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Ethnicity and coronary artery disease

George A Mensah
The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) has been highly successful in investigating the prevalence, characteristics, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic American cohort of adult men and women free of CVD at baseline. MESA has also championed the use of novel biomarkers and emerging imaging techniques for the assessment of subclinical CVD and has created an extensive set of data that continues to fuel dozens of ongoing analyses. Insights from MESA include the first demonstration of ethnic differences in coronary artery calcification and its association with subclinical disease progression and incident CVD...
September 2016: Global Heart
Alain G Bertoni, Holly Kramer, Karol Watson, Wendy S Post
Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and its prevalence has been increasing globally. This review examines the contributions of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a diverse American cohort (6,814 adults ages 45 to 84, recruited from 2000 to 2002, 50% female, 62% nonwhite) toward understanding the relationship between diabetes and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. People with diabetes have a high burden of subclinical vascular disease as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC), carotid artery intima-media thickness, valvular calcification, and alterations in left ventricular structure...
September 2016: Global Heart
Michael H Criqui, Victor Aboyans, Matthew A Allison, Julie O Denenberg, Nketi Forbang, Mary M McDermott, Christina L Wassel, Nathan D Wong
We reviewed published MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study articles concerning peripheral arterial disease, subclavian stenosis (SS), abdominal aortic calcium (AAC), and thoracic artery calcium (TAC). Important findings include, compared to non-Hispanic whites, lower ankle-brachial index (ABI) and more SS in African Americans, and higher ABI and less SS in Hispanic and Chinese Americans. Abnormal ABI and brachial pressure differences were associated with other subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) measures...
September 2016: Global Heart
Kazuhiro Osawa, Rine Nakanishi, Matthew Budoff
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an established marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and an independent predictor of future coronary heart disease in the asymptomatic primary prevention population, particularly in the intermediate risk cohort. CAC also helps in reclassifying those patients and their risk of cardiovascular events into higher or lower risk categories. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored population-based medical research study involving 6,814 men and women from 6 U...
September 2016: Global Heart
Michael J Blaha, Joseph Yeboah, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Kiang Liu, Richard Kronmal, Philip Greenland
When the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) began, the Framingham risk score was the preferred tool for 10-year global coronary heart disease risk assessment; however, the Framingham risk score had limitations including derivation in a homogenous population lacking racial and ethnic diversity and exclusive reliance on traditional risk factors without consideration of most subclinical disease measures. MESA was designed to study the prognostic value of subclinical atherosclerosis and other risk markers in a multiethnic population...
September 2016: Global Heart
John J B Anderson, Bridget Kruszka, Joseph A C Delaney, Ka He, Gregory L Burke, Alvaro Alonso, Diane E Bild, Matthew Budoff, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND: Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Walter A Rocca, Liliana Gazzuola-Rocca, Carin Y Smith, Brandon R Grossardt, Stephanie S Faubion, Lynne T Shuster, James L Kirkland, Elizabeth A Stewart, Virginia M Miller
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between bilateral oophorectomy and the rate of accumulation of multimorbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this historical cohort study, the Rochester Epidemiology Project records-linkage system was used to identify all premenopausal women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 50 years between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2007, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Each woman was randomly matched to a referent woman born in the same year (±1 year) who had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy...
September 28, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Rajat Sharma, Colleen M Norris, Gabor Gyenes, Manohara Senaratne, Kevin R Bainey
BACKGROUND: Unequivocally, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with established cardiovascular disease improves survival. However, its effect on higher-risk ethnic groups has not been explored. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of CR on South Asian (SA) compared with European Canadians with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Using the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) registry, 26,167 patients from Edmonton, Alberta who received coronary angiography with documented CAD were reviewed (January 2002 to March 2012)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Wafa Omer, Abdul K Naveed, Omer J Khan, Dilshad A Khan
AIMS: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a significant role in early atherosclerosis. Linkage disequilibrium patterns differ between ethnic groups pointing toward the need to develop population-specific gene risk scores. Our objective was to investigate the role of a cytokine gene score in the risk prediction of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD). METHODS: A case-control study was performed at the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in collaboration with the Cardiovascular Genetics Institute, University College London, United Kingdom...
September 30, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Donghee Han, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Heidi Gransar, Ji Hyun Lee, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Jidong Sung, Hae-Won Han, Sung Hak Park, Tracy Callister, Fay Y Lin, James K Min, Hyuk-Jae Chang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) varies depending on ethnicity, but the precise differences remain to be firmly established. This study therefore evaluated the disparity in coronary artery calcification (CAC), as a marker of CAD, in asymptomatic US and Korean adults.Methods and Results:CAC score was compared between asymptomatic Korean (n=15,128) and US (n=7,533) adults. Propensity score matching was performed according to age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, which generated 2 cohorts of 5,427 matched pairs...
September 21, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Philip G Joseph, Guillaume Pare, Senay Asma, James C Engert, Salim Yusuf, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) risk varies by ethnicity, although the influence of genetic factors remains unclear. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the association between 25 coronary artery disease (CAD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and MI across 6 ethnic groups. METHODS: We studied 8556 participants in the INTERHEART case-control study from 6 ethnic groups: Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, Arabs, Latin Americans, and Africans...
June 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kazuomi Kario
Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. Stroke is more common than coronary artery disease in Eastern Asian countries, while the coronary artery disease is more common than stroke in Western countries. The association slope between higher blood pressure (BP) and the risk of cardiovascular events is steeper in Asians than in Caucasians. This may partly explained by the recent result demonstrating that the morning BP surge in Asians is more extended (Hoshide, Kario, Parati et al...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rachel Nicoll, Ying Zhao, Pranvera Ibrahimi, Gunilla Olivecrona, Michael Henein
BACKGROUND: The relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, exercise, and the number of risk factors) to coronary artery calcification (CAC) presence and extent has never before been assessed in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We included only English language studies that assessed at least three conventional risk factors apart from age, gender, and ethnicity, but excluded studies in which all patients had another confirmed condition such as renal disease...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ramesh Ram, Salma M Wakil, Nzioka P Muiya, Editha Andres, Nejat Mazhar, Samya Hagos, Maie Alshahid, Brian F Meyer, Grant Morahan, Nduna Dzimiri
Hypertriglyceridemia (hTG) is a lipid disorder, resulting from an elevation in triglyceride levels, with a strong genetic component. It constitutes a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), a leading cause of death worldwide. In the present study, we performed a common variant association study for hTG in ethnic Saudi Arabs. We genotyped 5501 individuals in a two-phase experiment using Affymetrix Axiom® Genome-Wide CEU 1 Array that contains a total of 587,352 SNPs. The lead variant was the rs1558861 [1...
September 7, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Laura W de Jong, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Lars E Forsberg, Alex P Zijdenbos, Thaddeus Haight, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Vilmundur Gudnason, Mark A van Buchem, Lenore J Launer
There is growing evidence that sub-structures of the brain scale allometrically to total brain size, that is, in a non-proportional and non-linear way. Here, scaling of different volumes of interest (VOI) to intra-cranial volume (ICV) was examined. It was assessed whether scaling was allometric or isometric and whether scaling coefficients significantly differed from each other. We also tested to what extent allometric scaling of VOI was introduced by the automated segmentation technique. Furthermore, reproducibility of allometric scaling was studied different age groups and study populations...
August 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jeffrey J Wing, Ella August, Sara D Adar, Andrew L Dannenberg, Anjum Hajat, Brisa N Sánchez, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Ana V Diez Roux
BACKGROUND: Although some evidence shows that neighborhood deprivation is associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis, prior studies have not identified what aspects of deprived neighborhoods were driving the association. METHODS: We investigated whether social and physical neighborhood characteristics are related to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in 5950 adult participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) during a 12-year follow-up period...
August 16, 2016: Circulation
Carolyn S P Lam, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Wan Ting Tay, Inder Anand, Shu Zhang, Wataru Shimizu, Calambur Narasimhan, Sang Weon Park, Cheuk-Man Yu, Tachapong Ngarmukos, Razali Omar, Eugene B Reyes, Bambang B Siswanto, Chung-Lieh Hung, Lieng H Ling, Jonathan Yap, Michael MacDonald, A Mark Richards
AIMS: To characterize regional and ethnic differences in heart failure (HF) across Asia. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 5276 patients with stable HF and reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) from 11 Asian regions (China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand). Mean age was 59.6 ± 13.1 years, 78.2% were men, and mean body mass index was 24.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2). Majority (64%) of patients had two or more comorbid conditions such as hypertension (51...
August 7, 2016: European Heart Journal
Ravi Kiran Munnur, Nitesh Nerlekar, Dennis T L Wong
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Atherosclerosis, which is the primary pathophysiologic mechanism for the development of plaque leading to CAD, is a multifactorial process resulting from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and various risk factors such as hypertension (HT), dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking. In addition, influences from other disease states such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity and the metabolic syndrome as well as gender and ethnic diversity also contribute to the disease process...
August 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Marcio Sommer Bittencourt, Ron Blankstein, Songshou Mao, Juan J Rivera, Alain G Bertoni, Leslee J Shaw, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND: The use of non-contrast cardiac computed tomography measurements to predict heart failure (HF) has not been studied. In the present study we evaluated the prognostic value of left ventricular area adjusted for the body surface area (LVA-BSA) measured by non-contrast cardiac CT to predict incident HF and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. METHODS: We studied left ventricular dimensions and calculated LVA-BSA in 6781 participants of the MESA study (mean age: was 62 ± 10 years, 53% females; 62% non-white) free from prior HF who underwent non-contrast cardiac CT to evaluate the coronary artery calcium score (CAC) at baseline and were followed up for a median of 10...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
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