may not be detected due to the relative long data acquisition time (typically >1 min)...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895987/characterization-of-fiber-optic-light-delivery-and-light-induced-temperature-changes-in-a-rodent-brain-for-precise-optogenetic-neuromodulation
#18
Younghoon Shin, Minsu Yoo, Hyung-Sun Kim, Sung-Ki Nam, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Sun-Kyu Lee, Sohee Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Understanding light intensity and temperature increase is of considerable importance in designing or performing in vivo optogenetic experiments. Our study describes the optimal light power at target depth in the rodent brain that would maximize activation of light-gated ion channels while minimizing temperature increase. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of light delivery were used to provide a guideline for suitable light power at a target depth. In addition, MC simulations with the Pennes bio-heat model using data obtained from measurements with a temperature-measuring cannula having 12...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884665/airway-management-for-cesarean-delivery-performed-under-general-anesthesia
#19
S Rajagopalan, M Suresh, S L Clark, B Serratos, S Chandrasekhar
BACKGROUND: With the increasing popularity of neuraxial anesthesia, there has been a decline in the use of general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. We sought to examine the incidence, outcome and characteristics associated with a failed airway in patients undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia. METHODS: A retrospective review of airway management in women undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia over an eight-year period from 2006-2013 at an academic medical center was conducted...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883130/nanobubbles-cavitation-shock-waves-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Upendra Adhikari, Ardeshir Goliaei, Max L Berkowitz
Collapse of bubbles, microscopic or nanoscopic, due to their interaction with the impinging pressure wave produces a jet of particles moving in the direction of the wave. If there is a surface nearby, the high-speed jet particles hit it, and as a result damage to the surface is produced. This cavitation effect is well known and intensely studied in case of microscopic sized bubbles. It can be quite damaging to materials, including biological tissues, but it can also be beneficial when controlled, like in case of sonoporation of biological membranes for the purpose of drug delivery...
November 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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