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modified fruits

Tammy Y N Tong, Fumiaki Imamura, Pablo Monsivais, Søren Brage, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Nita G Forouhi
High cost of healthy foods could be a barrier to healthy eating. We aimed to examine the association between dietary cost and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a non-Mediterranean country. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 417 adults in the UK Fenland Study. Responses to 130-item FFQ were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Dietary cost was estimated by matching food consumption data with retail prices of five major supermarkets. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we examined the association of MDS and individual foods with dietary cost in absolute and relative scales...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Taewon Yuk, Younghwa Kim, Jinwoo Yang, Jeehye Sung, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
We aimed to investigate the effects of nobiletin on hepatic lipogenesis in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid with six methoxy groups, is present abundantly in the peels of citrus fruits. HepG2 cells were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing high glucose (25 mM) and subsequently treated with nobiletin at different concentrations (5, 25, and 50  μ M). Results showed that nobiletin markedly inhibited high glucose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Huifeng Luo, Cheng Dai, Yongping Li, Jia Feng, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
The red color of the foliage and fruit in strawberry comes from anthocyanins stored in the vacuole. However, how anthocyanin accumulation is regulated in strawberry is still unclear. A reduced anthocyanin in petioles (rap) mutant was identified in an ENU mutagenized population of YW5AF7, a white-fruited variety of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. The causative mutation was identified to be a premature stop codon in a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene. In addition to the foliage coloration, RAP also mediates fruit pigmentation and acts downstream of the fruit-specific transcription factor FvMYB10...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kaoru Tsuji, Takayuki Ohgushi
Species often interact indirectly with each other via their traits. There is increasing appreciation of trait-mediated indirect effects linking multiple interactions. Flowers interact with both pollinators and floral herbivores, and the flower-pollinator interaction may be modified by indirect effects of floral herbivores (i.e., florivores) on flower traits such as flower size attracting pollinators. To explore whether flower size affects the flower-pollinator interaction, we used Eurya japonica flowers. We examined whether artificial florivory decreased fruit and seed production, and also whether flower size affected florivory and the number of floral visitors...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maarten van Zonneveld, Nerea Larranaga, Benjamin Blonder, Lidio Coradin, José I Hormaza, Danny Hunter
Neotropical fruit species once dispersed by Pleistocene megafauna have regained relevance in diversifying human diets to address malnutrition. Little is known about the historic interactions between humans and these fruit species. We quantified the human role in modifying geographic and environmental ranges of Neotropical fruit species by comparing the distribution of megafauna-dispersed fruit species that have been part of both human and megafauna diets with fruit species that were exclusively part of megafauna diets...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Frank J Wolters, M Arfan Ikram
Dementia is among the leading causes of death and disability. Due to the ageing population, its prevalence is expected to nearly triple worldwide by 2050, urging the development of preventive and curative interventions. Various modifiable risk factors have been identified in community-based cohort studies, but insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is lacking. Clinical trials have thus far failed in the development of disease-modifying therapy in patients with dementia, thereby triggering a shift of focus toward the presymptomatic phase of disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paula K Okuro, Iris Tavernier, Mohd D Bin Sintang, Andre G Skirtach, António A Vicente, Koen Dewettinck, Rosiane L Cunha
In this study, the effect of lecithin (LEC) on the crystallization and gelation of fruit wax (FW) with sunflower oil was researched. A synergistic effect on the gel strength was observed at FW : LEC ratios of 75 : 25 and 50 : 50, compared to the corresponding single component formulations (100 : 0 and 0 : 100). Even below the critical gelling concentration (Cg ) of FW, the addition of lecithin enabled gel formation. Lecithin affected the thermal behavior of the structure by delaying both crystallization and gel formation...
March 6, 2018: Food & Function
Lei Xu, Mary Odum
Although college is a crucial time to establish healthy behaviors for cancer prevention, little is known about cancer awareness and behaviors among US college students in less economically developed, rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine college students' cancer-preventative knowledge and health behaviors. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a large southeastern university in the USA, on a convenience sample of students attending a campus-wide health education class. Data were collected during April and May 2017...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Douglas S Mennin, David M Fresco, Mia Skytte O'Toole, Richard G Heimberg
OBJECTIVE: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression (MDD), especially when they co-occur, are associated with suboptimal treatment response. One common feature of these disorders is negative self-referential processing (NSRP; i.e., worry, rumination), which worsens treatment outcome. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates principles from affect science with traditional and contemporary cognitive-behavioral treatments to identify and modify the functional nature of NSRP by targeting motivational and regulatory mechanisms, as well as behavioral consequences...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Birhane Berhe, Gessessew Bugssa, Sena Bayisa, Megbaru Alemu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Ruopeng An, Xiaoling Xiang, Junyi Liu, Chenghua Guan
INTRODUCTION: Dietary behavior is a central modifiable risk factor for human health. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary habits and self-rated health among the oldest-old Chinese. METHODS: Participants aged 80 years and above (N = 7273) were first interviewed in 1998 and followed in subsequent waves 2-3 years apart till 2011-2012 in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the effects of dietary habits on poor self-rated health, adjusting for various individual characteristics...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Víctor Cutillas, María Martínez Galera, Łukasz Rajski, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry has been evaluated for pesticide residues in food. In order to check its advantages and limitations it was developed a method to identify and quantify 164 pesticides in three different matrices (tomato, orange and leek). A carbon dioxide gradient with methanol (containing 1 mM ammonium formate) was used allowing a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min that made the total run time of 12 min without any problem of overpressure. Addition of a post column flow 150 μL/min of Methanol with ammonium formate/formic acid was necessary to improve the ionization...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jun Liang, Feng-Qiu Gong, Hui-Min Sun
The aim of the study was to develop an alternative capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for simultaneous determination of phillyrin ( 1 ), phillygenin ( 2 ), epipinoresinol-4- O -β-glucoside ( 3 ), pinoresinol-4- O -β-glucoside ( 4 ), lariciresinol ( 5 ), pinoresinol ( 6 ), isolariciresinol ( 7 ) and vladinol D ( 8 ) in Forsythia suspensa . The structural types of lignans 1 - 8 could be attributed to bisepoxylignans ( 1 - 4 and 6 ), monoepoxylignans ( 5 and 8 ) and cyclolignan ( 7 ). The major difficulties in the CZE separation of 1 - 8 could be summarization as the simultaneous presence of free lignans ( 1 , 2 and 5 - 8 ) and lignan glucosides ( 3 and 4 ) and simultaneous occurrence of two pairs of isomers ( 3 and 4 as well as 5 and 7 )...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cuicui Wang, Daqi Fu
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits accumulate flavonoids in their cuticle and epidermal cells during ripening. Although many mutants available in model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula are enabling the intricacies of flavonoid-related physiology to be deduced, the mechanisms whereby flavonoids influence eggplant fruit physiology are unknown. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a reliable tool for the study of flavonoids function in fruit, and in this study, we successfully applied this technique to down-regulate S...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rebecca G Stevens, Pierre Baldet, Jean-Paul Bouchet, Mathilde Causse, Catherine Deborde, Claire Deschodt, Mireille Faurobert, Cécile Garchery, Virginie Garcia, Hélène Gautier, Barbara Gouble, Mickaël Maucourt, Annick Moing, David Page, Johann Petit, Jean-Luc Poëssel, Vincent Truffault, Christophe Rothan
Changing the balance between ascorbate, monodehydroascorbate, and dehydroascorbate in plant cells by manipulating the activity of enzymes involved in ascorbate synthesis or recycling of oxidized and reduced forms leads to multiple phenotypes. A systems biology approach including network analysis of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolites of RNAi lines for ascorbate oxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and galactonolactone dehydrogenase has been carried out in orange fruit pericarp of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Érica C Calvet, Debora B Lima, José W S Melo, Manoel G C Gondim
Organisms are adapted to recognize environmental cues that can provide information about predation risk or competition. Non-vagrant eriophyoid mites mainly avoid predation by using habitats that are difficult for predators to access (galls or confined spaces in plants) such as the meristematic region of the coconut fruit, which is inhabited by the phytophagous mites Aceria guerreronis and Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of A. guerreronis to cues from the predators Neoseiulus baraki and Amblyseius largoensis in coconut fruits, cues from conspecifics (A...
February 27, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Abraham Calderón-Castro, Misael Odín Vega-García, José de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, Perla Rosa Fitch-Vargas, Armando Carrillo-López, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Víctor Limón-Valenzuela, Ernesto Aguilar-Palazuelos
Starch is an attractive raw material as ingredient for edible film manufacture because of its low cost, abundant availability, renewability, and biodegradability. Nevertheless, starch based films exhibit several disadvantages such as brittleness and poor mechanical and barrier properties, which restrict its application for food packaging. The use of the extrusion technology as a pretreatment of the casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain edible films, may constitute an alternative to generate coatings with good functional properties and maintain longer the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruits...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Derrick Ssewanyana, Amina Abubakar, Anneloes van Baar, Patrick N Mwangala, Charles R Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents' unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of a diverse group of 78 young people of 10-19 years of age, which also included some adolescents living with HIV, as this is an emerging group in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of SSA...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Tania Pardo, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido, Ramez F Saad, Jose Luis Soto-Vázquez, Mariana Loureiro-Viñas, Ángeles Prieto-Fernández, Guillaume Echevarria, Emil Benizri, Petra S Kidd
Nickel (Ni) agromining of ultramafic soils has been proposed as an eco-friendly option for metal recovery, which can also improve the fertility and quality of these low productive soils. The selection of adequate plant species and the analysis of their performance under the different climatic conditions are of interest for optimising the process and evaluating its full viability. A one-year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the viability of the two Ni-hyperaccumulating Mediterranean species, Alyssum murale and Leptoplax emarginata, for agromining purposes in ultramafic soils under a humid-temperate climate...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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