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modified plants

Andrew G Diamos, Hugh S Mason
Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are proven to be safe and effective vaccine candidates. We have previously described a plant-based recombinant protein expression system based on agroinfiltration of a replicating vector derived from the geminivirus bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV). The system has been systematically optimized to improve expression and reduce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using these modifications, we show that VLPs derived from genotype GII.4 norovirus, the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, can be produced at >1 mg/g leaf fresh weight (LFW), over three times the highest level ever reported in plant-based systems...
June 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Elisa Petranich, Stefano Covelli, Alessandro Acquavita, Jadran Faganeli, Milena Horvat, Marco Contin
The Marano and Grado Lagoon is well known for being contaminated by mercury (Hg) from the Idrija mine (Slovenia) and the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant of Torviscosa (Italy). Experimental activities were conducted in a local fish farm to understand Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface. Both diffusive and benthic fluxes were estimated in terms of chemical and physical features. Mercury concentration in sediments (up to 6.81μg/g) showed a slight variability with depth, whereas the highest methylmercury (MeHg) values (up to 10ng/g) were detected in the first centimetres...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Marilena Gilca, George Sorin Tiplica, Carmen Maria Salavastru
The geographic and ecologic specificity of Romania and other Eastern European countries has resulted in the development of an exceptional diversity of medicinal plants. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the ethnobotanical dermatology practices based on the use of medicinal plants in this region. The indications, ethnopharmacologic activities, parts used, and administration of 106 medicinal plants are provided. We also discuss the relative importance of these species, using two modified indices of quantitative ethnobotany: Use Value Index and Relative Dermatologic Importance, which were calculated on the basis of etic constructions (indications and ethnopharmacologic activities)...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Gabriele Romano, Serena Reggi, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Amanda Facoetti, Elisa Chisci, Mariateresa Pettinato, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Federica Vecchio, Silvia Leoni, Marco De Giorgi, Federica Avezza, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Crippa, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Ilaria Rivolta, Donatella Barisani, Ryszard Tomasz Smolenski, Roberto Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Cesar H E C Poli, Kara J Thornton-Kurth, Jerrad F Legako, Carolina Bremm, Viviane S Hampel, Jeffery Hall, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Juan J Villalba
Plant bioactives can potentially benefit herbivores through their effects on health and nutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of polyphenols and terpenes on the ability of lambs to self-select these compounds when challenged by a parasitic infection and the subsequent impact on their health and productivity. Thirty-five lambs were housed in individual pens and assigned to five treatment groups (7 animals/group), where they received: 1) A basal diet of beet pulp:soybean meal (90:10) (CONTROL); 2) The same diet, but containing 0...
June 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Zhongnan Wang, Xia Yuan, Deli Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhiwei Zhong, Qinfeng Guo, Chao Feng
Large herbivores act as a major driver of plant litter decomposition in grasslands. The modifications of soil biotic and abiotic properties, as well as the changes in quality (C/N ratio) of plant litter, are two key pathways by which large herbivores can affect litter decomposition. Yet we know little about the relative role of these two mechanisms in mediating decomposition. Here, by combining a large-scale and a small-scale field manipulative experiment, we examined how livestock (cattle and sheep) grazing affects standing litter decomposition of a dominant grass, Leymus chinensis in grasslands in northeast China...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Narender Kumar, Renee Dale, Daniel Kemboi, Elizabeth A Zeringue, Naohiro Kato, John C Larkin
Endoreplication, a modified cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without subsequent cell division, plays an important but poorly understood role in plant growth and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The Arabidopsis thaliana SIAMESE (SIM) gene encodes the first identified member of the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. SIM controls endoreplication during trichome development, and sim mutant trichomes divide several times instead of endoreplicating their DNA. The SMR family is defined by several short linear amino acid sequence motifs of largely unknown function, and family members have little sequence similarity to any known protein functional domains...
June 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Claudia Albrecht, María Laura Guzmán, María Cecilia Cittadini, Alejandra Mariel Canalis, Mirta Ana Valentich, María Eugenia Olivera, Elio Andrés Soria
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts can be obtained to carry bioactive compounds, useful for prevention and treatment of different illnesses. This also supports the intake of teas as functional beverages. Nonetheless, it is incompletely known whether these extracts can act as effective sources and vehicles de phenolic compounds (phenolics/polyphenols) to reach their targets. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether phytoextract ingestion modified in a sex-dependent manner the phenolic bioavailability and redox response in liver and kidney...
March 26, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Ray Collier, James G Thomson, Roger Thilmony
Biotechnology provides a means for the rapid genetic improvement of plants. Although single genes have been important in engineering herbicide and pest tolerance traits in crops, future improvements of complex traits like yield and nutritional quality will likely require the introduction of multiple genes. This research reports a system (GAANTRY; Gene Assembly in Agrobacterium by Nucleic acid Transfer using Recombinase technologY) for the flexible, in vivo stacking of multiple genes within an Agrobacterium virulence plasmid Transfer-DNA (T-DNA)...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ruthsabel O'Lexy, Koji Kasai, Natalie Clark, Toru Fujiwara, Rosangela Sozzani, Kimberly L Gallagher
Both plants and animals must contend with changes in their environment. The ability to respond appropriately to these changes often underlies the ability of the individual to survive. In plants, an early response to environmental stress is an alteration in plasmodesmatal permeability with accompanying changes in cell to cell signaling. However, the ways in which plasmodesmata are modified, the molecular players involved in this regulation, and the biological significance of these responses are not well understood...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jordi Morata, Marc Tormo, Konstantinos G Alexiou, Cristina Vives, Sebastián Ramos-Onsins, Jordi Garcia-Mas, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements (TEs) are a major driver of plant genome evolution. A part from being a rich source of new genes and regulatory sequences, TEs can also affect plant genome evolution by modifying genome size and shaping chromosome structure. TEs tend to concentrate in heterochromatic pericentromeric regions and their proliferation may expand these regions. Here we show that after the split of melon and cucumber, TEs have expanded the pericentromeric regions of melon chromosomes that, probably as a consequence, show a very low recombination frequency...
June 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Loissi Kalakodio, Moussa Bakayoko, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
Biochar, coal produced by pyrolysis and used as an amendment, has several advantages and has proven to be a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture. However, the current manufacturing methods, the conditions of pyrolysis and the biomasses used produce biochars of very variable qualities which can differently affect the productivity of the ground and the outputs of plants. Currently, no study makes it possible to elucidate the influence of the physicochemical properties of the biochars on the structure and the microbial diversity of the soil...
June 13, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Emma Garrido, Ari Sadanandom
In recent years posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins has emerged as a key process that integrates plant growth and response to a changing environment. During the processes of domestication and breeding, plants were selected for various yield and adaptational characteristics. The posttranslational modifier Small Ubiquitin like Modifier (SUMO) protein is known to have a role in the regulation of a number of these characteristics. Using bioinformatics, we mined the genomes of cereal and Brassica crops and their non-crop relatives Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon for ULP SUMO proteases sequences...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Benjamin J Kotopka, Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Covering: 2006 to 2018Phytochemicals are important sources for the discovery and development of agricultural and pharmaceutical compounds, such as pesticides and medicines. However, these compounds are typically present in low abundance in nature, and the biosynthetic pathways for most phytochemicals are not fully elucidated. Heterologous production of phytochemicals in plant, bacterial, and yeast hosts has been pursued as a potential approach to address sourcing issues associated with many valuable phytochemicals, and more recently has been utilized as a tool to aid in the elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Rozemarijn Dreesen, Annabelle Capt, Regina Oberdoerfer, Isabelle Coats, Kenneth Edward Pallett
By transgenic expression technology, a modified 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase enzyme (HPPD W336) originating from Pseudomonas fluorescens is expressed in MST-FGØ72-2 soybean to confer tolerance to 4-benzoyl isoxazole and triketone type of herbicides1F. Characterization and safety assessment of HPPD W336 were performed. No relevant sequence homologies were found with known allergens or toxins. Although sequence identity to known toxins showed identity to HPPD proteins annotated as hemolysins, the absence of hemolytic activity of HPPD W336 was demonstrated in vitro...
June 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Mark Seegobin, Anna Kisiala, Adam Noble, David Kaplan, Craig Brunetti, R J Neil Emery
Cytokinins (CKs) are a group of phytohormones essential to plant growth and development. The presence of these N6 -modified adenine derivatives has also been documented in other groups of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and insects. Thus far, however, only a single CK, N6 -(Δ2 -isopentenyl) adenine-9-riboside (iPR), has been identified in mammals. In plants, the nucleotide form of isopentenyladenine [iPR (either mono-, di-, or tri-) phosphate (iPRP)] is the first form of CK synthesized, and it is further modified to produce other CK types...
June 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Benoit Castrec, Cyril Dian, Sarah Ciccone, Coralie L Ebert, Willy V Bienvenut, Jean-Pierre Le Caer, Jean-Marc Steyaert, Carmela Giglione, Thierry Meinnel
An organism's entire protein modification repertoire has yet to be comprehensively mapped. N-myristoylation (MYR) is a crucial eukaryotic N-terminal protein modification. Here we mapped complete Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana myristoylomes. The crystal structures of human modifier NMT1 complexed with reactive and nonreactive target-mimicking peptide ligands revealed unexpected binding clefts and a modifier recognition pattern. This information allowed integrated mapping of myristoylomes using peptide macroarrays, dedicated prediction algorithms, and in vivo mass spectrometry...
June 11, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Thang Cao, Anh Dinh, Khan A Wahid, Karim Panjvani, Sally Vail
To meet the high demand for supporting and accelerating progress in the breeding of novel traits, plant scientists and breeders have to measure a large number of plants and their characteristics accurately. Imaging methodologies are being deployed to acquire data for quantitative studies of complex traits. Images are not always good quality, in particular, they are obtained from the field. Image fusion techniques can be helpful for plant breeders with more comfortable access plant characteristics by improving the definition and resolution of color images...
June 8, 2018: Sensors
Mochamad Adhiraga Pratama, Minoru Yoneda, Yosuke Yamashiki, Yoko Shimada, Yasuto Matsui
The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident released radiocesium in large amounts. The released radionuclides contaminated much of the surrounding environment, including sewers in urban areas of Fukushima prefecture. In this study we attempted to identify and quantify the sources of radiocesium contamination in separate sewerage systems and developed a compartment model based on the Radionuclide Migration in Urban Environments and Drainage Systems (MUD) model. Measurements of the time-dependent radiocesium concentration in sewer sludge combined with meteorological, demographic, and radiocesium dietary intake data indicated that rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) and human excretion were the chief contributors of radiocesium contamination in a separate sewerage system...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bin-Bin Guo, Yun-Ji Zhu, Wei Feng, Li He, Ya-Peng Wu, Yi Zhou, Xing-Xu Ren, Ying Ma
Remote sensing techniques can be efficient for non-destructive, rapid detection of wheat nitrogen (N) nutrient status. In the paper, we examined the relationships of canopy multi-angular data with aerial N uptake of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) across different growing seasons, locations, years, wheat varieties, and N application rates. Seventeen vegetation indices (VIs) selected from the literature were measured for the stability in estimating aerial N uptake of wheat under 13 view zenith angles (VZAs) in the solar principal plane (SPP)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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