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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668107/plant-cuticle-under-global-change-biophysical-implications
#1
José A Heredia-Guerrero, Susana Guzman-Puyol, José J Benítez, Athanassia Athanassiou, Antonio Heredia, Eva Domínguez
The climatic stressors that modify the chemical composition of plant tissues have been recently reviewed by Suseela and Tharayil (2017). In particular, the authors stated that the response of plants to global change effects (viz. increasing temperatures and frequent drought periods) can induce important modifications in plant cuticles such as an increase of the main cuticle components (cutin and polysaccharides), a preponderance of cutan, heavier wax loads, and changes in the chemical composition of waxes, mainly the accumulation of longer aliphatic compounds...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#2
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667049/cu-ii-removal-using-green-adsorbents-kinetic-modeling-and-plant-scale-up-design
#3
Munmun Banerjee, Ranjan Kumar Basu, Sudip Kumar Das
Cu(II) adsorption in continuous column using green adsorbents like peanut and almond shell was investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunaer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Point of Zero charge (pHpzc ) determination have been used for characterization of the adsorbents. Experiments were conducted at various operating conditions to calculate the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents. Adsorption studies signify that both the adsorbents have good adsorptive capacity for Cu(II) ion...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666627/convergent-evolution-and-the-diverse-ontogenetic-origins-of-tendrils-in-angiosperms
#4
REVIEW
Mariane S Sousa-Baena, Neelima R Sinha, José Hernandes-Lopes, Lúcia G Lohmann
Climbers are abundant in tropical forests, where they constitute a major functional plant type. The acquisition of the climbing habit in angiosperms constitutes a key innovation. Successful speciation in climbers is correlated with the development of specialized climbing strategies such as tendrils, i.e., filiform organs with the ability to twine around other structures through helical growth. Tendrils are derived from a variety of morphological structures, e.g., stems, leaves, and inflorescences, and are found in various plant families...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663402/global-analysis-of-sumoylation-function-reveals-novel-insights-into-development-and-appressorium-mediated-infection-of-the-rice-blast-fungus
#5
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662905/systemic-infection-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-with-potato-virus-x-nanoparticles-presenting-a-fluorescent-ilov-polypeptide-fused-directly-to-the-coat-protein
#6
Juliane Röder, Christina Dickmeis, Rainer Fischer, Ulrich Commandeur
Plant virus-based nanoparticles can be produced in plants on a large scale and are easily modified to introduce new functions, making them suitable for applications such as vaccination and drug delivery, tissue engineering, and in vivo imaging. The latter is often achieved using green fluorescent protein and its derivatives, but the monovalent fluorescent protein iLOV is smaller and more robust. Here, we fused the iLOV polypeptide to the N-terminus of the Potato virus X (PVX) coat protein, directly or via the Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A sequence, for expression in Nicotiana benthamiana ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662477/new-genes-involved-in-mild-stress-response-identified-by-transposon-mutagenesis-in-lactobacillus-paracasei
#7
Aurore Palud, Hélène Scornec, Jean-François Cavin, Hélène Licandro
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with various plant, animal, and human niches and are also present in many fermented foods and beverages. Thus, they are subjected to several stress conditions and have developed advanced response mechanisms to resist, adapt, and grow. This work aimed to identify the genes involved in some stress adaptation mechanisms in LAB. For this purpose, global reverse genetics was applied by screening a library of 1287 Lactobacillus paracasei transposon mutants for mild monofactorial stresses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662028/nitrate-reductases-are-relocalized-to-the-nucleus-by-atsiz1-and-their-levels-are-negatively-regulated-by-cop1-and-ammonium
#8
Joo Yong Kim, Bong Soo Park, Sang Woo Park, Han Yong Lee, Jong Tae Song, Hak Soo Seo
Nitrate reductases (NRs) catalyze the first step in the reduction of nitrate to ammonium. NR activity is regulated by sumoylation through the E3 ligase activity of AtSIZ1. However, it is not clear how NRs interact with AtSIZ1 in the cell, or how nitrogen sources affect NR levels and their cellular localization. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of NRs is modulated by the E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 and that NR protein levels are regulated by nitrogen sources. Transient expression analysis of GFP fusion proteins in onion epidermal cells showed that the NRs NIA1 and NIA2 localize to the cytoplasmic membrane, and that AtSIZ1 localizes to the nucleoplasm, including nuclear bodies, when expressed separately, whereas NRs and AtSIZ1 localize to the nucleus when co-expressed...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#9
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662015/structural-characterization-and-interaction-with-rca-120-of-a-highly-sulfated-keratan-sulfate-from-blue-shark-prionace-glauca-cartilage
#10
Qinying Li, Guoyun Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Xindi Shan, Chao Cai, Jing Zhao, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Guangli Yu
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark ( Prionace glauca ) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2...
April 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661660/epipremnum-aureum-and-dracaena-braunii-as-indoor-plants-for-enhanced-bio-electricity-generation-in-a-plant-microbial-fuel-cell-with-electrochemically-modified-carbon-fiber-brush-anode
#11
Pranab Jyoti Sarma, Kaustubha Mohanty
In this study, two different unexploited indoor plants, Epipremnum aureum and Dracaena braunii were used to produce clean and sustainable bio-electricity in a plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC). Acid modified carbon fiber brush electrodes as well as bare electrodes were used in both the PMFCs. A bentonite based clay membrane was successfully integrated in the PMFCs. Maximum performance of E. aureum was 620 mV which was 188 mV higher potential than D. braunii. The bio-electricity generation using modified electrode was 154 mV higher than the bare carbon fiber, probably due to the effective bacterial attachment to the carbon fiber owing to hydrogen bonding...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661131/transcriptome-profiling-of-brassica-napus-stem-sections-in-relation-to-differences-in-lignin-content
#12
Zakir Hossain, Bhinu V-S Pillai, Margaret Y Gruber, Min Yu, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops are cultivated widely for human consumption and animal feed purposes, and oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus and rapa) is the second most important oilseed worldwide. Because of its natural diversity and genetic complexity, genomics studies on oilseed rape will be a useful resource base to modify the quantity and quality of biomass in various crops, and therefore, should have a positive impact on lignocellulosic biofuel production. The objective of this study was to perform microarray analysis on two variable lignin containing oilseed rape cultivars to target novel genes and transcription factors of importance in Brassica lignin regulation for applied research...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660619/highly-efficient-removal-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-in-an-electrolysis-integrated-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetland-amended-with-biochar
#13
Yan Gao, Wen Zhang, Bin Gao, Wen Jia, Aijun Miao, Lin Xiao, Liuyan Yang
Electrolysis combined with biochar (BC) was used in a constructed wetland to intensify nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater simultaneously. A pilot study was conducted using an electrolysis-integrated, BC-amended, horizontal, subsurface-flow, constructed wetland (E-BHFCW). The research results showed that both electrolysis and BC substrate played important roles in the intensified, constructed wetland. The electrolysis combined BC substrate greatly enhanced the removal rates of nitrate (49...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660124/age-and-growth-of-the-endemic-xingu-river-stingray-potamotrygon-leopoldi-validated-using-fluorescent-dyes
#14
P Charvet, F M Santana, K L de Lima, R Lessa
Between 2003 and 2005, vertebrae of 151 Xingu River Potamotrygon leopoldi (Potamotrygonidae) (75 males and 76 females) were analysed to derive a growth curve for this species. The disc width (WD ) was significantly different between sexes, with females measuring 149-700 mm WD and males 109-500 mm WD . The average percentage error for vertebrae readings of the whole sample was 2.7%. The marginal increment ratio (RMI ) showed an increasing trend with the highest value in November, decreasing from December on...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659979/redox-dependent-control-of-nuclear-transcription-in-plants
#15
Huaming He, Frank Van Breusegem, Amna Mhamdi
Redox-dependent regulatory networks are affected by altered cellular or extracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Perturbations of ROS production and scavenging homeostasis have a considerable impact on the nuclear transcriptome. While the regulatory mechanisms by which ROS modulate gene transcription in prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes and mammalian cells are well established, only recently insights have become available on the mechanism underlying redox control of gene expression in plants. With this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current knowledge on how ROS and thiol-dependent transcriptional regulatory networks are controlled...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659815/plant-lineage-specific-amplification-of-transcription-factor-binding-motifs-by-miniature-inverted-repeat-transposable-elements-mites
#16
Jordi Morata, Fatima Marín, Jordi Payet, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements are one of the main drivers of plant genome evolution. Transposon insertions can modify the gene coding capacity or the regulation of their expression, the latter being a more subtle effect, and therefore particularly useful for evolution. Transposons have been show to contain transcription factor binding sites that can be mobilized upon transposition with the potential to integrate new genes into transcriptional networks. MITEs are a type of non-coding DNA transposons that could be particularly suited as a vector to mobilize transcription factor binding sites and modify transcriptional networks during evolution...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657296/roles-of-non-coding-rna-in-sugarcane-microbe-interaction
#17
Flávia Thiebaut, Cristian A Rojas, Clícia Grativol, Edmundo P da R Calixto, Mariana R Motta, Helkin G F Ballesteros, Barbara Peixoto, Berenice N S de Lima, Lucas M Vieira, Maria Emilia Walter, Elvismary M de Armas, Júlio O P Entenza, Sergio Lifschitz, Laurent Farinelli, Adriana S Hemerly, Paulo C G Ferreira
Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae . Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A...
December 20, 2017: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656248/human-health-risk-assessment-for-nanoparticle-contaminated-aquifer-systems
#18
Tiziana Tosco, Rajandrea Sethi
Nanosized particles (NPs), such as TiO2 , Silver, graphene NPs, nanoscale zero-valent iron, carbon nanotubes, etc., are increasingly used in industrial processes, and releases at production plants and from landfills are likely scenarios for the next years. As a consequence, appropriate procedures and tools to quantify the risks for human health associated to these releases are needed. The tiered approach of the standard ASTM procedure (ASTM-E2081-00) is today the most applied for human health risk assessment at sites contaminated by chemical substances, but it cannot be directly applied to nanoparticles: NP transport along migration pathways follows mechanisms significantly different from those of chemicals; moreover, also toxicity indicators (namely, reference dose and slope factor) are NP-specific...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653426/evaluation-of-maximum-potential-gene-flow-from-herbicide-resistant-brassica-napus-to-its-male-sterile-relatives-under-open-and-wind-pollination-conditions
#19
Chuan-Jie Zhang, Min-Jung Yook, Hae-Rim Park, Soo-Hyun Lim, Jin-Won Kim, Jong-Seok Song, Gyoungju Nah, Hae-Ryong Song, Beom-Ho Jo, Kyung Hee Roh, Suhyoung Park, Young-Seok Jang, Ill-Sup Noua, Do-Soon Kim
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from genetically modified (GM) Brassica napus to its wild relatives by wind and insects is a major ecological concern in agricultural ecosystems. This study conducted is to estimate maximum potential gene flow and differentiate between wind- and bee-mediated gene flows from herbicide resistant (HR) B. napus to its closely-related male sterile (MS) relatives, B. napus, B. juncea and Raphanus sativus. Various markers, including pods formation in MS plants, herbicide resistance, and SSR markers, were used to identify the hybrids...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650147/source-sink-relations-of-sunflower-plants-as-affected-by-a-parasite-modifies-carbon-allocations-and-leaf-traits
#20
Shahar Pincovici, Amnon Cochavi, Arnon Karnieli, Jhonathan Ephrath, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a root holoparasitic plant causing major damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Parasite infection initiates source-sink relations between the parasite (sink) and the host (source), allocating carbohydrates, water and nutrients to the parasite. The primary aim of the current study was to explore responses of sunflower to broomrape parasitism, specifically to examine alternations in leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), mesophyll structure and root hydraulic conductivity...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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