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medicinal plants

Ji-Hua Yu, Yang-Yang Li, Mian Xiang, Jian-Quan Zhu, Xin-He Huang, Wan-Jun Wang, Rui Tan, Jia-Yu Zhou, Hai Liao
OBJECTIVES: To clone and characterize a novel bi-functional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (LASI) from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong, a traditional Chinese medicine. RESULTS: The LASI showed strong homology with members of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Its putative amino acid sequence has a 40 % identity with that of the α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from rice. LASI gene without signal peptide was expressed in E. coli Rosetta. After purification, the recombinant LASI protein was inhibitory against not only α-amylase from porcine pancreas, Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella, but also subtilisin A, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
C-Y Lin, T-W Chang, W-H Hsieh, M-C Hung, I-H Lin, S-C Lai, Y-J Tzeng
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a constituent of the traditional medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in many cancer cells. Surprisingly, the present study finds that Tan IIA simultaneously causes apoptosis and necroptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We further find that apoptosis can be converted to necroptosis by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and the two death modes can be blocked by necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Ponnusamy Baskaran, Aloka Kumari, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Johannes Van Staden
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Dario Vazquez-Albacete, Ana Mafalda Cavaleiro, Ulla Christensen, Susanna Seppälä, Birger Lindberg Møller, Morten H H Nørholm
Membrane-associated Cytochromes P450 (P450s) are one of the most important enzyme families for biosynthesis of plant-derived medicinal compounds. However, the hydrophobic nature of P450s makes their use in robust cell factories a challenge. Here we explore a small library of N-terminal expression tag chimeras of the model plant P450 CYP79A1 in different Escherichia coli strains. Using a high-throughput screening platform based on C-terminal GFP fusions, we identify several highly expressing and robustly performing chimeric designs...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Arman Zargaran, Michael Blaschke
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are of major causes of death worldwide. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are considered as new sources to find preventive and treatment approaches with mostly a historical perspective. Chinese medicine (CM), Persian medicine (PM), Ayurveda and homeopathy are as most popular traditional systems of medicine among various CAM methods. In this survey, we aimed to review most relevant and approved treatment by current investigations on these CAM systems in the field of CVD to present best traditional remedies and treatment approaches...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Alper Gokbulut, F Sezer Senol
Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are well-known for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Lili Wang, Rufeng Ma, Chenyue Liu, Haixia Liu, Ruyuan Zhu, Shuzhen Guo, Minke Tang, Yu Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Sihua Gao, Dongwei Zhang
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize the literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Patrycja Golinska, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Magdalena Wypij, Indarchand Gupta, Marek Składanowski, Priti Paralikar, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
Mycoendophytes are the fungi that occur inside the plant tissues without exerting any negative impact on the host plant. They are most frequently isolated endophytes from the leaf, stem, and root tissues of various plants. Among all fungi, the mycoendophytes as biosynthesizer of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are less known. However, some reports showing efficient synthesis of metal nanoparticles, mainly silver nanoparticles and its remarkable antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans and plants...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Carla Marrassini, Claudia Anesini
There is a well known link between inflammation and cancer during initiation, propagation and metastasis. Urera aurantiaca (UA) Wedd. (Urticaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory processes with proven in vivo antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The effects of a methanolic extract (UA) and a purified fraction (PF) on the proliferation of normal and tumoral lymphocytes under the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was evaluated...
October 17, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zahra Boghrati, Maryam Naseri, Mitra Rezaie, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi
OBJECTIVES: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Meng-Yao Li, Xiong Song, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Parsley, one of the most important vegetables in the Apiaceae family, is widely used in the food, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Recent studies on parsley mainly focus on its chemical composition, and further research involving the analysis of the plant's gene functions and expressions is required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and is widely used to study gene expression. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sushanto Gouda, Gitishree Das, Sandeep K Sen, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shanaz Ghuman, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Jeffrey F Finnie, Lyndy J McGaw, Roger M Coopoosamy, Johannes Van Staden
Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jong-Hak Kim, Min-Kyeoung Kim, Hongtao Wang, Hee-Nyeong Lee, Chi-Gyu Jin, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Deok-Chun Yang
BACKGROUND: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Among nine cultivars of P. ginseng, Chunpoong commands a much greater market value and has been planted widely in Korea. Chunpoong has superior quality "Chunsam" (1(st) grade ginseng) when made into red ginseng. METHODS: A rapid and reliable method for discriminating the Chunpoong cultivar was developed by exploiting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the auxin repressed protein gene of nine Korean ginseng cultivars using specific primers...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Radoslava Vlčková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Igor Valocký, Attila Kádasi, Abdel Halim Harrath, Vladimír Petrilla, Alexander V Sirotkin
Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Brigida D'Abrosca, Elisabetta Buommino, Pina Caputo, Monica Scognamiglio, Angela Chambery, Giovanna Donnarumma, Antonio Fiorentino
Three unusual amino-phloroglucinols, named helichrytalicines A-C, along with seventeen known compounds including acetophenones, tremetrone derivatives, low-molecular weight phenols, flavonol glucosides, have been isolated from the medium-polar extract of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, a medicinal plant typical of the Mediterranean vegetation. The structures of the compounds have been elucidated based on extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses, including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, CIGAR-HMBC, H2BC and HSQC-TOCSY, along with Q-TOF HRMS(2) analysis...
October 10, 2016: Phytochemistry
Tomasz Sozański, Alicja Z Kucharska, Andrzej Rapak, Dorota Szumny, Małgorzata Trocha, Anna Merwid-Ląd, Stanisław Dzimira, Tomasz Piasecki, Narcyz Piórecki, Jan Magdalan, Adam Szeląg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular benefits of fruits are attributed mainly to their (poly)phenolic constituents, especially anthocyanins. The main aim of our study is to compare effects of iridoids and anthocyanins from one fruit on diet-induced atherosclerosis. The cornelian cherry is a native or cultivated plant that grows in many European countries, used in cuisine and folk medicine. In our previous study, we showed its constituents and proved that oral administration of lyophilized fruits to hypercholesterolemic rabbits had preventive effects on atherosclerosis through the activation of PPARα expression...
October 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Luigi Sapio, Monica Gallo, Michela Illiano, Emilio Chiosi, Daniele Naviglio, Annamaria Spina, Silvio Naviglio
Cancer is a major public health problem and the second leading cause of mortality around the world. Although continuous advances in the science of oncology and cancer research are now leading to improved outcomes for many cancer patients, novel cancer treatment options are strongly demanded. Naturally occurring compounds from a variety of vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants have been shown to exhibit various anticancer properties in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies and represent an attractive research area for the development of new therapeutic strategies to fight cancer...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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