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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040641/emerging-models-on-the-regulation-of-intercellular-transport-by-plasmodesmata-associated-callose
#1
Sam Amsbury, Philip Kirk, Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso
The intercellular transport of molecules through membranous channels that traverse the cell walls-so-called plasmodesmata-is of fundamental importance for plant development. Regulation of plasmodesmata aperture (and transport capacity) is mediated by changes in the flanking cell walls, mainly via the synthesis/degradation (turnover) of the (1,3)-β-glucan polymer callose. The role of callose in organ development and in plant environmental responses is well recognized, but detailed understanding of the mechanisms regulating its accumulation and its effects on the structure and permeability of the channels is still missing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036710/a-disulfide-bond-a-like-oxidoreductase-is-a-strong-candidate-gene-for-self-incompatibility-in-apricot-prunus-armeniaca-pollen
#2
Juan Vicente Muñoz-Sanz, Elena Zuriaga, María L Badenes, Carlos Romero
S-RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread prezygotic reproductive barrier in flowering plants. In the Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae gametophytic SI is controlled by the pistil-specific S-RNases and the pollen S-locus F-box proteins but non-S-specific factors, namely modifiers, are also required. In apricot, Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae), we previously mapped two pollen-part mutations that confer self-compatibility in cultivars Canino and Katy at the distal end of chromosome 3 (M-locus) unlinked to the S-locus...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036645/genomic-and-transcriptomic-compilation-of-chloroplast-ionic-transporters-of-physcomitrella-patens-study-of-nhad-transporters-in-na-and-k-homeostasis
#3
Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Ángela Sáez, Mónica Lanza, Begoña Benito
K+ is widely used by plant cells, whereas Na+ can easily reach toxic levels during plant growth, which typically occurs in saline environments; however, the effects and functions in the chloroplast have been only roughly estimated. Traditionally, the occurrence of ionic fluxes across the chloroplast envelope or the thylakoid membranes has been mostly deduced from physiological measurements or from knowledge of chloroplast metabolism. However, many of the proteins involved in these fluxes have not yet been characterized...
October 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036397/polyploidy-influences-plant-environment-interactions-in-quaking-aspen-populus-tremuloides-michx
#4
Burke T Greer, Christopher Still, Grace L Cullinan, J Renée Brooks, Frederick C Meinzer
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a widespread and keystone tree species in North America, experienced heat and drought stress in the years 2002 and 2003 in the southwestern United States. This led to widespread aspen mortality that has altered the composition of forests, and is expected to occur again if climate change continues. Understanding interactions between aspen and its environments is essential to understanding future mortality risk in forests. Polyploidy, which is common in aspen, can modify plant structure and function and therefore plant-environment interactions, but the influence of polyploidy on aspen physiology is still not well understood...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035143/the-contribution-of-glyphosate-to-agriculture-and-potential-impact-of-restrictions-on-use-at-the-global-level
#5
Graham Brookes, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace E Tyner
This study assesses the potential economic and environmental impacts that would arise if restrictions on glyphosate use resulted in the world no longer planting genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GM HT) crops. 'First round' impacts are the loss of farm level and aggregate impacts associated with the widespread use of GM HT crops (tolerant to glyphosate). There would be an annual loss of global farm income gains of $6.76 billion and lower levels of global soybean, corn and canola production equal to 18...
October 16, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033969/intercropping-induces-changes-in-specific-secondary-metabolite-concentration-in-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata-and-african-nightshade-solanum-scabrum-under-controlled-conditions
#6
Benard Ngwene, Susanne Neugart, Susanne Baldermann, Beena Ravi, Monika Schreiner
Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033953/development-and-characterization-of-transgenic-sugarcane-with-insect-resistance-and-herbicide-tolerance
#7
Wen Zhi Wang, Ben Peng Yang, Xiao Yan Feng, Zheng Ying Cao, Cui Lian Feng, Jun Gang Wang, Guo Ru Xiong, Lin Bo Shen, Jun Zeng, Ting Ting Zhao, Shu Zhen Zhang
Genetically modified crops which had been commercial applied extensively majorly are the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance events. In this study, the Bt insecticidal gene Cry1Ab, the glyphosate-tolerant gene EPSPS, and the selection marker gene PMI were combined into a single transferred DNA fragment and introduced into sugarcane by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty-three resistant plantlets were obtained after selection using a PMI/mannose selection system. Thirty of these resistant plantlets were PCR positive for the three target genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032425/heterologous-expression-of-wheat-tarub1-gene-enhances-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Yanlin Yang, Wenqiang Wang, Tian Xu, Na Liu, Honggang Wang, Deshun Feng
Expression of TaRUB1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana elevates the level of disease-related genes in response to pathogen invasion through the accumulation of callose, necrotic cells, and the outbreak of ROS. Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins are highly conserved in sequence and can covalently bind and modify many intracellular proteins which can be recognized and degraded by 26S proteasome. Post-translational modification of proteins has become a hot research spot today. In the previous study, a cDNA of related-to-ubiquitin protein belonged to ubiquitin-like proteins, whose spatial structure comprised Ub and NEDD8, was obtained from wheat SN6306 by suppression-subtractive hybridization and was named TaRUB1...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032424/not-just-gene-expression-3d-implications-of-chromatin-modifications-during-sexual-plant-reproduction
#9
Stefanie Dukowic-Schulze, Chang Liu, Changbin Chen
DNA methylation and histone modifications are epigenetic changes on a DNA molecule that alter the three-dimensional (3D) structure locally as well as globally, impacting chromatin looping and packaging on a larger scale. Epigenetic marks thus inform higher-order chromosome organization and placement in the nucleus. Conventional epigenetic marks are joined by chromatin modifiers like cohesins, condensins and membrane-anchoring complexes to support particularly 3D chromosome organization. The most popular consequences of epigenetic modifications are gene expression changes, but chromatin modifications have implications beyond this, particularly in actively dividing cells and during sexual reproduction...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030968/mycoflora-assessment-growth-and-toxigenic-features-of-patulin-producers-in-kiwifruit-in-china
#10
Yuan Wang, Kewei Feng, Bin Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Jianping Wei, Yahong Yuan, Tianli Yue
BACKGROUND: Fungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination that are a significant threat to food safety. Patulin (PAT) and PAT-producers contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. The present study was conducted to investigate the mycoflora and PAT-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in Shaanxi Province, China. RESULTS: Variations in mycoflora were observed in different samples, with penicillia and aspergilli as the predominant genera...
October 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030899/onses-of-the-soil-fungal-communities-to-the-co-invasion-of-two-invasive-species-with-different-cover-classes
#11
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang, Hongguang Xiao, Daolin Du
Soil fungal communities may play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of the co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities by using high-throughput sequencing. The invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis exert positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon's diversity index, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE index), and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities but exhibit negative effects on the Simpson index...
October 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030881/effects-of-dietary-greek-oregano-origanum-vulgare-ssp-hirtum-supplementation-on-rumen-fermentation-enzyme-profile-and-microbial-communities-in-goats
#12
N Paraskevakis
This study was conducted to examine in vivo long-term effects of dietary dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) whole plant on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities. For this purpose, eight healthy, adult, non-lactating Alpine goats were kept in tie stalls equipped for individual feeding and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: one fed 0.6 kg of a concentrate mixture and 0.6 kg of wheat straw without any supplementation and served as control group (CON) while the other group (OR) fed the same diet of CON but supplemented with 20 g of dried oregano plants (OPs) to provide daily dosage of 1 ml of essential oil (EO) per animal...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030688/neurotrophic-function-of-phytochemicals-for-neuroprotection-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders-modulation-of-intracellular-signaling-and-gene-expression
#13
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Keiko Inaba-Hasegawa, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama
Bioactive compounds in food and beverages have been reported to promote health and prevent age-associated decline in cognitive, motor and sensory activities, and emotional function. Phytochemicals, a ubiquitous class of plant secondary metabolites, protect neuronal cells by interaction with cellular activities, in addition to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. In aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, phytochemicals protect neuronal cells by neurotrophic factor-mimic activity, in addition to suppression of apoptosis signaling in mitochondria...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029547/nanoformulations-of-curcumin-an-emerging-paradigm-for-improved-remedial-application
#14
REVIEW
Meeta Gera, Neelesh Sharma, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Do Luong Huynh, Sung Jin Lee, Taesun Min, Taeho Kwon, Dong Kee Jeong
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol and essential curcuminoid derived from the rhizome of the medicinal plant Curcuma longa (L.) is universally acknowledged as "Wonder drug of life". It is a vital consumable and restorative herb, commonly keened for several ailments such as cancer, arthritis, pain, bruises, gastrointestinal quandaries, swelling and much more. Despite its enormous curative potential, the poor aqueous solubility and consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability with rapid degradation are some of the major factors which restrict the utilization of curcumin at medical perspective...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028492/modelling-an-industrial-anaerobic-granular-reactor-using-a-multi-scale-approach
#15
H Feldman, X Flores-Alsina, P Ramin, K Kjellberg, U Jeppsson, D J Batstone, K V Gernaey
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator...
September 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024335/fifty-shades-of-sumo-its-role-in-immunity-and-at-the-fulcrum-of-growth-defense-balance
#16
Vivek Verma, Fenella Crolley, Ari Sadanandom
The sessile nature of plants requires them to cope with an ever changing environment. Effective adaptive responses require sophisticated cellular mechanisms at post-transcriptional and -translational levels. Post-translational modification by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) proteins is emerging as a key player in these adaptive responses. SUMO conjugation can rapidly change the overall fate of target proteins by altering their stability or interaction with partner proteins or DNA. SUMOylation entails an enzyme cascade that leads to the activation, conjugation and ligation of SUMO to lysine residues of target proteins...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024215/structural-and-functional-features-of-lysine-acetylation-of-plant-and-animal-tubulins
#17
Alexey V Raevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Dariya A Samofalova, Pavel A Karpov, Yaroslav B Blume
The study of the genome and the proteome of different species and representatives of distinct kingdoms, especially detection of proteome via wide-scaled analyses has various challenges and pitfalls. Attempts to combine all available information together and isolate some common features for determination of the pathway and their mechanism of action generally have a highly complicated nature. However, microtubule (MT) monomers are highly conserved protein structures, and microtubules are structurally conserved from Homo sapiens to Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 10, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024118/rice-sumo-protease-overly-tolerant-to-salt-1-targets-the-transcription-factor-osbzip23-to-promote-drought-tolerance-in-rice
#18
Anjil Kumar Srivastava, Cunjin Zhang, Robert S Caine, Julie Gray, Ari Sadanandom
Conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) protein to cellular targets is emerging as a very influential protein modification system. Once covalently bound SUMO conjugation can change the stability or functionality of its cognate target proteins. SUMO protease can rapidly reverse SUMO conjugation making this modification system highly dynamic. A major factor in the variation of SUMO-target function is the balance between the conjugated/de-conjugated forms. The mechanistic role of these regulatory SUMO proteases in mediating stress responses has not been defined in any crops...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022094/transcriptomic-changes-in-echinochloa-colona-in-response-to-treatment-with-the-herbicide-imazamox
#19
Alice A Wright, Rajkumar Sasidharan, Liisa Koski, Marianela Rodriguez-Carres, Daniel G Peterson, Vijay K Nandula, Jeffery D Ray, Jason A Bond, David R Shaw
Presented here is the first Echinochloa colona leaf transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression before and after herbicide treatment reveals that E. colona mounts a stress response upon exposure to herbicide. Herbicides are the most frequently used means of controlling weeds. For many herbicides, the target site is known; however, it is considerably less clear how plant gene expression changes in response to herbicide exposure. In this study, changes in gene expression in response to herbicide exposure in imazamox-sensitive (S) and- resistant (R) junglerice (Echinochloa colona L...
October 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022073/the-contribution-of-cell-wall-composition-in-the-expansion-of-camellia-sinensis-seedlings-roots-in-response-to-aluminum
#20
Masoumeh Safari, Faezeh Ghanati, Mohammad Reza Safarnejad, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
Treatment with aluminum triggers a unique response in tea seedlings resulting in biochemical modification of the cell wall, regulation of the activity of the loosening agents, and elongation of root. Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al...
October 11, 2017: Planta
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