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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531950/modelling-pesticides-volatilisation-in-greenhouses-sensitivity-analysis-of-a-modified-pearl-model
#1
Michael Houbraken, Kim Doan Ngoc, Frederik van den Berg, Pieter Spanoghe
BACKGROUND: The application of the existing PEARL model was extended to include estimations of the concentration of crop protection products in greenhouse (indoor) air due to volatilisation from the plant surface. The model was modified to include the processes of ventilation of the greenhouse air to the outside atmosphere and transformation in the air. RESULTS: A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed by varying selected input parameters on a one-by-one basis and comparing the model outputs with the outputs of the reference scenarios...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531662/microencapsulation-of-gulosibacter-molinativorax-on4-t-cells-by-a-spray-drying-process-using-different-biopolymers
#2
Berta N Estevinho, A Rita Lopes, Vera Sousa, Fernando Rocha, Olga C Nunes
Molinate is a thiocarbamate herbicide used in rice crop protection. As other pesticides, molinate is a recognized environmental pollutant and bio-accumulated by some wildlife forms. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4(T) is able to hydrolyse molinate into metabolites which are further degraded by other un-related bacteria. Hence, it can be used in molinate bioremediation processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of producing G. molinativorax ON4(T) microparticles, using different non-toxic biopolymers (arabic gum, modified chitosan, calcium alginate and sodium alginate) as encapsulating agents by a spray-drying process...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527035/comparison-of-rhizosphere-properties-as-affected-by-different-bt-and-non-bt-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-genotypes-and-fertilization
#3
Maqshoof Ahamd, Waleed Mumtaz Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Muhammad Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar, Farheen Nazli
Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521945/whitefly-interactions-with-plants
#4
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Wang, Ping Li, Shu-Sheng Liu
Whiteflies are important pests of many crops worldwide. They are polyphagous and effectively feed on phloem sap using mouthparts modified into long, flexible stylets. Plants respond to whitefly attack by activating defense genes leading to production of toxic compounds. To reach plant phloem and survive on host plants, whiteflies secret effectors in the saliva to regulate plant responses and activate detoxification system to cope with plant defenses. Additionally, whitefly-transmitted viruses may exert substantial effects on host plants and in turn the performance of whiteflies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515731/ectopic-expression-of-cdf3-genes-in-tomato-enhances-biomass-production-and-yield-under-salinity-stress-conditions
#5
Begoña Renau-Morata, Rosa V Molina, Laura Carrillo, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo, Manuel Sánchez-Perales, Stephan Pollmann, José Domínguez-Figueroa, Alba R Corrales, Jaume Flexas, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Joaquín Medina, Sergio G Nebauer
Cycling Dof Factor (CDF) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in multiple processes related to plant growth and development. A member of this family, CDF3, has recently been linked in Arabidopsis to the regulation of primary metabolism and abiotic stress responses, but its role in crop production under stress is still unknown. In this study, we characterized tomato plants overexpressing the CDF3 genes from Arabidopsis and tomato and analyzed their effects on growth and yield under salinity, additionally gaining deeper insights into the molecular function of these TFs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512461/transcriptional-responses-to-pre-flowering-leaf-defoliation-in-grapevine-berry-from-different-growing-sites-years-and-genotypes
#6
Sara Zenoni, Silvia Dal Santo, Giovanni B Tornielli, Erica D'Incà, Ilaria Filippetti, Chiara Pastore, Gianluca Allegro, Oriana Silvestroni, Vania Lanari, Antonino Pisciotta, Rosario Di Lorenzo, Alberto Palliotti, Sergio Tombesi, Matteo Gatti, Stefano Poni
Leaf removal is a grapevine canopy management technique widely used to modify the source-sink balance and/or microclimate around berry clusters to optimize fruit composition. In general, the removal of basal leaves before flowering reduces fruit set, hence achieving looser clusters, and improves grape composition since yield is generally curtailed more than proportionally to leaf area itself. Albeit responses to this practice seem quite consistent, overall vine performance is affected by genotype, environmental conditions, and severity of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510512/field-trial-of-insect-resistant-and-herbicide-tolerant-genetically-modified-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-for-environmental-risk-assessment-in-japan
#7
Yoko Asanuma, Takahiro Gondo, Genki Ishigaki, Koichi Inoue, Norihiro Zaita, Melody Muguerza, Ryo Akashi
Japan imports cottonseed mainly from Australia and the USA where more than 96% of all cotton varieties grown are genetically modified (GM). GM crops undergo an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under the Law Concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity before import into Japan. Potential adverse effects on biodiversity are comprehensively assessed based on competitiveness, production of harmful substances and outcrossing ability. Even though imported cottonseed is intended for food and feed uses and not for cultivation, the potential risks from seed spillage during transport must be evaluated...
April 3, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508953/-mycotoxins-in-food-occurrence-importance-and-health-risk
#8
REVIEW
Gisela H Degen
Mycotoxins are produced by a variety of fungal species on crops or stored commodities; they appear as primary or secondary contaminants and via the carryover effect in the food chain. The global occurrence of many mycotoxins with a wide spectrum of toxicities is the subject of interdisciplinary research and a relevant topic for consumer protection. This overview aims to raise interest with sections of the hazardous properties of important mycotoxins (from aflatoxin to zearalenone) and describes recent developments in the area of exposure assessment and basic principles applied in risk characterization...
May 16, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508151/tunable-and-nontoxic-fluorescent-probes-based-on-carbon-dots-for-imaging-of-indole-propionic-acid-receptor-in-plant-tissues-in-situ
#9
Bixia Lin, Ying Yu, Fangfei Liu, Yujuan Cao, Manli Guo
Indole propionic acid (IPA) is one of the important plant growth hormones for promoting rooting and fruiting. Labeling IPA receptor in plant tissues is able to further track the signal transduction processes of IPA and uncover the function mechanism of IPA on crop productions. In this paper, a tunable and nontoxic fluorescent probe for IPA receptors was designed and synthetized base on carbon dots (C dots). Firstly carboxyl-modified carbon dots were prepared by high temperature cracking of citric acid. The fluorescence emission wavelengths of C dots varied with the excitation wavelengths change...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503153/investigating-engineered-ribonucleoprotein-particles-to-improve-oral-rnai-delivery-in-crop-insect-pests
#10
François-Xavier Gillet, Rayssa A Garcia, Leonardo L P Macedo, Erika V S Albuquerque, Maria C M Silva, Maria F Grossi-de-Sa
Genetically modified (GM) crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain-dsRNA binding domain) combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491136/applications-of-microalgal-biofilms-for-wastewater-treatment-and-bioenergy-production
#11
Ana F Miranda, Narasimhan Ramkumar, Constandino Andriotis, Thorben Höltkemeier, Aneela Yasmin, Simone Rochfort, Donald Wlodkowic, Paul Morrison, Felicity Roddick, German Spangenberg, Banwari Lal, Sanjukta Subudhi, Aidyn Mouradov
BACKGROUND: Microalgae have shown clear advantages for the production of biofuels compared with energy crops. Apart from their high growth rates and substantial lipid/triacylglycerol yields, microalgae can grow in wastewaters (animal, municipal and mining wastewaters) efficiently removing their primary nutrients (C, N, and P), heavy metals and micropollutants, and they do not compete with crops for arable lands. However, fundamental barriers to the industrial application of microalgae for biofuel production still include high costs of removing the algae from the water and the water from the algae which can account for up to 30-40% of the total cost of biodiesel production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491078/the-importance-of-being-on-time-regulatory-networks-controlling-photoperiodic-flowering-in-cereals
#12
REVIEW
Vittoria Brambilla, Jorge Gomez-Ariza, Martina Cerise, Fabio Fornara
Flowering is the result of the coordination between genetic information and environmental cues. Gene regulatory networks have evolved in plants in order to measure diurnal and seasonal variation of day length (or photoperiod), thus aligning the reproductive phase with the most favorable season of the year. The capacity of plants to discriminate distinct photoperiods classifies them into long and short day species, depending on the conditions that induce flowering. Plants of tropical origin and adapted to short day lengths include rice, maize, and sorghum, whereas wheat and barley were originally domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and are considered long day species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485118/relationship-between-weed-dormancy-and-herbicide-rotations-implications-in-resistance-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Henri Darmency, Nathalie Colbach, Valérie Le Corre
It was suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated to herbicide-resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies-like herbicide rotation-that are used to prevent or control herbicide-resistance. Here, we review literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481684/farm-income-and-production-impacts-of-using-gm-crop-technology-1996-2015
#14
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper provides an assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined impacts on yields, key variable costs of production, direct farm (gross) income and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has occurred at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2015...
May 8, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481096/cuo-and-zno-nanoparticles-modify-interkingdom-cell-signaling-processes-relevant-to-crop-production-a-review
#15
Anne Anderson, Joan E McLean, Astrid Rosa Jacobson, David Britt
As the world population increases, strategies for sustainable agriculture are needed to fulfill the global need for plants for food and other commercial products. Nanoparticle formulations are likely to be part of the developing strategies. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) offer potential as fertilizers, as they provide bioavailable essential metals, and as pesticides, because of dose-dependent toxicity. Effects of these metal oxide NPs on rhizosphere functions are the focus of this review. These NPs at doses of 10 mg metal/kg and above change production of key metabolites involved in plant protection in a root-associated microbe, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481025/sorption-and-desorption-of-glyphosate-in-mollisols-and-ultisols-soils-of-argentina
#16
Ana Maria Gómez Ortiz, Elena Okada, Francisco Bedmar, José Luis Costa
In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in the past years due to the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in three Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (Kf ). Glyphosate sorption was high and the Kf varied from 115...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473652/genetically-modified-foods-and-allergy
#17
REVIEW
T H Lee, H K Ho, T F Leung
2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine...
May 5, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461500/interspecies-hormonal-control-of-host-root-morphology-by-parasitic-plants
#18
Thomas Spallek, Charles W Melnyk, Takanori Wakatake, Jing Zhang, Yuki Sakamoto, Takatoshi Kiba, Satoko Yoshida, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Ken Shirasu
Parasitic plants share a common anatomical feature, the haustorium. Haustoria enable both infection and nutrient transfer, which often leads to growth penalties for host plants and yield reduction in crop species. Haustoria also reciprocally transfer substances, such as RNA and proteins, from parasite to host, but the biological relevance for such movement remains unknown. Here, we studied such interspecies transport by using the hemiparasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana Tracer experiments revealed a rapid and efficient transfer of carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) from host to parasite upon formation of vascular connections...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460742/revisiting-an-old-disease-risk-factors-for-bovine-enzootic-haematuria-in-the-kingdom-of-bhutan
#19
Arata Hidano, Basant Sharma, Karma Rinzin, Narapati Dahal, Kinzang Dukpa, Mark A Stevenson
Bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH) is a debilitating disease of cattle caused by chronic ingestion of bracken fern. Control of BEH is difficult when bracken fern is abundant and fodder resources are limited. To fill a significant knowledge gap on modifiable risk factors for BEH, we conducted a case-control study to identify cattle management practices associated with BEH in the Bhutanese cattle population. A case-control study involving 16 of the 20 districts of Bhutan was carried out between March 2012 and June 2014...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460038/antismash-4-0-improvements-in-chemistry-prediction-and-gene-cluster-boundary-identification
#20
Kai Blin, Thomas Wolf, Marc G Chevrette, Xiaowen Lu, Christopher J Schwalen, Satria A Kautsar, Hernando G Suarez Duran, Emmanuel L C de Los Santos, Hyun Uk Kim, Mariana Nave, Jeroen S Dickschat, Douglas A Mitchell, Ekaterina Shelest, Rainer Breitling, Eriko Takano, Sang Yup Lee, Tilmann Weber, Marnix H Medema
Many antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, crop protection agents and food preservatives originate from molecules produced by bacteria, fungi or plants. In recent years, genome mining methodologies have been widely adopted to identify and characterize the biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of such compounds. Since 2011, the 'antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH' has assisted researchers in efficiently performing this, both as a web server and a standalone tool. Here, we present the thoroughly updated antiSMASH version 4, which adds several novel features, including prediction of gene cluster boundaries using the ClusterFinder method or the newly integrated CASSIS algorithm, improved substrate specificity prediction for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains based on the new SANDPUMA algorithm, improved predictions for terpene and ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides cluster products, reporting of sequence similarity to proteins encoded in experimentally characterized gene clusters on a per-protein basis and a domain-level alignment tool for comparative analysis of trans-AT polyketide synthase assembly line architectures...
April 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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