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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220748/assisted-phytostabilization-of-a-multicontaminated-mine-technosol-using-biochar-amendment-early-stage-evaluation-of-biochar-feedstock-and-particle-size-effects-on-as-and-pb-accumulation-of-two-salicaceae-species-salix-viminalis-and-populus-euramericana
#1
Manhattan Lebrun, Florie Miard, Romain Nandillon, Jean-Christophe Léger, Nour Hattab-Hambli, Gabriella S Scippa, Sylvain Bourgerie, Domenico Morabito
Soil contamination by metal(loid)s is one of the most important environmental problem. It leads to loss of environment biodiversity and soil functions and can have harmful effects on human health. Therefore, contaminated soils could be remediated, using phytoremediation. Indeed, plant growth will improve soil conditions while accumulating metal(loid)s and modifying their mobility. However, due to the poor fertility and high metal(loid)s levels of these soils, amendments, like biochar, has to be applied. This study was performed on a former mine technosol contaminated by As and Pb and aimed to study (i) the effect of biochar on soil physico-chemical properties and plant phytostabilization potential (ii) biochar feedstock and particle size effects...
November 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220418/plant-mediated-female-transcriptomic-changes-post-mating-in-a-tephritid-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni
#2
Kumaran Nagalingam, Chloé A van der Burg, Yujia Qin, Stephen L Cameron, Anthony R Clarke, Peter J Prentis
Female post-mating behaviours are regulated by complex factors involving males, females and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviours by altering male behaviour and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (= 'lures' based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218138/conspecific-plants-are-better-nurses-than-rocks-consistent-results-revealing-intraspecific-facilitation-as-a-process-that-promotes-establishment-in-a-hyper-arid-environment
#3
Andrea P Loayza, Marisol A Herrera-Madariaga, Danny E Carvajal, Patricio García-Guzmán, Francisco A Squeo
Harsh environmental conditions in arid ecosystems limit seedling recruitment to microhabitats under nurse structures, such as shrubs or rocks. These structures, however, do not necessarily afford the same benefits to plants because nurse rocks provide only physical nurse effects, whereas nurse plants can provide both physical and biological nurse effects. Nevertheless, if the nurse plant is a conspecific, the benefits it provides may be outweighed by higher mortality due to negative density-dependent processes; consequently, negative density-dependence is expected to limit plants from acting as nurses to their own seedlings...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215353/heterotrophic-monitoring-at-a-drinking-water-treatment-plant-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-after-different-drinking-water-treatments
#4
Laura Sala-Comorera, Anicet R Blanch, Carles Vilaró, Belén Galofré, Cristina García-Aljaro
The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for routine heterotrophic monitoring in a drinking water treatment plant. Water samples were collected from raw surface water and after different treatments during two campaigns over a 1-year period. Heterotrophic bacteria were studied and isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, the diversity index and the coefficient of population similarity were also calculated using biochemical fingerprinting of the populations studied...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213313/agronomic-performance-of-populus-deltoides-trees-engineered-for-biofuel-production
#5
David Macaya-Sanz, Jin-Gui Chen, Udaya C Kalluri, Wellington Muchero, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Lee E Gunter, Sandra J Simon, Ajaya K Biswal, Anthony C Bryan, Raja Payyavula, Meng Xie, Yongil Yang, Jin Zhang, Debra Mohnen, Gerald A Tuskan, Stephen P DiFazio
Background: One of the major barriers to the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of plant cell walls to deconstruction and saccharification. Recalcitrance can be reduced by targeting genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, but this can have unintended consequences that compromise the agronomic performance of the trees under field conditions. Here we report the results of a field trial of fourteen distinct transgenic Populus deltoides lines that had previously demonstrated reduced recalcitrance without yield penalties under greenhouse conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212441/evolution-of-cytokinesis-related-protein-localization-during-the-emergence-of-multicellularity-in-volvocine-green-algae
#6
Yoko Arakaki, Takayuki Fujiwara, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Kaoru Kawafune, Jonathan Featherston, Pierre M Durand, Shin-Ya Miyagishima, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: The volvocine lineage, containing unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and differentiated multicellular Volvox carteri, is a powerful model for comparative studies aiming at understanding emergence of multicellularity. Tetrabaena socialis is the simplest multicellular volvocine alga and belongs to the family Tetrabaenaceae that is sister to more complex multicellular volvocine families, Goniaceae and Volvocaceae. Thus, T. socialis is a key species to elucidate the initial steps in the evolution of multicellularity...
December 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207497/accumulation-of-de-icing-salt-and-leaching-in-spanish-soils-surrounding-roadways
#7
Esther Asensio, Víctor J Ferreira, Gonzalo Gil, Tatiana García-Armingol, Ana M López-Sabirón, Germán Ferreira
The environmental implications of soil salinity caused by accumulation of de-icing salt and leaching in soils of northeastern Spain were examined. For this purpose, the concentrations of ions associated with diagnosing and managing this problem were evaluated from several measurements performed over one year along a road. This analysis demonstrated a higher concentration of soluble Na⁺ in the soil 3 m from a road in the northernmost part of the study area in February, which made the soil saline-sodic. Data from the rest of the study period (during the spring and summer) demonstrated that the de-icing salt moved to areas farther south by runoff water, which caused environmental impacts by modifying soil characteristics...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207297/differences-between-a-deciduous-and-a-conifer-tree-species-in-gaseous-and-particulate-emissions-from-biomass-burning
#8
Emanuele Pallozzi, Ilaria Lusini, Lucia Cherubini, Ramilla A Hajiaghayeva, Paolo Ciccioli, Carlo Calfapietra
In the Mediterranean ecosystem, wildfires are very frequent and the predicted future with a probable increase of fires could drastically modify the vegetation scenarios. Vegetation fires are an important source of gases and primary emissions of fine carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. In this paper, we present gaseous and particulate emissions data from the combustion of different plant tissues (needles/leaves, branches and needle/leaf litter), obtained from one conifer (Pinus halepensis) and one deciduous broadleaf tree (Quercus pubescens)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205850/ots1-dependent-desumoylation-increases-tolerance-to-high-copper-levels-in-arabidopsis
#9
Erbao Zhan, Huapeng Zhou, Sha Li, Lei Liu, Tinghong Tan, Honghui Lin
The conjugation of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to protein substrates is a reversible process (SUMOylation/deSUMOylation) that regulates plant development and stress responses. The essential metal copper (Cu) is required for normal plant growth, but excess amounts are toxic. The SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 and SIZ1-mediated SUMOylation function in plant tolerance to excess Cu. It is unknown whether deSUMOylation also contributes to Cu tolerance in plants. Here we report that OTS1, a protease that cleaves SUMO from its substrate proteins, participates in Cu tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205039/comparison-of-two-static-in-vitro-digestion-methods-for-screening-bioaccessibility-of-carotenoids-in-fruits-vegetables-and-animal-products
#10
Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Mark L Failla
In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, salmon and mixed vegetable salad with and without the animal products using the static INFOGEST method (Maniekus et al. Food Funct. 2014, 5, 1113-1124) and the procedure of Failla et al. (Food Funct. 2014, 5, 1101-1112) modified to simulate conditions for the fed state...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204899/secondary-metabolism-in-fusarium-fujikuroi-strategies-to-unravel-the-function-of-biosynthetic-pathways
#11
REVIEW
Slavica Janevska, Bettina Tudzynski
The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae disease of rice due to its ability to produce the plant hormones, the gibberellins. The fungus is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins (e.g., fusaric acid and fusarins) and pigments (e.g., bikaverin and fusarubins). However, for a long time, most of these well-known products could not be linked to biosynthetic gene clusters. Recent genome sequencing has revealed altogether 47 putative gene clusters. Most of them were orphan clusters for which the encoded natural product(s) were unknown...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204750/protective-effects-of-fisetin-against-6-ohda-induced-apoptosis-by-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Ryoko Watanabe, Takumi Kurose, Yuta Morishige, Ko Fujimori
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. 3,3',4',7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin), a plant flavonoid has a variety of physiological effects such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner...
December 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202734/a-tandem-cbm25-domain-of-%C3%AE-amylase-from-microbacterium-aurum-as-potential-tool-for-targeting-proteins-to-starch-granules-during-starch-biosynthesis
#13
Xing-Feng Huang, Farhad Nazarian, Jean-Paul Vincken, Richard G F Visser, Luisa M Trindade
BACKGROUND: Starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been used as a tool for starch engineering. Previous studies showed that expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins in planta resulted in modified starch granule structures and physicochemical properties. However, although 13 carbohydrate binding module families have been reported to contain starch-binding domains, only starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been well studied and introduced into plants successfully...
December 4, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201038/anatomical-alterations-in-plant-tissues-induced-by-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#14
REVIEW
Juan E Palomares-Rius, Carolina Escobar, Javier Cabrera, Alessio Vovlas, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200731/brazilian-cerrado-qualea-grandiflora-mart-leaves-exhibit-antiplasmodial-and-trypanocidal-activities-in-vitro
#15
Thuany de Moura Cordeiro, Fabian Borghetti, Sarah C Caldas Oliveira, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, Jaime Martins de Santana, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
Background: The rapid spread of drug-resistant strains of protozoan parasites required the urgent need for new effective drugs. Natural products offer a variety of chemical structures, which make them a valuable source of lead compounds for the development of such new drugs. Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil and has the richest flora of all the world savannahs. We selected Qualea grandiflora, a plant species known for its proprieties in folk medicine and its antibacterial activity...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197638/robust-transcriptional-activation-in-plants-using-multiplexed-crispr-act2-0-and-mtale-act-systems
#16
Levi G Lowder, Jianping Zhou, Yingxiao Zhang, Aimee Malzahn, Zhaohui Zhong, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Daniel F Voytas, Yong Zhang, Yiping Qi
Previously, we have shown transcriptional activation of endogenous genes in plants using dCas9-VP64. Here, we develop a second generation of vector systems for enhanced transcriptional activation in plants. We tested multiple strategies for CRISPR-Cas9 based transcriptional activation. Simultaneous recruitment of VP64 by dCas9 and a modified guide RNA scaffold gRNA2.0 (designated CRISPR-Act2.0) yielded stronger transcriptional activation than our first generation dCas9-VP64 activators. In addition, we have built a multiplex transcription activator-like effector activation (mTALE-Act) system for simultaneous activation of up to four genes in plants...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197252/oregano-dietary-supplementation-modifies-the-liver-transcriptome-profile-in-broilers-rnaseq-analysis
#17
Marcella Sabino, Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, Andrea Verini-Supplizi, Lorenzo Bomba, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Gabriella Cobellis, Oliviero Olivieri, Camillo Pieramati, Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci
Intensive farming of broilers involves stressful conditions that reduce animal welfare and performance. New dietary strategies to improve performance and meat quality include the administration of plant extracts. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is known for its antimicrobial, anti-fungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. However, studies on diet supplementation with oregano are mainly focused on the evaluation of animal performance, while partial information is available on transcriptomics and nutrigenomics and, in particular, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is not widely applied...
November 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196985/virus-induced-gene-silencing-vigs-in-aegilops-tauschii-and-its-use-in-functional-analysis-of-aetdreb2
#18
Elahe Tavakol
Among the available reverse genetic approaches for studying gene function, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has several advantages. It allows rapid characterization of gene function independent of stable transformation, which is basically difficult to achieve in monocots, and offers the potential to silence individual or multiple genes of a gene family. In order to establish a VIGS system in Aegilops tauschii, modified vectors derived from Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were used for silencing a phytoene desaturase gene that provides a convenient visual reporter for silencing...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195947/solubilization-of-industrial-grade-plant-protein-by-enzymatic-hydrolysis-monitored-by-vibrational-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-feasibility-study
#19
Marta Bevilacqua, Giulia Praticò, Johanne Plesner, Maja Molloy, Thomas Skov, Flemming H Larsen
Protein hydrolysates are of great interest in the food industry due to their nutritional and functional properties, but their use often implies solubilization in water and therefore hamper the use of plant proteins with inherent low water solubility. Protein solubility in water can be modified by enzymatic hydrolysis, but during this process several collateral properties of the protein hydrolysates changes. It is therefore important to determine the end-point of the process and to monitor its development. In this feasibility study, we demonstrated the potential of different spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR and IR) coupled with chemometrics analysis in monitoring the hydrolysis of five different industrial grade plant proteins by the enzyme Alcalase...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194997/piecing-together-cis-regulatory-networks-insights-from-epigenomics-studies-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Shao-Shan Huang, Joseph Ecker
5-Methylcytosine, a chemical modification of DNA, is a covalent modification found in the genomes of both plants and animals. Epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes mediated by DNA methylation is well established in plants. Most of the known mechanisms of establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation have been worked out in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Major functions of DNA methylation in plants include regulation of gene expression and silencing of transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences, both of which have parallels in mammalian biology, involve interaction with the transcriptional machinery, and may have profound effects on the regulatory networks in the cell...
November 30, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
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