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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923437/in-vitro-studies-with-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-monolayers-for-protein-hazard-characterization
#1
REVIEW
Bryan Delaney
Evaluating the safety of newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops is conducted prior to commercialization to determine whether they could present a hazard upon consumption. A multicomponent, weight of evidence approach has been applied to individual proteins that has often included acute oral toxicology studies. Based on resources required to produce and purify the proteins, the number of animals necessary for these studies and the fact that no evidence of hazard has been observed for any of the proteins tested to date, it is questionable whether acute toxicology studies should be conducted for all proteins...
September 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921162/a-bionanohybrid-znal-nads-ecological-pesticide-as-a-treatment-for-soft-rot-disease-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#2
Erika Elizabeth Morales-Irigoyen, Yolanda de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Jorge Luis Flores-Moreno, Marina Olivia Franco-Hernández
Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#3
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913797/agribusiness-perspectives-on-transgenic-wheat
#4
Bill Malcolm
Declining yields of the major human food crops, looming growth in global population and rise of populism, and ill-founded bans on agricultural and horticultural crops and foodstuffs which are genetically modified have potentially serious implications. It makes the chance less than otherwise would be the case that agribusiness value chains in the future will meet the growing demand around the world for more and different foods from more and wealthier people. In the agribusiness value chain, transgenic wheat, meeting a consumer "trigger need" also must meet the "experience" and "credence," risk-related criteria of well-informed consumers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#5
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910714/nitrogen-discharge-pathways-in-vegetable-production-as-non-point-sources-of-pollution-and-measures-to-control-it
#6
Ju Min, Weiming Shi
Discharge of nitrogen (N) from fertilizers applied to vegetables is becoming a serious environmental problem. In a field experiment involving a celery-tomato-fallow-lettuce rotation, leaching was the primary pathway of N loss (56.1±0.4% of the total), followed, in descending order, by runoff (11.7±0.3%), N2O emissions (1.6±0.1%), and volatilization of ammonia (0.5±0.1%). Decreasing the traditional dose of N by 40% in each growth season decreased N leaching by 22.3±4.5, 39.8±6.7, 40.3±2.9 and 27.4±3...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906328/the-americleft-project-a-modification-of-asher-mcdade-method-for-rating-nasolabial-esthetics-in-patients-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-using-q-sort
#7
Alicia Stoutland, Ross E Long, Ana Mercado, John Daskalogiannakis, Ronald R Hathaway, Kathleen A Russell, Emily Singer, Gunvor Semb, William C Shaw
The purpose of this study was to investigate ways to improve rater reliability and satisfaction in nasolabial esthetic evaluations of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), by modifying the Asher-McDade method with use of Q-sort methodology. Blinded ratings of cropped photographs of one hundred forty-nine 5- to 7-year-old consecutively treated patients with complete UCLP from 4 different centers were used in a rating of frontal and profile nasolabial esthetic outcomes by 6 judges involved in the Americleft Project's intercenter outcome comparisons...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905511/talen-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-more-than-100-comt-copies-alleles-in-highly-polyploid-sugarcane-improves-saccharification-efficiency-without-compromising-biomass-yield
#8
Baskaran Kannan, Je Hyeong Jung, Geoffrey W Moxley, Sun-Mi Lee, Fredy Altpeter
Sugarcane is the world's most efficient feedstock for commercial production of bioethanol due to its superior biomass production and accumulation of sucrose in stems. Integrating first and second generation ethanol conversion processes will enhance the biofuel yield per unit area by utilizing both sucrose as well as cell wall bound sugars for fermentation. RNAi suppression of the lignin biosynthetic gene caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been demonstrated to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass...
September 14, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903074/siz1-mediated-sumoylation-during-phosphate-homeostasis-in-plants-looking-beyond-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#9
REVIEW
Manali Datta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti, Nidhi Mathur, Shanker L Kothari, Ajay Jain
Availability of phosphate (Pi) is often limited in rhizospheres in different agroclimatic zones and adversely affects growth and development of plants. To circumvent this impasse, there is an urgent need and global consensus to develop Pi use efficient crops. To achieve this goal, it is essential to identify the molecular entities that exert regulatory influences on the sensing and signaling cascade governing Pi homeostasis. SIZ1 encodes a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO E3) ligase, and plays a pivotal role in the post-translational SUMOylation of proteins...
September 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901326/environmental-and-biological-monitoring-for-the-identification-of-main-exposure-determinants-in-vineyard-mancozeb-applicators
#10
Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Federico M Rubino, Eugenio Ariano, Danilo Cottica, Sara Neri, Claudio Colosio
Grapevine is a vulnerable crop to several fungal diseases often requiring the use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, such as mancozeb. This fungicide has been reported to have goitrogenic, endocrine disrupting, and possibly immunotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure in two scenarios of mancozeb application and analyse the main determinants of exposure in order to better understand their mechanism of influence. Environmental monitoring was performed using a modified Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "patch" methodology and by hand-wash collection, while mancozeb's metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was measured in 24-h preexposure and postexposure urine samples...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901209/the-distinct-properties-of-natural-and-gm-cry-insecticidal-proteins
#11
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898466/an-overview-of-genetically-modified-crop-governance-issues-and-challenges-in-malaysia
#12
REVIEW
Andrew Johnny, Ismail Normaz Wana, Djama Marcel
The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, are rapidly increase in production for the last 20 years. Despite its known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890018/the-allergenicity-of-genetically-modified-foods-from-genetically-engineered-crops-a-narrative-and-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
S Eliza Dunn, John L Vicini, Kevin C Glenn, David M Fleischer, Matthew J Greenhawt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880897/changes-in-soil-microbial-communities-after-10-years-of-winter-wheat-cultivation-versus-fallow-in-an-organic-poor-soil-in-the-loess-plateau-of-china
#14
Hui Tian, Hui Wang, Xiaoli Hui, Zhaohui Wang, Rhae A Drijber, Jinshan Liu
Agricultural management methods, such as cultivation or fallowing, have led to significant changes in soil fertility and hence, crop yield. Such changes may have stemmed from changes in soil microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. This phenomenon is particularly true in organic-poor soil in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study, we examined three existing soil management regimes as part of a 10-year field experiment and evaluated their effects on fungal and bacterial community structures by performing high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878795/organization-and-regulation-of-soybean-sumoylation-system-under-abiotic-stress-conditions
#15
Yanjun Li, Guixin Wang, Zeqian Xu, Jing Li, Mengwei Sun, Jingsong Guo, Wei Ji
Covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-related modifier, SUMO, to substrate proteins plays a significant role in plants under stress conditions, which can alter target proteins' function, location, and protein-protein interactions. Despite this importance, information about SUMOylation in the major legume crop, soybean, remains obscure. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire soybean genome and identified 40 genes belonged to six families involved in a cascade of enzymatic reactions in soybean SUMOylation system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878216/environmental-stress-is-the-major-cause-of-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-changes-in-gm-and-non-gm-plants
#16
Rita Batista, Cátia Fonseca, Sébastien Planchon, Sónia Negrão, Jenny Renaut, M Margarida Oliveira
The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such "memory". We also wondered about the relevance of alterations promoted by transgenesis as compared to environment-induced ones. Here we followed three rice lines (1-control, 1-transgenic and 1-negative segregant) throughout eight generations after transgenesis combining proteomics and transcriptomics, and further analyzed their response to salinity stress on the F6 generation...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874519/a-histone-code-reader-and-a-transcriptional-activator-interact-to-regulate-genes-for-salt-tolerance
#17
Wei Wei, Jian-Jun Tao, Hao-Wei Chen, Qing-Tian Li, Wan-Ke Zhang, Biao Ma, Qing Lin, Jin-Song Zhang, Shou-Yi Chen
Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger proteins are involved in various developmental processes and stress responses. They recognize and bind to epigenetically modified histone H3 'tail' and function as 'histone code readers'. Here we report that GmPHD6 reads low methylated histone H3K4me0/1/2 but not H3K4me3 with its N-terminal domain instead of the PHD finger. GmPHD6 does not possess transcriptional regulatory ability but has DNA-binding ability. Through the PHD finger, GmPHD6 interacts with its co-activator, LHP1-1/2 to form a transcriptional activation complex...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869769/increased-consumer-density-reduces-the-strength-of-neighborhood-effects-in-a-model-system
#18
Andrew C Merwin, Nora Underwood, Brian D Inouye
An individual's susceptibility to attack can be influenced by conspecific and heterospecifics neighbors. Predicting how these neighborhood effects contribute to population-level processes such as competition and evolution requires an understanding of how the strength of neighborhood effects is modified by changes in the abundances of both consumers and neighboring resource species. We show for the first time that consumer density can interact with the density and frequency of neighboring organisms to determine the magnitude of neighborhood effects...
September 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865306/natural-ecosystem-mimicry-in-traditional-dryland-agroecosystems-insights-from-an-empirical-and-holistic-approach
#19
Julien Blanco, Geneviève Michon, Stéphanie M Carrière
While the aim of Ecological Intensification is to enable the design of more sustainable and productive agricultural systems, it is not suited to dryland agroecosystems that are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics and intrinsic variability. Instead, a model based on mobility and variability management has been proposed for these agroecosystems. However, this model remains under-applied in southern Morocco where there have been few studies on the functioning of traditional agroecosystems. This paper focuses on an agroecosystem in the Moroccan Saharan fringe zone that combines agriculture and pastoralism in an acacia parkland...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861701/heat-stress-differentially-modifies-ethylene-biosynthesis-and-signaling-in-pea-floral-and-fruit-tissues
#20
Raghavendra P Savada, Jocelyn A Ozga, Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions...
August 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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