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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535595/enhancement-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-by-helophytes-along-subsurface-water-flowpaths-receiving-treated-wastewater
#1
Miquel Ribot, Susana Bernal, Myrto Nikolakopoulou, Timothy N Vaessen, Joaquín Cochero, Esperança Gacia, Albert Sorolla, Alba Argerich, Francesc Sabater, Manel Isnard, Eugènia Martí
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to receiving streams, which can eventually become saturated by excess of DIN. Aquatic plants (i.e., helophytes) can modify subsurface water flowpaths as well as assimilate nutrients and enhance microbial activity in the rhizosphere, yet their ability to increase DIN transformation and removal in WWTP-influenced streams is poorly understood. We examined the influence of helophytes on DIN removal along subsurface water flowpaths and how this was associated with DOC removal and labile C availability...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531950/modelling-pesticides-volatilisation-in-greenhouses-sensitivity-analysis-of-a-modified-pearl-model
#2
Michael Houbraken, Kim Doan Ngoc, Frederik van den Berg, Pieter Spanoghe
BACKGROUND: The application of the existing PEARL model was extended to include estimations of the concentration of crop protection products in greenhouse (indoor) air due to volatilisation from the plant surface. The model was modified to include the processes of ventilation of the greenhouse air to the outside atmosphere and transformation in the air. RESULTS: A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed by varying selected input parameters on a one-by-one basis and comparing the model outputs with the outputs of the reference scenarios...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529764/in-vivo-analysis-of-covering-materials-composed-of-biodegradable-polymers-enriched-with-flax-fibers
#3
Tomasz Gredes, Sandra Schönitz, Tomasz Gedrange, Lukas Stepien, Karol Kozak, Christiane Kunert-Keil
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of bioactive composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) as the matrix, reinforced with bioplastic flax fibers, on the surrounding muscle tissue. METHODS: Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers from genetically modified plants producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified plants (PLA-wt, PCL-wt) were placed subcutaneous on the M...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529517/role-of-silicon-on-plant-pathogen-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Min Wang, Limin Gao, Suyue Dong, Yuming Sun, Qirong Shen, Shiwei Guo
Although silicon (Si) is not recognized as an essential element for general higher plants, it has beneficial effects on the growth and production of a wide range of plant species. Si is known to effectively mitigate various environmental stresses and enhance plant resistance against both fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this review, the effects of Si on plant-pathogen interactions are analyzed, mainly on physical, biochemical, and molecular aspects. In most cases, the Si-induced biochemical/molecular resistance during plant-pathogen interactions were dominated as joint resistance, involving activating defense-related enzymes activates, stimulating antimicrobial compound production, regulating the complex network of signal pathways, and activating of the expression of defense-related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528704/from-neuro-pigments-to-neural-efficiency-the-relationship-between-retinal-carotenoids-and-behavioral-and-neuroelectric-indices-of-cognitive-control-in-childhood
#5
Anne M Walk, Naiman A Khan, Sasha M Barnett, Lauren B Raine, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Christopher J Moulton, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, Charles H Hillman
Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527823/antiviral-escin-derivatives-from-the-seeds-of-aesculus-turbinata-blume-japanese-horse-chestnut
#6
Ji Won Kim, Thi-Kim-Quy Ha, Hyomoon Cho, Eunhee Kim, Sang Hee Shim, Jun-Li Yang, Won Keun Oh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high fatality of piglets, influencing the swine industry. Japanese horse chestnut (seed of Aesculus turbinata) contains many saponin mixtures, called escins, and has been used for a long time as a traditional medicinal plant. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on escins have revealed that acylations at C-21 and C-22 with angeloyl or tigloyl groups were important for their cytotoxic effects. However, the strong cytotoxicity of escins makes them hard to utilize for other diseases and to develop as nutraceuticals...
May 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527798/short-communication-effect-of-a-citrus-extract-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#7
Y Ying, M Niu, A R Clarke, K J Harvatine
Dry matter intake is a main driver of energy balance in lactating dairy cows, and some plant extracts have been commercially fed to dairy cows to stimulate feed intake. Citrus extracts contain several bioactive components and have been shown to modify metabolism in other animal models. Our hypothesis was that a citrus extract would increase dry matter intake. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a citrus extract on intake and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In experiment one, 11 early-lactation dairy cows (experiment 1; 77 ± 15 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a switchback design, and in experiment two, 15 mid-lactation Holstein cows (experiment 2; 157 ± 44 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#8
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#9
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525277/hydrolyzable-tannins-flavonol-glycosides-and-phenolic-acids-show-seasonal-and-ontogenic-variation-in-geranium-sylvaticum
#10
Anu Tuominen, Juha-Pekka Salminen
The seasonal variation of polyphenols in the aboveground organs and roots of Geranium sylvaticum in four populations was studied using UPLC-DAD-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS. The content of the main compound, geraniin, was the highest (16% of dry weight) in the basal leaves after the flowering period but stayed rather constant throughout the growing season. The compound-specific mass spectrometric methods revealed the different seasonal patterns in minor polyphenols. The maximum content of galloyl glucoses and flavonol glycosides were detected in the small leaves in May...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524742/piqueria-trinervia-as-a-source-of-metabolites-against-giardia-intestinalis
#11
Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Candy N Jiménez-Fragoso, Guadalupe Palencia, Gabriel Sansón-Romero, Anahi Anzo-Osorio, Mario N Martínez-Gordillo
CONTEXT: Piqueria trinervia Cav. (Asteraceae) is a plant species with a long history in traditional medicine to cure diarrhoea and other digestive disorders. OBJECTIVE: The study investigates the antigiardial activity of piquerol, trinervinol, red oil and two fractions (F1 and F2) from P. trinervia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P. trinervia was collected in the Ajusco in Mexico City. Aerial parts were ground and mixed with water to obtain the extract, which was treated with dichloromethane to isolate piquerol and trinervinol (P & T)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524023/the-mycelium-as-a-network
#12
Mark D Fricker, Luke L M Heaton, Nick S Jones, Lynne Boddy
The characteristic growth pattern of fungal mycelia as an interconnected network has a major impact on how cellular events operating on a micron scale affect colony behavior at an ecological scale. Network structure is intimately linked to flows of resources across the network that in turn modify the network architecture itself. This complex interplay shapes the incredibly plastic behavior of fungi and allows them to cope with patchy, ephemeral resources, competition, damage, and predation in a manner completely different from multicellular plants or animals...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523722/design-of-a-candidate-vibrational-signal-for-mating-disruption-against-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-homalodisca-vitripennis
#13
Valerio Mazzoni, Shira D Gordon, Rachele Nieri, Rodrigo Krugner
BACKGROUND: The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important pest of grapevines due to its ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease. GWSS mating communication is based on vibrational signals; therefore, vibrational mating disruption could be an alternative to insecticides for suppression of GWSS population. Our objectives were to identify spectral features of female signal that elicit male signaling, design disruptive signals able to alter male perception and acceptance of a female, and determine the signal intensity required for future field applications...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521945/whitefly-interactions-with-plants
#14
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Wang, Ping Li, Shu-Sheng Liu
Whiteflies are important pests of many crops worldwide. They are polyphagous and effectively feed on phloem sap using mouthparts modified into long, flexible stylets. Plants respond to whitefly attack by activating defense genes leading to production of toxic compounds. To reach plant phloem and survive on host plants, whiteflies secret effectors in the saliva to regulate plant responses and activate detoxification system to cope with plant defenses. Additionally, whitefly-transmitted viruses may exert substantial effects on host plants and in turn the performance of whiteflies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516145/zinc-nickel-and-cobalt-ions-removal-from-aqueous-solution-and-plating-plant-wastewater-by-modified-aspergillus-flavus-biomass-a-dataset
#15
Rauf Foroutan, Hossein Esmaeili, Seyedehmasomeh Derakhshandeh Rishehri, Farzaneh Sadeghzadeh, Seyedehroghayeh Mirahmadi, Malihe Kosarifard, Bahman Ramavandi
The biomass of Aspergillus flavus was modified by calcium chloride to achieve a bioadsorbent for treating nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The information of pH, bioadsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature effect on the removal efficiency are presented. The data of Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are also depicted. The data showed that the maximum bioadsorption capacity of nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions is 32.26, 31.06 and 27...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515887/bottom-up-and-top-down-effects-of-tree-species-diversity-on-leaf-insect-herbivory
#16
Bastien Castagneyrol, Damien Bonal, Maxime Damien, Hervé Jactel, Céline Meredieu, Evalyne W Muiruri, Luc Barbaro
The diversity of plant neighbors commonly results in direct, bottom-up effects on herbivore ability to locate their host, and in indirect effects on herbivores involving changes in plant traits and a top-down control by their enemies. Yet, the relative contribution of bottom-up and top-down forces remains poorly understood. We also lack knowledge on the effect of abiotic constraints such as summer drought on the strength and direction of these effects. We measured leaf damage on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), alone or associated with birch, pine or both in a long-term tree diversity experiment (ORPHEE), where half of the plots were irrigated while the other half remained without irrigation and received only rainfall...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515731/ectopic-expression-of-cdf3-genes-in-tomato-enhances-biomass-production-and-yield-under-salinity-stress-conditions
#17
Begoña Renau-Morata, Rosa V Molina, Laura Carrillo, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo, Manuel Sánchez-Perales, Stephan Pollmann, José Domínguez-Figueroa, Alba R Corrales, Jaume Flexas, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Joaquín Medina, Sergio G Nebauer
Cycling Dof Factor (CDF) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in multiple processes related to plant growth and development. A member of this family, CDF3, has recently been linked in Arabidopsis to the regulation of primary metabolism and abiotic stress responses, but its role in crop production under stress is still unknown. In this study, we characterized tomato plants overexpressing the CDF3 genes from Arabidopsis and tomato and analyzed their effects on growth and yield under salinity, additionally gaining deeper insights into the molecular function of these TFs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513415/the-fungal-cell-wall-structure-biosynthesis-and-function
#18
Neil A R Gow, Jean-Paul Latge, Carol A Munro
The molecular composition of the cell wall is critical for the biology and ecology of each fungal species. Fungal walls are composed of matrix components that are embedded and linked to scaffolds of fibrous load-bearing polysaccharides. Most of the major cell wall components of fungal pathogens are not represented in humans, other mammals, or plants, and therefore the immune systems of animals and plants have evolved to recognize many of the conserved elements of fungal walls. For similar reasons the enzymes that assemble fungal cell wall components are excellent targets for antifungal chemotherapies and fungicides...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511994/study-of-rubella-candidate-vaccine-based-on-a-structurally-modified-plant-virus
#19
Ekaterina A Trifonova, Vladimir A Zenin, Nikolai A Nikitin, Maria S Yurkova, Ekaterina M Ryabchevskaya, Egor V Putlyaev, Ekaterina K Donchenko, Olga A Kondakova, Alexey N Fedorov, Joseph G Atabekov, Olga V Karpova
A novel rubella candidate vaccine based on a structurally modified plant virus - spherical particles (SPs) - was developed. SPs generated by the thermal remodelling of the tobacco mosaic virus are promising platforms for the development of vaccines. SPs combine unique properties: biosafety, stability, high immunogenicity and the effective adsorption of antigens. We assembled in vitro and characterised complexes (candidate vaccine) based on SPs and the rubella virus recombinant antigen. The candidate vaccine induced a strong humoral immune response against rubella...
May 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510657/heteroblasty-in-epiphytic-bromeliads-functional-implications-for-species-in-understorey-and-exposed-growing-sites
#20
Joachim Beyschlag, Gerhard Zotz
Background and Aims: The functional relevance of heteroblasty, an abrupt morphological change in the ontogeny of a considerable number of angiosperm species, is still largely unresolved. During the ontogeny of many epiphytic Tillandsioids (Bromeliaceae), such a change occurs when small individuals transform into larger, tank-forming individuals that are capable of external water storage. Apart from its fundamental effect on plant water relations, the associated transition from narrow to broader leaves also affects plant architecture...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
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