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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777501/expression-of-endogenous-proteins-in-maize-hybrids-in-a-multi-location-field-trial-in-india
#1
Linga R Gutha, Divakar Purushottam, Aruna Veeramachaneni, Sarita Tigulla, Vikas Kodappully, Chandana Enjala, Hitendrasinh Rajput, Jennifer Anderson, Bonnie Hong, Jean Schmidt, Shveta Bagga
Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772462/photocatalytic-mineralization-and-degradation-kinetics-of-sulphamethoxazole-and-reactive-red-194-over-silver-zirconium-co-doped-titanium-dioxide-reaction-mechanisms-and-phytotoxicity-assessment
#2
Saraschandra Naraginti, Yi Li, Gianluca Li Puma
The photodegradation and phytotoxicity of the pharmaceutical antibiotic, sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the azo-dye reactive-red-194 (RR194) under visible-light irradiation of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by silver and zirconium was investigated. The results indicated that sulphamethoxazole and its toxic degradation by product, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole and RR-194 could be degraded efficiently by the co-doped Zr/Ag-TiO2 catalyst. PL studies and ROS generation results suggested that the effective charge separation was carried out while irradiation of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles...
May 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771910/the-influence-of-crop-production-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-seasonal-household-dietary-diversity-in-burkina-faso
#3
Jérôme W Somé, Andrew D Jones
Households in low-income settings are vulnerable to seasonal changes in dietary diversity because of fluctuations in food availability and access. We assessed seasonal differences in household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso, and determined the extent to which household socioeconomic status and crop production diversity modify changes in dietary diversity across seasons, using data from the nationally representative 2014 Burkina Faso Continuous Multisectoral Survey (EMC). A household dietary diversity score based on nine food groups was created from household food consumption data collected during four rounds of the 2014 EMC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770865/the-agrobacterium-phenotypic-plasticity-plast-genes
#4
Léon Otten
The transfer of T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium to plant cells is a well-understood process of natural genetic engineering. The expression of T-DNA genes in plants leads to tumors, hairy roots, or transgenic plants. The transformed cells multiply and synthesize small molecules, called opines, used by Agrobacteria for their growth. Several T-DNA genes stimulate or influence plant growth. Among these, iaaH and iaaM encode proteins involved in auxin synthesis, whereas ipt encodes a protein involved in cytokinin synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768137/organic-amendments-beneficial-microbes-and-soil-microbiota-toward-a-unified-framework-for-disease-suppression
#5
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762374/structure-and-digestion-of-common-complementary-food-starches
#6
Amy Hui-Mei Lin
Starch is the major source of dietary glucose for rapid development of children. Starches from various crops naturally differ in molecular structures and properties. Cooking, processing, and storage may change their molecular properties and affect their digestibility and functionality. Starch digestion is affected by its susceptibility to α-amylase and α-glucosidase (maltase), and the susceptibility is determined by starch granule architecture and glucan structures, as well as the interaction between starch and other food components...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761500/compositional-and-transcriptomic-analysis-associated-with-cuticle-lipid-production-on-rosette-and-inflorescence-stem-leaves-in-the-extremophyte-thellungiella-salsuginea
#7
Shuai Tang, Ningmei Chen, Buerbatu Song, Junqing He, Yijun Zhou, Matthew A Jenks, Xiaojing Xu
The plant cuticle is a complex structure composed primarily of wax and cutin, but also contains cutan, glycerolipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, and proteins. The cuticle plays an important protective role as barrier between plants and their environment. In this paper, 4-week old leaves produced either on the rosette or on the inflorescence stem of the model extremophyte Thellungiella salsuginea were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cuticle permeability assays, and chemical composition analysis...
May 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760765/an-improved-method-for-agrobacterium-rhizogenes-mediated-transformation-of-tomato-suitable-for-the-study-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#8
Tania Ho-Plágaro, Raúl Huertas, María I Tamayo-Navarrete, Juan A Ocampo, José M García-Garrido
Background: Solanum lycopersicum , an economically important crop grown worldwide, has been used as a model for the study of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in non-legume plants for several years and several cDNA array hybridization studies have revealed specific transcriptomic profiles of mycorrhizal tomato roots. However, a method to easily screen candidate genes which could play an important role during tomato mycorrhization is required. Results: We have developed an optimized procedure for composite tomato plant obtaining achieved through Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755975/policy-led-comparative-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-testing-for-increased-risk-rather-than-profiling-phenotypes-leads-to-predictable-and-transparent-decision-making
#9
Alan Raybould, Phil Macdonald
We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728956/the-assessment-of-field-trials-in-gmo-research-around-the-world-and-their-possible-integration-in-field-trials-for-variety-registration
#10
REVIEW
M M Slot, C C M van de Wiel, G A Kleter, R G F Visser, E J Kok
Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727932/can-chemical-and-molecular-biomarkers-help-discriminate-between-industrial-rural-and-urban-environments
#11
Sonia Garcia-Alcega, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, Robert Ferguson, Cyril Noël, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Corinne Whitby, Alex J Dumbrell, Ian Colbeck, Sean Tyrrel, Frederic Coulon
Air samples from four contrasting outdoor environments including a park, an arable farm, a waste water treatment plant and a composting facility were analysed during the summer and winter months. The aim of the research was to study the feasibility of differentiating microbial communities from urban, rural and industrial areas between seasons with chemical and molecular markers such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Air samples (3l) were collected every 2h for a total of 6h in order to assess the temporal variations of MVOCs and PLFAs along the day...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720087/the-dehydration-stress-of-couch-grass-is-associated-with-its-lipid-metabolism-the-induction-of-transporters-and-the-re-programming-of-development-coordinated-by-aba
#12
Anna Janská, Pavel Svoboda, Vojtěch Spiwok, Ladislav Kučera, Jaroslava Ovesná
BACKGROUND: The wild relatives of crop species represent a potentially valuable source of novel genetic variation, particularly in the context of improving the crop's level of tolerance to abiotic stress. The mechanistic basis of these tolerances remains largely unexplored. Here, the focus was to characterize the transcriptomic response of the nodes (meristematic tissue) of couch grass (a relative of barley) to dehydration stress, and to compare it to that of the barley crown formed by both a drought tolerant and a drought sensitive barley cultivar...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719112/the-plant-parasitic-cyst-nematode-effector-gland4-is-a-dna-binding-protein
#13
Stacey N Barnes, Catherine L Wram, Melissa G Mitchum, Thomas J Baum
Cyst nematodes are plant pathogens that infect a wide range of economically important crops. One parasitic mechanism employed by cyst nematodes is the production and in planta delivery of effector proteins to modify plant cells and suppress defenses to favor parasitism. This study focused on GLAND4, an effector of Heterodera glycines and H. schachtii, the soybean and sugar beet cyst nematodes, respectively. We showed that GLAND4 is recognized by the plant cellular machinery and is transported to the plant nucleus, an organelle where little is known about plant nematode effector functions...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715487/potent-insect-gut-binding-lectin-from-sclerotium-rolfsii-impart-resistance-to-sucking-and-chewing-type-insects-in-cotton
#14
Gulamnabi L Vanti, Ishwarappa S Katageri, Shashikala R Inamdar, Vamadevaiah Hiremathada, Bale M Swamy
Cotton is an important crop that is continuously cultivated around the world. However, its production has decreased in recent times due to wide ranging insects and also current practices of using synthetic insecticides that are not precise and their residues impairing the biodiversity. Hence, the search for newer classes of efficient entomotoxic proteins continues. Genetically modified cotton crops with cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, have been cultivated across the world, which overcome the chewing type insect menace...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706975/manipulation-of-light-signal-transduction-factors-as-a-means-of-modifying-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-accumulation-in-tomato-leaves
#15
Cui-Cui Wang, Lan-Huan Meng, Ying Gao, Donald Grierson, Da-Qi Fu
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived specialized metabolites produced by Solanaceous plant species. They contribute to pathogen defense but are considered as anti-nutritional compounds and toxic to humans. Although the genes involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway have been successfully cloned and identified, transcription factors regulating this pathway are still poorly understood. We report that silencing tomato light signal transduction transcription factors ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 ( SlHY5 ) and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 ( SlPIF3 ), by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), altered glycoalkaloids levels in tomato leaves compared to control plant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690639/a-refined-crop-drought-monitoring-method-based-on-the-chinese-gf-1-wide-field-view-data
#16
Sheng Chang, Bingfang Wu, Nana Yan, Jianjun Zhu, Qi Wen, Feng Xu
In this study, modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI) models based on the red-near infrared spectral space are established for the first time through the analysis of the spectral characteristics of GF-1 wide field view (WFV) data, with a high spatial resolution of 16 m and the highest frequency as high as once every 4 days. GF-1 data was from the Chinese-made, new-generation high-resolution GF-1 remote sensing satellites. Soil-type spatial data are introduced for simulating soil lines in different soil types for reducing errors of using same soil line...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688048/trace-elements-bioavailability-to-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-subsequent-to-high-biomass-plants-in-a-greenhouse-study
#17
Silke Neu, Ingo Müller, Rolf Herzig, E Gert Dudel
Multielement-contaminated agricultural land requires the adaptation of agronomic practices to meet legal requirements for safe biomass production. The incorporation of bioenergy plants with, at least, moderate phytoextraction capacity into crop rotations with cereals can affect trace elements (TE) phytoavailability and, simultaneously, constitute economic revenues for farmers outside the food or forage sector. Hence, in a crop rotation pot study sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), modified for high biomass and TE accumulation by chemical mutagenesis, was compared to winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680759/impact-of-genetically-modified-organisms-on-aquatic-environments-review-of-available-data-for-the-risk-assessment
#18
REVIEW
Antonia Pott, Mathias Otto, Ralf Schulz
The aquatic environment is strongly connected to the surrounding agricultural landscapes, which regularly serve as sources of stressors such as agrochemicals. Genetically modified crops, which are cultivated on a large scale in many countries, may also act as stressors. Despite the commercial use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for over 20years, their impact on the aquatic environment came into focus only 10years ago. We present the status quo of the available scientific data in order to provide an input for informed aquatic risk assessment of GMOs...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680271/the-applicability-of-animal-health-surveillance-systems-for-post-market-monitoring-of-potential-adverse-effects-of-genetically-modified-gm-feed
#19
L Vince, G A Kleter, K Kostov, D U Pfeiffer, J Guitian
A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evidence of outcome effects due to GM feed are consolidated. These outcomes were reviewed and checked for consistency in order to identify plausible syndromes suitable for conducting surveillance...
April 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678862/natural-variation-within-a-species-for-traits-underpinning-c4-photosynthesis
#20
Gregory Reeves, Pallavi Singh, Timo A Rossberg, Deedi Sogbohossou, M Eric Schranz, Julian M Hibberd
Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops could substantially increase their yield by alleviating photorespiratory losses. This objective is challenging because the C4 pathway involves complex modifications to the biochemistry, cell biology and anatomy of leaves. Forward genetics has provided limited insight into the mechanistic basis of these properties, and there have been no reports of significant quantitative intra-specific variation of C4 attributes that would allow trait mapping. Here, we show that accessions of the C4 species Gynandropsis gynandra collected from locations across Africa and Asia exhibit natural variation in key characteristics of C4 photosynthesis...
April 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
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