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modified crop

Jose A Aznar-Moreno, Timothy P Durrett
The plant kingdom produces a variety of fatty acid structures, many of which possess functional groups useful for industrial applications. The species that produce these unusual fatty acids are often not suitable for large scale commercial production. The ability to create genetically modified plants, together with emerging synthetic biology approaches, offers the potential to develop alternative oil seed crops capable of producing high levels of modified lipids. In some cases, by combining genes from different species, non-natural lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Xuping Feng, Yiying Zhao, Chu Zhang, Peng Cheng, Yong He
There are possible environmental risks related to gene flow from genetically engineered organisms. It is important to find accurate, fast, and inexpensive methods to detect and monitor the presence of genetically modified (GM) organisms in crops and derived crop products. In the present study, GM maize kernels containing both cry1Ab/cry2Aj-G10evo proteins and their non-GM parents were examined by using hyperspectral imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) range (874.41-1733.91 nm) combined with chemometric data analysis...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
Doori Park, Su-Hyun Park, Yong Wook Ban, Youn Shic Kim, Kyoung-Cheul Park, Nam-Soo Kim, Ju-Kon Kim, Ik-Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have been developed to improve the agricultural traits of modern crop cultivars. Safety assessments of GM crops are of paramount importance in research at developmental stages and before releasing transgenic plants into the marketplace. Sequencing technology is developing rapidly, with higher output and labor efficiencies, and will eventually replace existing methods for the molecular characterization of genetically modified organisms...
August 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Asraa Ziadi, Naoyuki Uchida, Hiroe Kato, Rina Hisamatsu, Ayato Sato, Shinya Hagihara, Kenichiro Itami, Keiko U Torii
The increasing climate changes and global warming are leading to colossal agricultural problems such as abatement of food production and quality. As stomatal development is considered to play a key role in crop plant productivity and water-use efficiency, studying stomatal development is useful for understanding the productivity of plant systems for both natural and agricultural systems. Herein, we report the first-in-class synthetic small molecules enhancing the number of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana that have been discovered by screening of the chemical library and further optimized by the Pd-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction...
August 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lauri Nikkanen, Jouni Toivola, Manuel Guinea Diaz, Eevi Rintamäki
Thioredoxins (TRXs) are protein oxidoreductases that control the structure and function of cellular proteins by cleavage of a disulphide bond between the side chains of two cysteine residues. Oxidized thioredoxins are reactivated by thioredoxin reductases (TR) and a TR-dependent reduction of TRXs is called a thioredoxin system. Thiol-based redox regulation is an especially important mechanism to control chloroplast proteins involved in biogenesis, in regulation of light harvesting and distribution of light energy between photosystems, in photosynthetic carbon fixation and other biosynthetic pathways, and in stress responses of plants...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Yuhong Qin, Jingru Zhang, Yifan Li, Qiuxiao Wang, Yangliu Wu, Lanshu Xu, Xiaojuan Jin, Canping Pan
An automated multi-filtration cleanup (Auto m-FC) method with nitrogen-enriched activated carbon material based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It was applied to pesticide multi-residue analysis in six representative crop commodities. The automatic device was aimed to improve the cleanup efficiency and reduce manual operation workload in cleanup step. By controlling extracts volume, flow rate and Auto m-FC cycles, the device could finish cleanup process accurately...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ali Nikoonahad, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Sima Salamehnejad
Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) reactors due to their plentiful biomass, high shockability, high efficiency, good filtration, availability and lack of need for large land areas, are enjoying from great importance in advanced wastewater treatment. Therefore, in this study, Polystyrene Coated by Sand (PCS) was produced as a novel media and its application in a modified down-flow BAF structure for advanced wastewater treatment was assessed in two steps. In step one, the backwash effluent did not return to the system, while in step two backwash effluent returned to increase the water reuse efficiency...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Shuzhou Miao, Xingzhong Yuan, Yunshan Liang, Hou Wang, Lijian Leng, Zhibin Wu, Longbo Jiang, Yifu Li, Dan Mo, Guangming Zeng
Genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, which have been widely used in agricultural transgenic plants, express insecticidal Cry proteins and release the toxin into soils. Taking into consideration the environmental risk of Cry proteins, biosurfactant-rhamnolipids were applied to desorb Cry proteins from soil environment, which has not been elucidated before. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used in this article to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of Cry1Ac on SiO2 surface (model soil)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Poulami Sarkar, Kuladip Jana, Samir Ranjan Sikdar
Transgenic mustard plants ( Brassica juncea ) expressing non-allergenic and biologically safe RiD peptide show higher tolerance against Lipaphis erysimi. Rorippa indica defensin (RiD) has previously been reported as a novel insecticidal protein derived from a wild crucifer Rorippa indica. RiD was found to have an effective insecticidal property against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. In the present study, RiD was highly upregulated in R. indica during aphid infestation initiating a defense system mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), but not by salicylic acid (SA)/abscisic acid (ABA)...
August 2, 2017: Planta
Ying Shang, Wentao Xu, Yong Wang, Yuancong Xu, Kunlun Huang
This study described a novel multiplex qualitative detection method using pyrosequencing. Based on the principle of the universal primer-multiplex-PCR, only one sequencing primer was employed to realize the detection of the multiple targets. Samples containing three genetically modified (GM) crops in different proportions were used to validate the method. The dNTP dispensing order was designed based on the product sequences. Only 12 rounds (ATCTGATCGACT) of dNTPs addition and, often, as few as three rounds (CAT) under ideal conditions, were required to detect the GM events qualitatively, and sensitivity was as low as 1% of a mixture...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Marc Fuchs
Plant viruses can cause devastating diseases in many crops around the world. Genetic resistance and the adoption of resistant crop cultivars is the most desirable strategy to manage viruses. Single or multiple sources of resistance derived from host and/or virus gene sequences are used to develop resistant crop plants. Pyramiding sources of resistance is essential for achieving broad-spectrum and durable resistance and for protecting crops from commonly occurring mixed virus infections. Stacking resistance-conferring gene sequences into single crop cultivars is achieved by first, conventional breeding and the use of dominant and recessive host genes; second, genetic engineering and the deployment of virus-derived gene sequences or modified small plant RNAs for antiviral RNA interference defense, or of programmable nucleases to target viral gene sequences or to alter host factors that are critical to complete the virus infection cycle; and third, a combination of conventional breeding and genetic engineering...
July 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
Angelika Hilbeck, Rebecca Bundschuh, Mirco Bundschuh, Frieder Hofmann, Bernadette Oehen, Mathias Otto, Ralf Schulz, Miluse Trtikova
For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues which may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems...
July 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Qingfeng Song, Yu Wang, Mingnan Qu, Donald R Ort, Xinguang Zhu
Canopy photosynthesis (Ac ) describes photosynthesis of an entire crop field and the daily and seasonal integrals of Ac positively correlate with daily and seasonal biomass production. Much effort in crop breeding has focused on improving canopy architecture and hence light distribution inside the canopy. Here, we develop a new integrated canopy photosynthesis model including canopy architecture, a ray tracing algorithm and C3 photosynthetic metabolism to explore the option of manipulating leaf chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) for greater Ac and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)...
July 28, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jasmine E Burr-Hersey, Sacha J Mooney, A Glyn Bengough, Stefan Mairhofer, Karl Ritz
Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz...
2017: PloS One
Qianjin Wang, Naishun Han, Cong Dang, Zengbin Lu, Fang Wang, Hongwei Yao, Yufa Peng, David Stanley, Gongyin Ye
The advent of genetically modified (GM) Bt rice creates the possibility of interactions among Bt crops, crop pathogens and non-target herbivores. In particular, information on how pathogen-infected Bt-expressing plants will influence non-target herbivores is necessary to predict the sustainability of GM cropping systems. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the potential combined impacts of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and two Bt rice lines, T1C-19 (Cry1C) and T2A-1 (Cry2A), on non-target green rice leafhopper (GRLH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)...
2017: PloS One
Lei Wu, Huanyu Chang, Xiaoyi Ma
The Guanzhong region is one of the water resources shortage areas and also an important food producing area in Chinese Loess Plateau. The unreasonable application of irrigation and pesticide not only reduces the utilization rate of pesticides, but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the reasonable application pattern of irrigation and pesticide, a modified method considering crop water requirement and pesticide transport was established to simulate transport and fate of Triadimefon in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field in Yangling, China...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Donna R Farmer, Thomas C Edrington, Colton R Kessenich, Cunxi Wang, Jay S Petrick
Many insect-protected crops express insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), including both naturally-occurring Cry proteins and chimeric Cry proteins created through biotechnology. The Cry51Aa2 protein is a naturally-occurring Cry protein that was modified to increase its potency and expand its insect activity spectrum through amino acid sequence changes. The improved Cry51Aa2 variant, Cry51Aa2.834_16, and other developmental variants belong to the ETX_MTX2 family of proteins but share a low level of sequence similarity to other members of this family...
July 24, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Fan Yang, Lili Sun, Weiling Xie, Qun Jiang, Yan Gao, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhang
N-doped porous carbon sheets (NPCS) resulted from wheat straws are fabricated through using molten salts via the carbonization-functionalization progress, which show unique hierarchical structure, large pore volume and high surface area with affluent micropores. Results indicate that there exist many hierarchical pores consisting of the single carbon sheet with ultrathin nature, owing to the template role of molten salt mixtures at high temperature. Such superior structure can bring about desired performance of adsorption capacity of 82...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zongbo Qiu, Mengmeng Yuan, Yanyan He, Yongfang Li, Liang Zhang
Drought stress is a serious problem worldwide that reduces crop productivity. The laser has been shown to play a positive physiological role in enhancing plant seedlings tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about the molecular mechanism of He-Ne laser irradiation induced physiological changes for wheat adapting to drought conditions. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome sequencing to determine the molecular roles of He-Ne laser pretreated wheat seedlings under drought stress...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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