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modified crop

Yonglei Liu, Yinglong Wang, Changlong Shu, Kejian Lin, Fuping Song, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang
Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from a Bt 1012 strain showed toxicity against two important rice hemipteran pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these two proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain, and share common sequence features with the β-pore forming toxins...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pablo Ibort, Hiroyuki Imai, Matsuo Uemura, Ricardo Aroca
Feeding an increasing global population as well as reducing environmental impact of crops is the challenge for the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) management could represent a suitable method but elucidation of their action mechanisms is essential for a proper and effective utilization. Furthermore, ethylene is involved in growth and response to environmental stimuli but little is known about the implication of ethylene perception in PGPB activity. The ethylene-insensitive tomato never ripe and its isogenic wild-type cv...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Karl M Wetterhorn, Kaitlyn Gabardi, Herbert Michlmayr, Alexandra Malachova, Mark Busman, Susan Patricia McCormick, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Ivan Rayment
Family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases in plants (UGTs) primarily form glucose conjugates of small molecules and, besides other functions, play a role in detoxification of xenobiotics. Indeed, overexpression of a barley UGT in wheat has been shown to control Fusarium head blight, where this is a plant disease of global significance that leads to reduced crop yields and contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin and many other structural variants. The UGT Os79 from rice has emerged as a promising candidate for inactivation of mycotoxins on account of its ability to glycosylate DON, nivalenol and hydrolyzed T-2 toxin (HT-2)...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
Natália L Sousa, Glaucia B Cabral, Pabline M Vieira, Aisy B Baldoni, Francisco J L Aragão
Ricin is a highly toxic ribosome-inactivating lectin occurring in the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Castor bean grows throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions and is a very important crop due to its high seed content of ricinoleic acid, an unusual fatty acid, which has several industrial applications. However, due to the presence of the toxin, castor bean can cause death after the exposure of animals to low doses of ricin through skin contact, injection, inhalation or oral routes. Aiming to generate a detoxified genotype, we explored the RNAi concept in order to silence the ricin coding genes in the endosperm of castor bean seeds...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hao Li, Juan Li, Rongfang Xu, Ruiying Qin, Fengshun Song, Li Li, Pengcheng Wei, Jianbo Yang
Using promoters expressed in non-endosperm tissues to activate target genes in specific plant tissues or organs with very limited expression in the endosperm is an attractive approach in crop transgenic engineering. In this paper, five putative non-endosperm tissue expressed promoters were cloned from the rice genome and designated POsNETE1 , POsNETE2 , POsNETE3 , POsNETE4 and POsNETE5 . By qualitatively and quantitatively examining GUSplus reporter gene expression in transgenic rice plants, POsNETE1 -POsNETE5 were all found to be active in the roots, leaves, stems, sheaths and panicles but not in the endosperm of plants at different developmental stages...
November 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Neelam Soda, Lokesh Verma, Jitender Giri
Precise genome editing is a quantum leap in the field of plant sciences. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated Cas9 protein have emerged as a powerful tool for precise genome editing. CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces small heritable mutations (indels) in the genome of an organism. This system also enables precise gene characterization in plants with complex genomes. Besides, it offers new opportunities of trait stacking, where addition of desirable traits or removal of undesirable traits can be achieved simultaneously in a single event...
October 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Majken Pagter, Christian Clement Yde, Katrine Heinsvig Kjær
Global warming may modify the timing of dormancy release and spring growth of buds of temperate fruit crops. Environmental regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in perennial plants remains poorly understood at the metabolic level. Especially, the fine-scale metabolic dynamics in the meristematic zone within buds has received little attention. In this work we performed metabolic profiling of intact floral primordia of Ribes nigrum isolated from buds differing in dormancy status using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chun Wang, Kejian Wang
Targeted genome editing technology is an important tool to study the function of genes and to modify organisms at the genetic level. Recently, CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) system has emerged as an efficient tool for specific genome editing in animals and plants. CRISPR-Cas system uses CRISPR-associated endonuclease and a guide RNA to generate double-strand breaks at the target DNA site, subsequently leading to genetic modifications. CRISPR-Cas system has received widespread attention for manipulating the genomes with simple, easy and high specificity...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
P C A Moquet, S A Salami, L Onrust, W H Hendriks, R P Kwakkel
The hypothesis was tested that butyrate presence in the digesta of distinct gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments of broilers leads to differential effects on digesta retention time, gut morphology, and proteolytic enzymatic activities, ultimately resulting in differences in protein digestibility. A total of 320 male day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (no butyrate), 2) unprotected butyrate (main activity in the crop and gastric regions), 3) tributyrin (main activity in the small intestine), 4) fat-coated butyrate (activity in the whole GIT) and 5) unprotected butyrate combined with tributyrin, each replicated 8 times...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Wibke Wille, Christian B Pipper, Eva Rosenqvist, Sven B Andersen, Jacob Weiner
Several researchers have hypothesized that shade avoidance behaviour is favoured by natural selection because it increases the fitness of individuals. Shade avoidance can be disadvantageous for crops, however, because it reduces allocation of resources to reproductive yield, increases the risk of lodging and reduces weed suppression. One approach to develop varieties with reduced shade avoidance and enhanced agronomic performance is by inducing mutations followed by phenotypic screening. We treated spring wheat seeds with ethyl methanesulfonate and screened the seedlings repeatedly under green filters for plants showing reduced elongation of the first leaf sheath and second leaf lamina...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Vicente Eduardo Soares de Almeida, Karen Friedrich, Alan Freihof Tygel, Leonardo Melgarejo, Fernando Ferreira Carneiro
Genetically modified (GM) crops were officially authorized in Brazil in 2003. In this documentary study, we aimed to identify possible changes in the patterns of pesticide use after the adoption of this technology over a span of 13 years (2000 to 2012). The following variables were analyzed: Pesticide use (kg), Pesticide use per capita (kg/inhab), Pesticide and herbicide use per area (kg/ha) and productivity (kg/ha). Contrary to the initial expectations of decreasing pesticide use following the adoption of GM crops, overall pesticide use in Brazil increased 1...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Timothy R Green, Holm Kipka, Olaf David, Gregory S McMaster
The "Corn Belt" is a commonly used term, but often referenced as a vaguely defined region in the Midwest USA. A few key studies have delineated synoptic maps of the Corn Belt boundaries going back to the early 20th century, but a modern flexible and accessible framework for mapping the Corn Belt in space and time is needed. New tools provide reference maps for the Corn Belt in the 21st century and the ability to quantify space-time changes in corn cropping patterns. The Landuse and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) was used to estimate the average corn (maize, Zea mays L...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Amina L Mohamed, Ahmed G Hassabo, S Shaarawy, A Hebeish
The research work presented herein was undertaken with a view to develop, characterize and highlight modified cotton fabrics that acquire durable antibacterial activity in concomitant with high metal sorption capacity. The development is based on reacting cotton cellulose previously oxidized by sodium periodate-with 4 amino-1,2,4 triazole in presence and absence of silver nano particles (AgNPs). The idea behind the periodate pretreatment is to convert (via oxidative cleavge) the 2,3-vicinal diol of the anhydroglucose units of cotton into aldehyde groups...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
A Alan Moghissi, Lisa M Jaeger, Dania Shafei, Lindsey L Bloom
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Yongping Li, Wei Wei, Jia Feng, Huifeng Luo, Mengting Pi, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
The genome of the wild diploid strawberry species Fragaria vesca, an ideal model system of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, octoploid) and other Rosaceae family crops, was first published in 2011 and followed by a new assembly (Fvb). However, the annotation for Fvb mainly relied on ab initio predictions and included only predicted coding sequences, therefore an improved annotation is highly desirable. Here, a new annotation version named v2.0.a2 was created for the Fvb genome by a pipeline utilizing one PacBio library, 90 Illumina RNA-seq libraries, and 9 small RNA-seq libraries...
September 23, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Graham Brookes, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace E Tyner
This study assesses the potential economic and environmental impacts that would arise if restrictions on glyphosate use resulted in the world no longer planting genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GM HT) crops. 'First round' impacts are the loss of farm level and aggregate impacts associated with the widespread use of GM HT crops (tolerant to glyphosate). There would be an annual loss of global farm income gains of $6.76 billion and lower levels of global soybean, corn and canola production equal to 18...
October 16, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Wen Zhi Wang, Ben Peng Yang, Xiao Yan Feng, Zheng Ying Cao, Cui Lian Feng, Jun Gang Wang, Guo Ru Xiong, Lin Bo Shen, Jun Zeng, Ting Ting Zhao, Shu Zhen Zhang
Genetically modified crops which had been commercial applied extensively majorly are the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance events. In this study, the Bt insecticidal gene Cry1Ab, the glyphosate-tolerant gene EPSPS, and the selection marker gene PMI were combined into a single transferred DNA fragment and introduced into sugarcane by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty-three resistant plantlets were obtained after selection using a PMI/mannose selection system. Thirty of these resistant plantlets were PCR positive for the three target genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anjil Kumar Srivastava, Cunjin Zhang, Robert S Caine, Julie Gray, Ari Sadanandom
Conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) protein to cellular targets is emerging as a very influential protein modification system. Once covalently bound SUMO conjugation can change the stability or functionality of its cognate target proteins. SUMO protease can rapidly reverse SUMO conjugation making this modification system highly dynamic. A major factor in the variation of SUMO-target function is the balance between the conjugated/de-conjugated forms. The mechanistic role of these regulatory SUMO proteases in mediating stress responses has not been defined in any crops...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Peter Bommert, Clinton Whipple
The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. While models of inflorescence architecture have been proposed in both eudicots and grasses, these are inadequate to fully explain the complex branching events that occur during the development of the grass inflorescence. Key to understanding grass inflorescence architecture is the meristem determinacy/indeterminacy decision, which regulates the number of branching events that occur. Here we review what has been learned about meristem determinacy from grass mutants with defects in inflorescence development...
October 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Christine G Parks, Aimee A D'Aloisio, Dale P Sandler
Farming and pesticide exposure may influence risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of early life pesticide exposures is not known. In the Sister Study, a national cohort of women ages 35-74 (enrolled 2004-2009), we examined childhood pesticide exposures in adult-onset RA. Cases (n = 424), reported at enrollment and confirmed by disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or steroid use for RA and ≥6 weeks bilateral joint swelling, were compared to 48,919 non-cases. Data included pesticide use at the longest childhood residence through age 14, farm residence of ≥12 months with agricultural pesticide exposures through age 18, and maternal farm experience...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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