Read by QxMD icon Read

modified crop

Ravi Prakash Saini, Venkat Raman, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Era Vaidya Malhotra, Rohini Sreevathsa, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Tilak R Sharma, Debasis Pattanayak
The polyphagous insect-pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is a serious threat to a number of economically important crops. Chemical application and/or cultivation of Bt transgenic crops are the two strategies available now for insect-pest management. However, environmental pollution and long-term sustainability are major concerns against these two options. RNAi is now considered as a promising technology to complement Bt to tackle insect-pests menace. In this study, we report host-delivered silencing of HaAce1 gene, encoding the predominant isoform of H...
2018: PloS One
Ina Schlathölter, Melanie Jänsch, Henryk Flachowsky, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico Broggini, Magda-Viola Hanke, Andrea Patocchi
The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Marek Marzec, Ahmad M Alqudah
The development and growth of plant organs is regulated by phytohormones, which constitute an important area of plant science. The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the unravelling of the pathways by which phytohormones exert their influence. Phytohormones function as signalling molecules that interact through a complex network to control development traits. They integrate metabolic and developmental events and regulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors. As such, they influence the yield and quality of crops...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Colton O'Brien, Arathi H S
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
March 12, 2018: GM Crops & Food
C R Gedling, E M Ali, A Gunadi, J J Finer, K Xie, Y Liu, N Yoshikawa, F Qu, A E Dorrance
Background: Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genomics tool for interrogating the function of plant genes. Unfortunately, VIGS vectors often produce disease symptoms that interfere with the silencing phenotypes of target genes, or are frequently ineffective in certain plant genotypes or tissue types. This is especially true in crop plants like soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr]. To address these shortcomings, we modified the inoculation procedure of a VIGS vector based on Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV)...
2018: Plant Methods
Zhimin Du, Ki Hyung Kim, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrew Spicer, Attila Molnar
It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe...
March 6, 2018: Biology
F G Ceglie, M L Amodio, Mlv de Chiara, S Mazdaric, G Mimiola, E Testani, F Tittarelli, G Colelli
BACKGROUND: This research focused on the effect of organic production systems on initial quality and postharvest performances of lamb's lettuce leaves stored in air or under modified atmosphere at refrigerated temperature. Different strategies of organic soil fertility management were compared under the same environmental conditions: i) a simplified organic production system based on organic commercial fertilizers to recover crop uptake (SB); ii) an organic production system based on organic matter amendment mainly supplied by animal manure (AM), and iii) an organic production system based on organic matter amendment supplied by green waste compost (AC)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marilyn L Warburton, Erika D Womack, Juliet D Tang, Adam Thrash, J Spencer Smith, Wenwei Xu, Seth C Murray, W Paul Williams
Maize ( L.) is a staple crop of economic, industrial, and food security importance. Damage to the growing ears by corn earworm [ (Boddie)] is a major economic burden and increases secondary fungal infections and mycotoxin levels. To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a genome-wide association analysis was performed, followed by pathway analysis using a gene-set enrichment-based approach. The gene-set enrichment exposed the cumulative effects of genes in pathways to identify those that contributed the most to resistance...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Cécile Revellin, Alain Hartmann, Sébastien Solanas, Edward Topp
Antibiotics are entrained into agricultural soil through the application of manures from medicated animals. In the present study, a series of small field plots was established in 1999 that receive annual spring applications of a mixture of tylosin, sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg kg-1 soil. These antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production. The field plots were cropped continuously to soybeans and in 2012, after 14 annual antibiotic applications, nodules from soybean roots were sampled and the occupying bradyrhizobia characterized...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Samaneh Ghasemi Fard, Fenglei Wang, Andrew J Sinclair, Glenn Elliott, Giovanni M Turchini
The health benefits of fish oil, and its omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content, have attracted much scientific attention in the last four decades. Fish oils that contain higher amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), in a distinctive ratio of 18/12, are typically the most abundantly available and are commonly studied. Although the two fatty acids have traditionally been considered together, as though they were one entity, different physiological effects of EPA and DHA have recently been reported...
March 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ruimin Gao, Biruk A Feyissa, Mana Croft, Abdelali Hannoufa
The CRISPR/Cas9 technique was successfully used to edit the genome of the obligatory outcrossing plant species Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa). RNA-guided genome engineering using Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology enables a variety of applications in plants. Successful application and validation of the CRISPR technique in a multiplex genome, such as that of M. sativa (alfalfa) will ultimately lead to major advances in the improvement of this crop. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technique to mutate squamosa promoter binding protein like 9 (SPL9) gene in alfalfa...
February 28, 2018: Planta
Agnès E Ricroch, Michèle Guillaume-Hofnung, Marcel Kuntz
It is generally accepted that transgenesis can improve our knowledge of natural processes, but also leads to agricultural, industrial or socio-economical changes which could affect human society at large and which may, consequently, require regulation. It is often stated that developing countries are most likely to benefit from plant biotechnology and are at the same time most likely to be affected by the deployment of such new technologies. Therefore, ethical questions related to such biotechnology probably also need to be addressed...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Blanca Velasco-Arroyo, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, Andrea Gomez-Sanchez, Beatriz Moreno-Garcia, Maria Estrella Santamaria, Miguel Torija-Bonilla, Goetz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Manuel Martinez, Isabel Diaz
Protein breakdown and mobilization are some of the major metabolic features associated with abiotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling and plant survival. Genetic manipulation of protease and/or protease inhibitors may contribute to modulate proteolytic processes and plant responses. The expression analysis of the whole cystatin family, inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteases, after water deprivation in barley leaves highlighted the involvement of Icy2 and Icy4 cystatin genes. Artificial microRNA lines independently silencing the two drought-induced cystatins were generated to assess their function in planta...
February 27, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Diego Suárez-Estrella, Luisa Torri, Maria Ambrogina Pagani, Alessandra Marti
Awareness of the several agronomic, environmental, and health benefits of quinoa has led to a constant increase in its production and consumption not only in South America - where it is a native crop - but also in Europe and the United States. However, producing wheat or gluten-free based products enriched with quinoa alters some quality characteristics, including sensory acceptance. Several anti-nutritional factors such as saponins are concentrated in the grain pericarp. These bitter and astringent substances may interfere with the digestion and absorption of various nutrients...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rod A Herman, Gregory S Ladics
The value of criteria used in the weight-of-evidence assessment of allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops has been debated. This debate may originate, in part, from not specifying if the criteria are intended to contribute to the assessment of sensitization risk or elicitation risk. Here, this distinction is explicitly discussed in the context of exposure and hazard. GM crops with structural relationships with known allergens or sourced from an organism known to cause allergy (hazard) are screened for IgE-antibody reactivity using serum from sensitized individuals...
February 23, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Reona Takabatake, Yukari Kagiya, Yasutaka Minegishi, Sabina Yeasmin, Satoshi Futo, Akio Noguchi, Kazunari Kondo, Junichi Mano, Kazumi Kitta
We developed new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based detection methods for the screening of genetically modified (GM) maize and soybean events. The LAMP methods developed targeted seven sequences: cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter; 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (cp4epsps); phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (pat) gene; mannose-6-phosphate isomerase gene; Pisum sativum ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase terminator; a common sequence between Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac genes; and a GA21 construct-specific sequence...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tania Pardo, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido, Ramez F Saad, Jose Luis Soto-Vázquez, Mariana Loureiro-Viñas, Ángeles Prieto-Fernández, Guillaume Echevarria, Emil Benizri, Petra S Kidd
Nickel (Ni) agromining of ultramafic soils has been proposed as an eco-friendly option for metal recovery, which can also improve the fertility and quality of these low productive soils. The selection of adequate plant species and the analysis of their performance under the different climatic conditions are of interest for optimising the process and evaluating its full viability. A one-year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the viability of the two Ni-hyperaccumulating Mediterranean species, Alyssum murale and Leptoplax emarginata, for agromining purposes in ultramafic soils under a humid-temperate climate...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
E Angulo, L Bula, I Mercado, A Montaño, N Cubillán
In this work, the removal of the Cephalexin by Chlorella sp., nonliving modified by extraction of lipids was evaluated. First, the microalga was grown to completing 20 days and later, the biomass of crop was centrifuged and the extraction of lipids was performed. Two adsorption experiments were performed: (1) with nonliving Chlorella sp. (control), and (2) the obtained biomass after lipid extraction. The high antibiotic removal, 71.19% and 82.77% (control), were obtained at the lowest initial concentration...
February 20, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"