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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351549/weeds-and-ground-dwelling-predators-response-to-two-different-weed-management-systems-in-glyphosate-tolerant-cotton-a-farm-scale-study
#1
Esteban García-Ruiz, Íñigo Loureiro, Gema P Farinós, Pablo Gómez, Elena Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier Sánchez, María Concepción Escorial, Félix Ortego, María Cristina Chueca, Pedro Castañera
The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350323/william-e-vidaver-1921-2017-an-innovator-enthusiastic-scientist-inspiring-teacher-and-a-wonderful-friend
#2
A H Jay Burr, Aaron Vidaver, Ulrich Schreiber, Doug Bruce, Danielle J Donnelly
William (Bill) E. Vidaver (February 2, 1921-August 31, 2017), who did his Ph.D. with Laurence (Larry) R. Blinks at Stanford (1964) and a postdoc with C. Stacy French (1965), taught and did research at Simon Fraser University (SFU) for almost 30 years. Here he published over 80 papers in photosynthesis-related areas co-authored by his graduate students, postdocs, visiting professors and SFU colleagues. He developed a unique high-pressure cuvette for the study of oxygen exchange and studied high-pressure effects in photosynthesis...
January 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#3
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343265/rnase-if-treated-quantitative-pcr-for-dsrna-quantitation-of-rnai-trait-in-genetically-modified-crops
#4
Po-Hao Wang, Greg Schulenberg, Shannon Whitlock, Andrew Worden, Ning Zhou, Stephen Novak, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used to knockdown target genes via post-transcriptional silencing. In plants, RNAi is used as an effective tool with diverse applications being developed such as resistance against insects, fungi, viruses, and metabolism manipulation. To develop genetically modified (GM) RNAi traits for insect control, a transgene is created and composed of an inversely-repeated sequence of the target gene with a spacer region inserted between the repeats...
January 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337228/monitoring-the-prevalence-of-genetically-modified-gm-maize-in-iran-food-products
#5
Motahreh Sadat Hosseini, Gilda Eslami, Bahador Hajimohammadi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Zahra Derakhshan, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Maize, the second most important genetically modified (GM) crop, and an ingredient in many foodstuffs worldwide. Regulations for both the labeling and the traceability of GMOs in feed chains are coming into force worldwide. To provide consumer's information, labelling for food products containing more than 0.9% of GM material is demanded by the actual EU legislation. Analysis of foods is then essential to detect and quantify GM maize material and verify the compliance with labelling information. For this purpose, reliable and accurate detection methods are a necessity...
January 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318739/coexistence-of-bt-transgenic-and-conventional-rice-affects-insect-abundance-and-plant-fitness-in-fields
#6
Yuyong Liang, Fang Liu, Junsheng Li, Zhengxin Cheng, Hongfan Chen, Xuming Wang, Nengwen Xiao, Yongbo Liu
BACKGROUND: As genetically modified (GM) crops have been cultivated worldwide, concerns emerge over ecological consequences because of the coexistence of transgenic and non-transgenic crops in fields. We first conducted field experiments using insect-resistant Bt-transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis and its counterpart conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) with or without insecticide spraying in 2013 and 2014. In 2015 and 2016, Bt-transgenic and conventional rice were employed in the pure and mixed cages, with an infestation of target insect (Chilo suppressalis) and insecticide spraying as the control treatment to prevent target insects...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315633/preferential-adsorption-of-flavonoids-from-peanut-shell-by-amino-modified-fe3-o4-nanoparticles-mnp-nh2
#7
Xuexiao Cao, Meng Wang, Lili Sun, Xiaoliang Ren, Gaosheng Pei
BACKGROUND: The highly selective capture of individual components of complex systems such as Chinese medicine extracts is a great challenge. With the rapid development of nanoscience, magnetic materials have attracted increased attention as suitable candidates for use in drug transport vehicles. RESULTS: In this work, amino-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (MNP-NH2 ) have been synthesized and successfully used to selectively isolate Luteolin, a type of flavonoid, from peanut shell, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310289/an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-cry1ab-based-on-phage-displayed-peptides
#8
Xin Lu, Dong-Jian Jiang, Jia-Xiang Yan, Zhen-E Ma, Xiu-Er Luo, Tai-Long Wei, Yang Xu, Qing-Hua He
The rapid and widespread adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about the impact of GM crops on environment and food safety. A sensitive and specific method for detecting Bt proteins in GM crops is of great significance for environment and food risk assessment. In this study, using Cry1Ab as a model Bt protein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for Cry1Ab protein has been developed based on phage displayed peptide. Phage displayed peptides against Cry1Ab protein were obtained from a phage displayed peptide library without animal immunization process through biopanning-elution strategy...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300969/influence-of-phytase-or-myo-inositol-supplements-on-performance-and-phytate-degradation-products-in-the-crop-ileum-and-blood-of-broiler-chickens
#9
V Sommerfeld, S Künzel, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with free myo-inositol (MI) or graded levels of phytase on inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation, concentrations of MI in the digestive tract and blood, bone mineralization, and prececal digestibility of amino acids (AA). Ross 308 broiler hatchlings were allocated to 40 pens with 11 birds each and assigned to one of 5 treatments. The birds were fed a starter diet until d 11 and a grower diet from d 11 to d 22. All diets were based on wheat, soybean meal, and corn...
December 29, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297687/anthocyanin-management-in-fruits-by-fertilization
#10
Mareike Jezek, Christian Zörb, Nikolaus Merkt, Christoph-Martin Geilfus
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar plant pigments that are mainly synthesized in epidermal layers and the flesh of fruits such as apples, cherries, grapes, and other berries. Because of their attractive red to purple coloration and their health-promoting potential, anthocyanins are significant determinants for the quality and market value of fruits and fruit-derived products. In crops, anthocyanin accumulation in leaves can be caused by nutrient deficiency which is usually ascribed to insufficient nitrogen or phosphorous fertilization...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288231/sulforaphane-modifies-histone-h3-unpacks-chromatin-and-primes-defense
#11
Britta Schillheim, Irina Jansen, Stephani Baum, Carsten Bolm, Alexander Beesley, Uwe Conrath
Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286995/the-americleft-project-comparison-of-ratings-using-two-dimensional-versus-three-dimensional-images-for-evaluation-of-nasolabial-appearance-in-patients-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate
#12
Christine M Jones, Benjamin Roth, Ana M Mercado, Kathy A Russell, John Daskalogiannakis, Thomas D Samson, Ronald R Hathaway, Andrea Smith, Donald R Mackay, Ross E Long
This study was conducted to determine if nasolabial appearance is rated with comparable results and reliability on 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetric facial images versus standard clinical photographs (2-dimensional). Twenty-seven consecutively treated patients with repaired complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were selected. Six trained and calibrated raters assessed cropped 2- and 3-dimensional facial images. Nasolabial profile, nasolabial frontal, and vermillion border esthetics were rated with the 5-point scale described by Asher-McDade using the modified Q-sort method...
January 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259610/domesticated-genetically-engineered-and-wild-plant-relatives-exhibit-unintended-phenotypic-differences-a-comparative-meta-analysis-profiling-rice-canola-maize-sunflower-and-pumpkin
#13
Alejandra Hernández-Terán, Ana Wegier, Mariana Benítez, Rafael Lira, Ana E Escalante
Agronomic management of plants is a powerful evolutionary force acting on their populations. The management of cultivated plants is carried out by the traditional process of human selection or plant breeding and, more recently, by the technologies used in genetic engineering (GE). Even though crop modification through GE is aimed at specific traits, it is possible that other non-target traits can be affected by genetic modification due to the complex regulatory processes of plant metabolism and development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258443/exogenous-trehalose-improves-growth-under-limiting-nitrogen-through-upregulation-of-nitrogen-metabolism
#14
Yingchao Lin, Jie Zhang, Weichang Gao, Yi Chen, Hongxun Li, David W Lawlor, Matthew J Paul, Wenjie Pan
BACKGROUND: The trehalose (Tre) pathway has strong effects on growth and development in plants through regulation of carbon metabolism. Altering either Tre or trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) can improve growth and productivity of plants as observed under different water availability. As yet, there are no reports of the effects of modification of Tre orT6P on plant performance under limiting nutrition. RESULTS: Here we report that nitrogen (N) metabolism is positively affected by exogenous application of Tre in nitrogen-deficient growing conditions...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240417/modifying-the-formulation-of-abamectin-to-promote-its-efficacy-on-southern-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-under-blending-of-soil-and-root-irrigation-conditions
#15
Beixing Li, Yupeng Ren, Da-Xia Zhang, Shuangyu Xu, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
The southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is the most disastrous and prevalent nematode threat to the production of crops, especially vegetables. In the current study, second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were collected from five regions near Tai'an, China. The toxicity of abamectin to these J2 had insignificant differences, with LC50 values of approximately 2 mg/L. Two pesticide application approaches (i.e., blending-of-soil and root-irrigation) were adopted in pot experiments; blending-of-soil was more beneficial for promoting the efficacy of abamectin on the RKN of tomatoes...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235937/the-impact-of-genetically-modified-gm-crops-in-modern-agriculture-a-review
#16
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
December 13, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234458/robust-genetic-transformation-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-using-differentiating-embryogenic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryos
#17
Srinivas Belide, Thomas Vanhercke, James Robertson Petrie, Surinder Pal Singh
Background: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is one of the world's most important cereal crops grown for multiple applications and has been identified as a potential biofuel crop. Despite several decades of study, sorghum has been widely considered as a recalcitrant major crop for transformation due to accumulation of phenolic compounds, lack of model genotypes, low regeneration frequency and loss of regeneration potential through sub-cultures. Among different explants used for genetic transformation of sorghum, immature embryos are ideal over other explants...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229957/plants-increase-co2-uptake-by-assimilating-nitrogen-via-the-photorespiratory-pathway
#18
Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage, Graham D Farquhar
Photorespiration is a major bioengineering target for increasing crop yields as it is often considered a wasteful process. Photorespiratory metabolism is integrated into leaf metabolism and thus may have certain benefits. Here, we show that plants can increase their rate of photosynthetic CO2 uptake when assimilating nitrogen de novo via the photorespiratory pathway by fixing carbon as amino acids in addition to carbohydrates. Plants fed NO3- had higher rates of CO2 assimilation under photorespiratory than low-photorespiratory conditions, while plants lacking NO3- nutrition exhibited lower stimulation of CO2 uptake...
January 2018: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228505/a-spatio-temporal-exposure-hazard-model-for-assessing-biological-risk-and-impact
#19
Emily Walker, Melen Leclerc, Jean-François Rey, Rémy Beaudouin, Samuel Soubeyrand, Antoine Messéan
We developed a simulation model for quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants (e.g., xenobiotics) and assessing the risk of exposed populations at the landscape level. The model is a spatio-temporal exposure-hazard model based on (i) tools of stochastic geometry (marked polygon and point processes) for structuring the landscape and describing the exposed individuals, (ii) a dispersal kernel describing the dissemination of contaminants from polygon sources, and (iii) an (eco)toxicological equation describing the toxicokinetics and dynamics of contaminants in affected individuals...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183604/microbial-catabolism-of-chemical-herbicides-microbial-resources-metabolic-pathways-and-catabolic-genes
#20
Xing Huang, Jian He, Xin Yan, Qing Hong, Kai Chen, Qin He, Long Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Shaochuang Chuang, Shunpeng Li, Jiandong Jiang
Chemical herbicides are widely used to control weeds and are frequently detected as contaminants in the environment. Due to their toxicity, the environmental fate of herbicides is of great concern. Microbial catabolism is considered the major pathway for the dissipation of herbicides in the environment. In recent decades, there have been an increasing number of reports on the catabolism of various herbicides by microorganisms. This review presents an overview of the recent advances in the microbial catabolism of various herbicides, including phenoxyacetic acid, chlorinated benzoic acid, diphenyl ether, tetra-substituted benzene, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, aryloxyphenoxypropionate, phenylurea, dinitroaniline, s-triazine, chloroacetanilide, organophosphorus, thiocarbamate, trazinone, triketone, pyrimidinylthiobenzoate, benzonitrile, isoxazole and bipyridinium herbicides...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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