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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427325/global-analysis-of-protein-lysine-succinylation-profiles-in-common-wheat
#2
Yumei Zhang, Guangyuan Wang, Limin Song, Ping Mu, Shu Wang, Wenxing Liang, Qi Lin
BACKGROUND: Protein lysine succinylation is an important post-translational modification and plays a critical regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Common wheat is one of the major global cereal crops. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine succinylation in this plant. Here, we performed a global analysis of lysine succinylation in wheat and examined its overlap with lysine acetylation. RESULTS: In total, 330 lysine succinylated modification sites were identified in 173 proteins...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420193/a-quantitative-pcr-electrochemical-genosensor-test-for-the-screening-of-biotech-crops
#3
Suely Moura-Melo, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Junior, Rosana A da Silva Fonseca, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418615/co-expression-of-gr79-epsps-and-gat-yields-herbicide-resistant-cotton-with-low-glyphosate-residues
#4
Chengzhen Liang, Bao Sun, Zhigang Meng, Zhaohong Meng, Yuan Wang, Guoqing Sun, Tao Zhu, Wei Lu, Wei Zhang, Waqas Malik, Min Lin, Rui Zhang, Sandui Guo
Glyphosate resistant (GR) crops have been adopted on a massive scale by North and South American farmers. Currently, about 80% of the 120 million hectares of the global genetically-modified (GM) crops are GR crop varieties. However, the adoption of GR plants in China has not occurred at the same pace, owing to several factors including, among other things, labor markets and the residual effects of glyphosate in transgenic plants. Here, we report the co-expression of codon-optimized forms of GR79 EPSPS and N-acetyltransferase (GAT) genes in cotton...
April 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417173/semiautomated-taqman-pcr-screening-of-gmo-labelled-samples-for-unauthorised-gmos
#5
Ingrid M J Scholtens, Bonnie Molenaar, Richard A van Hoof, Stephanie Zaaijer, Theo W Prins, Esther J Kok
In most countries, systems are in place to analyse food products for the potential presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), to enforce labelling requirements and to screen for the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs. With the growing number of GMOs on the world market, a larger diversity of methods is required for informative analyses. In this paper, the specificity of an extended screening set consisting of 32 screening methods to identify different crop species (endogenous genes) and GMO elements was verified against 59 different GMO reference materials...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416819/cassava-haplotype-map-highlights-fixation-of-deleterious-mutations-during-clonal-propagation
#6
Punna Ramu, Williams Esuma, Robert Kawuki, Ismail Y Rabbi, Chiedozie Egesi, Jessen V Bredeson, Rebecca S Bart, Janu Verma, Edward S Buckler, Fei Lu
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food crop in Africa and South America; however, ubiquitous deleterious mutations may severely decrease its fitness. To evaluate these deleterious mutations, we constructed a cassava haplotype map through deep sequencing 241 diverse accessions and identified >28 million segregating variants. We found that (i) although domestication has modified starch and ketone metabolism pathways to allow for human consumption, the concomitant bottleneck and clonal propagation have resulted in a large proportion of fixed deleterious amino acid changes, increased the number of deleterious alleles by 26%, and shifted the mutational burden toward common variants; (ii) deleterious mutations have been ineffectively purged, owing to limited recombination in the cassava genome; (iii) recent breeding efforts have maintained yield by masking the most damaging recessive mutations in the heterozygous state but have been unable to purge the mutation burden; such purging should be a key target in future cassava breeding...
April 17, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414252/environmental-impacts-of-genetically-modified-gm-crop-use-1996-2015-impacts-on-pesticide-use-and-carbon-emissions
#7
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper updates previous assessments of important environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 618.7 million kg (-8.1%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by18...
April 17, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#8
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386269/silicon-and-plants-current-knowledge-and-technological-perspectives
#9
Marie Luyckx, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Elemental silicon (Si), after oxygen, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, which is mainly composed of silicates. Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e.g., salt stress, drought, heavy metals, to name a few. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382044/functional-roles-of-micrornas-in-agronomically-important-plants-potential-as-targets-for-crop-improvement-and-protection
#10
REVIEW
Arnaud T Djami-Tchatchou, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Ian A Dubery
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381212/low-depth-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-in-a-bovine-population-strategies-to-maximize-the-selection-of-high-quality-genotypes-and-the-accuracy-of-imputation
#11
Jean-Simon Brouard, Brian Boyle, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu, Nathalie Bissonnette
BACKGROUND: Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has emerged as a powerful and cost-effective approach for discovering and genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The GBS technique was largely used in crop species where its low sequence coverage is not a drawback for calling genotypes because inbred lines are almost homozygous. In contrast, only a few studies used the GBS technique in animal populations (with sizeable heterozygosity rates) and many of those that have been published did not consider the quality of the genotypes produced by the bioinformatic pipelines...
April 5, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374454/modifications-of-soil-n-availability-and-grapevine-n-under-cover-crops-influence-on-the-wine-biogenic-amines-composition
#12
Eva P Pérez-Álvarez, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Maria Cabrita, Enrique García-Escudero, Fernando Peregrina
BACKGROUND: Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects to wine quality and human health. The objective was to study if the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status, could be relate with wine biogenic amines. During four years, soil NO₃(-) -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amines concentration were determined...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358924/processing-and-targeting-of-proteins-derived-from-polyprotein-with-2a-and-lp4-2a-as-peptide-linkers-in-a-maize-expression-system
#13
He Sun, Ni Zhou, Hai Wang, Dafang Huang, Zhihong Lang
In the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. The 2A peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes the co-translational "cleavage" of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. LP4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of Impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and second amino acids in post-translational processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353663/use-of-carabids-for-the-post-market-environmental-monitoring-of-genetically-modified-crops
#14
Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Zdeňka Svobodová, Ľudovít Cagáň, František Sehnal
Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected...
March 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352280/an-insight-into-microrna156-role-in-salinity-stress-responses-of-alfalfa
#15
Muhammad Arshad, Margaret Y Gruber, Ken Wall, Abdelali Hannoufa
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting alfalfa productivity. Developing salinity tolerant alfalfa genotypes could contribute to sustainable crop production. The functions of microRNA156 (miR156) have been investigated in several plant species, but so far, no studies have been published that explore the role of miR156 in alfalfa response to salinity stress. In this work, we studied the role of miR156 in modulating commercially important traits of alfalfa under salinity stress. Our results revealed that overexpression of miR156 increased biomass, number of branches and time to complete growth stages, while it reduced plant height under control and salinity stress conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347490/environmental-impacts-of-genetically-modified-plants-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Demetrios Kouretas, Georgios Balias, Kai Savolainen, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Jeong Dong Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345860/instant-visual-and-instrument-free-method-for-on-site-screening-of-gts-40-3-2-soybean-based-on-body-heat-triggered-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#17
Rui Wang, Fang Zhang, Liu Wang, Wenjuan Qian, Cheng Qian, Jian Wu, Yibin Ying
On-site monitoring the plantation of genetically modified (GM) crops is of critical importance in agriculture industry throughout the world. In this paper, a simple, visual and instrument-free method for instant on-site detection of GTS 40-3-2 soybean has been developed. It is based on body-heat recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and followed with naked-eye detection via fluorescent DNA dye. Combining with extremely simplified sample preparation, the whole detection process can be accomplished within 10 min and the fluorescent results can be photographed by an accompanied smart phone...
April 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336772/gmilpa1-encoding-an-anaphase-promoting-complex-like-protein-affects-leaf-petiole-angle
#18
Jinshan Gao, Suxin Yang, Weng Cheng, Yongfu Fu, Jiantian Leng, Xiaohui Yuan, Ning Jiang, Jianxin Ma, Xianzhong Feng
Leaf petiole angle is an important plant architectural trait that affects canopy coverage, photosynthetic efficiency, and ultimately productivity in many legume crops. However, the genetic basis underlying this trait remains unclear. Here, we report the identification, isolation, and functional characterization of Glycine max Increased Leaf Petiole Angle 1 (GmILPA1), a gene encoding an APC8-like protein, that is a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in soybean. A gamma ray-induced deletion of a fragment involving the 4th exon of GmILPA1 and its flanking sequences led to extension of the 3rd exon and formation of a novel 3'UTR from intronic and intergenic sequences...
March 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334065/an-overview-of-mechanisms-of-cry-toxin-resistance-in-lepidopteran-insects
#19
B Peterson, C C Bezuidenhout, J Van den Berg
Arthropods have the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides and insecticidal traits in genetically modified crops. Resistance development among Lepidoptera is a common phenomenon, and a repertoire of resistance mechanisms to various Cry toxins have been identified from laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies in this insect order. Elucidation of such resistance mechanisms is crucial for developing IRM (insect resistance management) strategies to ensure sustainable use of genetically modified crops. This mini review provides a comprehensive overview of mechanisms of resistance that have been reported for lepidopteran pests...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330292/comparative-assessment-of-methods-for-metagenomic-dna-isolation-from-soils-of-different-crop-growing-fields
#20
Aiman Tanveer, Sangeeta Yadav, Dinesh Yadav
The isolation of good quality metagenomic DNA from diverse soil, in appreciable amount, is a prerequisite for metagenomics. The availability of commercial kits for isolation of genomic DNAs from soil has drastically expedited the application of metagenomics approach for identifying novel sources of industrially important enzymes. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of metagenomic DNA isolated using either the manual method or the kit-based method should be performed prior to its use in downstream applications...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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