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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316108/cry1a-b-16-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-theoretical-refinement-of-three-dimensional-structure-and-prediction-of-peptides-as-molecular-markers-for-detection-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#1
Alexandra Plácido, Andreia Coelho, Lucas Abreu do Nascimento, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Maria Fátima Barroso, Joilson Ramos-Jesus, Vladimir Costa, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Martins Ramos, Mariela M Marani, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Transgenic maize produced by the insertion of the Cry transgene into its genome became the second most cultivated crop worldwide. Cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki expresses protein derivatives of crystalline endotoxins which confer insect resistance onto the maize crop. Mandatory labeling of processed food containing or made by genetically modified organisms is in force in many countries, so, it is very urgent to develop fast and practical methods for GMO identification, e.g., biosensors. In the absence of an available empirical structure of Cry1A(b)16 protein, a theoretical model was effectively generated, in this work, by homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations based on two available homologous protein structures...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315486/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-in-plants
#2
Xuejun Liu, Chuanxiao Xie, Huaijun Si, Jinxiao Yang
The increasing burden of the world's population on agriculture necessitates the development of more robust crops. As the amount of information from sequenced crop genomes increases, technology can be used to investigate the function of genes in detail and to design improved crops at the molecular level. Recently, an RNA-programmed genome-editing system composed of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-encoded guide RNA and the nuclease Cas9 has provided a powerful platform to achieve these goals...
March 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303144/the-cytochrome-p450-gene-cscyp85a1-is-a-putative-candidate-for-super-compact-1-scp-1-plant-architecture-mutation-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l
#3
Hui Wang, Wanqing Li, Yaguang Qin, Yupeng Pan, Xiaofeng Wang, Yiqun Weng, Peng Chen, Yuhong Li
The dwarf or compact plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length have been cloned in cucurbit crops (family Cucurbitaceae). From an EMS-induced mutagenesis population, we identified a super compact (SCP) mutant C257 which was extremely dwarf due to practically no internode elongation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296339/controlling-the-hydrolysis-and-loss-of-nitrogen-fertilizer-urea-using-a-nanocomposite
#4
Naiqin Zhong, Linglin Zhou, Pan Zhao, Yu Chi, Dongfang Wang, Pan Wang, Ning Liu, Dongqing Cai, Zhengyan Wu
Urea tends to be hydrolyzed by urease and then migrate to the environment, resulting in low utilization efficiency and severe environmental contamination. To solve this problem, a fertilizer synergist (FS) was developed using sodium humate transported by a nanonetwork through hydrogen bonds. FS could effectively inhibit the hydrolysis, reduce the loss amount, and enhance the UE of nitrogen. Furthermore, FS exerted significant positive effects on the expression of several nitrogen uptake-related genes, ion flux in maize roots, the growth of crops and the organic matter in soil...
March 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273925/sorghum-dw1-positively-regulates-brassinosteroid-signaling-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-localization-of-brassinosteroid-insensitive-2
#5
Ko Hirano, Mayuko Kawamura, Satoko Araki-Nakamura, Haruka Fujimoto, Kozue Ohmae-Shinohara, Miki Yamaguchi, Akihiro Fujii, Hiroaki Sasaki, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Takashi Sazuka
Semi-dwarf traits have been widely introgressed into cereal crops to improve lodging resistance. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), four major unlinked dwarfing genes, Dw1-Dw4, have been introduced to reduce plant height, and among them, Dw3 and Dw1 have been cloned. Dw3 encodes a gene involved in auxin transport, whereas, Dw1 was recently isolated and identified as a gene encoding a protein of unknown function. In this study, we show that DW1 is a novel component of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sorghum possessing the mutated allele of Dw1 (dw1), showed similar phenotypes to rice BR-deficient mutants, such as reduced lamina joint bending, attenuated skotomorphogenesis, and insensitivity against feedback regulation of BR-related genes...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265276/abscisic-acid-signaling-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-plants-a-review-on-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#6
REVIEW
Kanchan Vishwakarma, Neha Upadhyay, Nitin Kumar, Gaurav Yadav, Jaspreet Singh, Rohit K Mishra, Vivek Kumar, Rishi Verma, R G Upadhyay, Mayank Pandey, Shivesh Sharma
Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262361/straw-return-reduces-yield-scaled-n2o-plus-no-emissions-from-annual-winter-wheat-based-cropping-systems-in-the-north-china-plain
#7
Zhisheng Yao, Guangxuan Yan, Xunhua Zheng, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Straw return in combination with synthetic N fertilizer is considered to be beneficial to soil fertility and crop yield. Such practice, however, can considerably modify soil microbial activity and relative C and N availability, both of which are known to regulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. Minimizing these emissions per unit of crop yield is a prerequisite to minimize the environmental footprint of agricultural production and thus, a policy objective. In our study, we quantified N2O and NO emissions and determined fertilizer-N use efficiencies (NUE) and crop yields of two double-cropping (summer maize/Welsh onion-winter wheat) systems with and without straw incorporation in the North China Plain...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247412/modification-and-application-of-an-in-vitro-assay-to-examine-inositol-phosphate-degradation-in-the-digestive-tract-of-poultry
#8
V Sommerfeld, M Schollenberger, L Hemberle, M Rodehutscord
BACKGROUND: An in vitro assay was modified to study inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) disappearance and the formation of lower inositol phosphate (InsP) isomers in the poultry digestive tract, and three experiments investigated the influence of diets with different ingredients and additives. Using the poultry diet as a matrix, the assay simulated the conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, proteolytic enzymes, water content, and retention time) of the crop, stomach, and small intestine, and extraction and analysis of InsP isomers were immediately conducted...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243724/in-vitro-gene-expression-and-mrna-translocation-from-transformed-walnut-juglans-regia-rootstocks-expressing-dsred-fluorescent-protein-to-wild-type-scions
#9
Xiaochen Liu, Sriema L Walawage, Charles A Leslie, Abhaya M Dandekar, David M Tricoli, Hengkang Hu, Youjun Huang, Jiaqi Zhang, Chuanmei Xv, Jianqin Huang, Qixiang Zhang
An in vitro grafting method was developed for examining gene translocation from rootstock to scion in walnut. Results showed the DsRED gene itself was not translocated but expressed mRNA was. Grafting is widely used in plants, especially in fruit and nut crops. Selected rootstocks can control scion growth and physiological traits, including shortening of the juvenile phase and controlling tree size. Rootstocks also can provide improved soil adaptation and pathogen resistance. Development of genetically modified (GM) fruit crops has progressed recently, but commercial cultivation is still limited due to the time required for evaluation and issues with deregulation...
February 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235989/bacillus-thuringiensis-a-successful-insecticide-with-new-environmental-features-and-tidings
#10
REVIEW
Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Elena Valijanian, Reza Sharafi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known as the most successful microbial insecticide against different orders of insect pests in agriculture and medicine. Moreover, Bt toxin genes also have been efficiently used to enhance resistance to insect pests in genetically modified crops. In light of the scientific advantages of new molecular biology technologies, recently, some other new potentials of Bt have been explored. These new environmental features include the toxicity against nematodes, mites, and ticks, antagonistic effects against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and fungi, plant growth-promoting activities (PGPR), bioremediation of different heavy metals and other pollutants, biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer, and anticancer activities (due to parasporins)...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235875/engineering-cyanobacterial-cell-morphology-for-enhanced-recovery-and-processing-of-biomass
#11
Adam Jordan, Jenna Chandler, Joshua S MacCready, Jingcheng Huang, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends upon the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology in order to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus sp...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235823/an-induced-chromosomal-translocation-in-soybean-disrupts-a-kasi-ortholog-and-is-associated-with-a-high-sucrose-and-low-oil-seed-phenotype
#12
Austin A Dobbels, Jean-Michel Michno, Benjamin W Campbell, Kamaldeep S Virdi, Adrian O Stec, Gary J Muehlbauer, Seth L Naeve, Robert M Stupar
Mutagenesis is a useful tool in many crop species to induce heritable genetic variability for trait improvement and gene discovery. In this study, forward screening of a soybean fast neutron mutant population identified an individual that produced seed with nearly twice the amount of sucrose (8.1% on dry matter basis) and less than half the amount of oil (8.5% on dry matter basis) as compared to wild-type. Bulked segregant analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and genome resequencing were used to associate the seed composition phenotype with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 13...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229479/sampling-strategies-for-evaluating-the-rate-of-adventitious-transgene-presence-in-non-genetically-modified-crop-fields
#13
David Makowski, Rémi Bancal, Arnaud Bensadoun, Hervé Monod, Antoine Messéan
According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223908/elevated-urinary-glyphosate-and-clostridia-metabolites-with-altered-dopamine-metabolism-in-triplets-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-or-suspected-seizure-disorder-a-case-study
#14
William Shaw
CONTEXT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. OBJECTIVE: The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220129/no-silver-bullet-canonical-poly-adp-ribose-polymerases-parps-are-no-universal-factors-of-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-resistance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Dagmar Rissel, Peter P Heym, Kathrin Thor, Wolfgang Brandt, Ludger A Wessjohann, Edgar Peiter
Abiotic and biotic stress can have a detrimental impact on plant growth and productivity. Hence, there is a substantial demand for key factors of stress responses to improve yield stability of crops. Members of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) protein family, which post-translationally modify (PARylate) nuclear proteins, have been suggested as such universal determinants of plant stress responses. A role under abiotic stress has been inferred from studies in which a genetic or, more commonly, pharmacological inhibition of PARP activity improved the performance of stressed plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218975/stacking-transgenic-event-das-%C3%A3-15%C3%A3-7-1-alters-maize-composition-less-than-traditional-breeding
#16
Rod A Herman, Brandon J Fast, Peter N Scherer, Alyssa M Brune, Denise T de Cerqueira, Barry W Schafer, Ricardo D Ekmay, George G Harrigan, Greg A Bradfisch
The impact of crossing ("stacking") genetically modified (GM) events on maize-grain biochemical composition was compared with the impact of generating non-GM hybrids. The compositional similarity of seven GM stacks containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and their matched non-GM near-isogenic hybrids (iso-hybrids) was compared with the compositional similarity of concurrently grown non-GM hybrids and these same iso-hybrids. Scatter plots were used to visualize comparisons among hybrids and a coefficient of identity (percent of variation explained by line of identity) was calculated to quantify the relationships within analyte profiles...
February 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#17
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212406/accumulation-of-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acyl-moieties-in-seed-oils-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#18
Zhaohui Hu, Qian Wu, Jyoti Dalal, Naresh Vasani, Harry O Lopez, Heike W Sederoff, Rongda Qu
With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210764/review-biosafety-assessment-of-bt-rice-and-other-bt-crops-using-spiders-as-example-for-non-target-arthropods-in-china
#19
REVIEW
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Jilin Hu, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang
Since the birth of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for pest control, the public debate regarding ecological and environmental risks as well as benefits of Bt crops has continued unabated. The impact of Bt crops, especially on non-target invertebrates, has received particular attention. In this review, we summarize and analyze evidences for non-target effects of Bt rice on spiders, major predators in rice fields. Bt rice has been genetically modified to express the Bt protein, which has been shown to be transferred and accumulate in spiders as part of their food chain...
February 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197647/the-overproduction-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-iaa-in-endophytes-upregulates-nitrogen-fixation-in-both-bacterial-cultures-and-inoculated-rice-plants
#20
Roberto Defez, Anna Andreozzi, Carmen Bianco
Endophytic bacteria from roots and leaves of rice plants were isolated and identified in order to select the diazotrophs and improve their nitrogen-fixing abilities. The nitrogen-fixing endophytes were identified by PCR amplification of the nifH gene fragment. For this purpose, two isolates, Enterobacter cloacae RCA25 and Klebsiella variicola RCA26, and two model bacteria (Herbaspirillum seropedicae z67 and Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234) were transformed to increase the biosynthesis of the main plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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