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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958628/computer-modeling-tools-to-understand-the-causes-of-preterm-birth
#1
REVIEW
Andrea R Westervelt, Kristin M Myers
The mechanical integrity of the soft tissue structures supporting the fetus may play a role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy and triggering the onset of labor. Currently, the level of mechanical loading on the uterus, cervix, and fetal membranes during pregnancy is unknown, and it is hypothesized that the over-stretch of these tissues contributes to the premature onset of contractility, tissue remodeling, and membrane rupture, leading to preterm birth. The purpose of this review article is to introduce and discuss engineering analysis tools to evaluate and predict the mechanical loads on the uterus, cervix, and fetal membranes...
September 25, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736329/cord-blood-eicosanoid-signatures-and-newborn-gestational-age
#2
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Dries S Martens, Tim S Nawrot, Malin L Nording
Beyond prostaglandins, the function of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in pregnancy and labor is poorly understood. In contrast to earlier work focusing on preterm infants, we investigated how oxylipin levels in newborns (measured in cord blood) vary during the last weeks of pregnancy in 190 mother-newborns (≥37 weeks of gestation) of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium. We found increased levels of PGE2 (p=0.003), PGF2α (p=0.042), 8,9-DHET (p=0.037), 11-HETE (p=0.034), and 15-HETrE (p=0.008) associated with full term pregnancy compared to early term labor...
July 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683889/pregnancy-outcomes-in-female-physicians-in-procedural-versus-non-procedural-specialties
#3
Rebecca E Scully, Amy R Stagg, Nelya Melnitchouk, Jennifer S Davids
BACKGROUND: Procedural based medical specialties require a longer training period and more intensive physical demands. The impact of working in procedural versus nonprocedural fields on pregnancy outcomes is not well understood. METHODS: Data from 1559 US attending female physician mothers was gathered via an anonymous, IRB-approved online survey. RESULTS: Of the cohort, 400 (25.7%) reported practicing in a procedural field. Women in procedural fields were slightly older at the time of their most recent pregnancy...
October 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680707/intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-leading-to-severe-vitamin-k-deficiency-and-coagulopathy
#4
Maria Maldonado, Ali Alhousseini, Michael Awadalla, Jay Idler, Robert Welch, Karoline Puder, Manasi Patwardhan, Bernard Gonik
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is seldom associated with significant vitamin K deficiency. We report a case of a 16-year-old primigravid patient at 24 weeks and 3 days of gestation who presented with pruritus, hematuria, and preterm labor. Laboratory work-up showed severe coagulopathy with Prothrombin Time (PT) of 117.8 seconds, International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 10.34, and elevated transaminases suggestive of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Her serum vitamin K level was undetectable (<0...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649463/outcomes-of-admissions-for-preterm-labor
#5
Michael W Kuzniewicz, Libby Black, Eileen M Walsh, Sherian X Li, Mara Greenberg
Objective  This study aims to quantitate the incidence of preterm labor (PTL) admissions and determine the frequency and predictors of preterm delivery (PTD) during these admissions. Study Design  Retrospective cohort of singleton pregnancies within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2001 to 2011. PTL admissions were defined as inpatient encounters > 24 hours with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code for PTL. Results  Total study population was 365,897 with PTL admission rate 11%...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558282/can-stress-biomarkers-predict-preterm-birth-in-women-with-threatened-preterm-labor
#6
Ana García-Blanco, Vicente Diago, Verónica Serrano De La Cruz, David Hervás, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, Máximo Vento
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major paediatric challenge difficult to prevent and with major adverse outcomes. Prenatal stress plays an important role on preterm birth; however, there are few stress-related models to predict preterm birth in women with Threatened Preterm Labor (TPL). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to study the influence of stress biomarkers on time until birth in TPL women. METHODS: Eligible participants were pregnant women between 24 and 31 gestational weeks admitted to the hospital with TPL diagnosis (n=166)...
May 25, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433870/automated-detection-of-premature-delivery-using-empirical-mode-and-wavelet-packet-decomposition-techniques-with-uterine-electromyogram-signals
#7
U Rajendra Acharya, Vidya K Sudarshan, Soon Qing Rong, Zechariah Tan, Choo Min Lim, Joel Ew Koh, Sujatha Nayak, Sulatha V Bhandary
An accurate detection of preterm labor and the risk of preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestational age is crucial to increase the chance of survival rate for both mother and the infant. Thus, the uterine contractions measured using uterine electromyogram (EMG) or electro hysterogram (EHG) need to have high sensitivity in the detection of true preterm labor signs. However, visual observation and manual interpretation of EHG signals at the time of emergency situation may lead to errors. Therefore, the employment of computer-based approaches can assist in fast and accurate detection during the emergency situation...
April 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395330/contributions-to-the-dynamics-of-cervix-remodeling-prior-to-term-and-preterm-birth
#8
Steven M Yellon
Major clinical challenges for obstetricians and neonatologists result from early cervix remodeling and preterm birth. Complications related to cervix remodeling or delivery account for significant morbidity in newborns and peripartum mothers. Understanding morphology and structure of the cervix in pregnant women is limited mostly to the period soon before and after birth. However, evidence in rodent models supports a working hypothesis that a convergence of factors promotes a physiological inflammatory process that degrades the extracellular collagen matrix and enhances biomechanical distensibility of the cervix well before the uterus develops the contractile capabilities for labor...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388726/the-role-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-amniotic-membrane-rupture
#9
Carla Janzen, Suvajit Sen, Margarida Y Y Lei, Marina Gagliardi de Assumpcao, John Challis, Gautam Chaudhuri
Context: Biochemical weakening of the amnion is a major factor preceding preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs), leading to preterm birth. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is known to play a key role in collagen degradation of the amnion; however, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is also induced by MMP activation has not been investigated as a mechanism for amnion weakening. Objective: To measure amniotic EMT associated with vaginal delivery (VD) compared with unlabored cesarean sections (CSs), and to assess changes in amniotic mechanical strength with pharmacologic inhibitors and inducers of EMT, thus testing the hypothesis that EMT is a key biochemical event that promotes amniotic rupture...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321491/adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-healthcare-workers-a-korean-nationwide-population-based-study
#10
Chulyong Park, Mo-Yeol Kang, Dohyung Kim, Jaechan Park, Huisu Eom, Eun-A Kim
PURPOSE: To assess female healthcare workers' pregnancy complications and outcomes including abortion, fetal screening abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and preterm labor using nationwide population data and compare these results with those of the general population in Korea. METHODS: Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claim data was used. We choose 3 different reference groups for comparison: (1) dependents of employees insured by NHI, i...
August 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217556/group-b-streptococcus-induces-neutrophil-recruitment-to-gestational-tissues-and-elaboration-of-extracellular-traps-and-nutritional-immunity
#11
Vishesh Kothary, Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Leslie A Kirk, Kelli L Boyd, Joann Romano-Keeler, Kathryn P Haley, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy
Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157826/impact-of-age-at-conization-on-obstetrical-outcome-a-case-control-study
#12
Julien Chevreau, Antonin Mercuzot, Arthur Foulon, Chirstophe Attencourt, Fabrice Sergent, Ségolène Lanta, Jean Gondry
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether an age younger than 25 years at conization affected future pregnancy outcome as an independent factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 115 women who underwent both loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and subsequent pregnancy follow-up in a referral center was conducted. Two groups were considered: patients younger than 25 years at the time of LEEP (n = 42) and 25 years or older (n = 73)...
April 2017: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992249/the-role-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-amniotic-membrane-rupture
#13
Carla Janzen, Suvajit Sen, Margarida Y Y Lei, Marina Gagliardi de Assumpcao, John Challis, Gautam Chaudhuri
CONTEXT: Biochemical weakening of the amnion is a major factor preceding preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), leading to preterm birth. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is known to play a key role in collagen degradation of the amnion, yet epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is also induced by MMP activation, has not been investigated as a mechanism for amnion weakening. OBJECTIVE: To measure amniotic EMT associated with vaginal delivery (VD) as compared to non-labored cesarean sections (CS), and assess changes in amniotic mechanical strength with pharmacologic inhibitors and inducers of EMT, thus testing the hypothesis that EMT is a key biochemical event that promotes amniotic rupture...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919059/role-of-maternal-occupational-physical-activity-and-psychosocial-stressors-on-adverse-birth-outcomes
#14
Laura J Lee, Elaine Symanski, Philip J Lupo, Sarah C Tinker, Hilda Razzaghi, Wenyaw Chan, Adrienne T Hoyt, Mark A Canfield
OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of an array of estimated maternal occupational physical activities and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy with odds for preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). METHODS: Data for infants born without major birth defects delivered from 1997 to 2009 whose mothers reported working at least 1 month during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We linked occupational codes to the US Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network, which provides estimates of exposure for multiple domains of physical activity and psychosocial stressors by occupational categories...
March 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#15
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines was evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease, respectively, plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748684/maternal-exposure-to-aeroallergens-and-the-risk-of-early-delivery
#16
Eric Lavigne, Antonio Gasparrini, David M Stieb, Hong Chen, Abdool S Yasseen, Eric Crighton, Teresa To, Scott Weichenthal, Paul J Villeneuve, Sabit Cakmak, Frances Coates, Mark Walker
BACKGROUND: Daily changes in aeroallergens during pregnancy could trigger early labor, but few investigations have evaluated this issue. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to aeroallergens during the week preceding birth and the risk of early delivery among preterm and term pregnancies. METHODS: We identified data on 225,234 singleton births that occurred in six large cities in the province of Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2011 (April to October) from a birth registry...
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157153/the-relationship-between-maternal-employment-status-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#17
Farnoush Khojasteh, Azizollah Arbabisarjou, Tahere Boryri, Amneh Safarzadeh, Mohammad Pourkahkhaei
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province...
September 1, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019202/modeling-magnetomyograms-of-uterine-contractions-during-pregnancy-using-a-multiscale-forward-electromagnetic-approach
#18
Mengxue Zhang, Vanessa Tidwell, Patricio S La Rosa, James D Wilson, Hari Eswaran, Arye Nehorai
Understanding the mechanisms of uterine contractions during pregnancy is especially important in predicting the onset of labor and thus in forecasting preterm deliveries. Preterm birth can cause serious health problems in newborns, as well as large financial burdens to society. Various techniques such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetomyography (MMG) have been developed to quantify uterine contractions. However, no widely accepted method to predict labor based on electromagnetic measurement is available...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859152/demographic-and-behavioral-predictors-of-severe-fetomaternal-hemorrhage-a-case-control-study
#19
Annemarie Stroustrup, Callie Plafkin, Thuy-An Tran, David A Savitz
BACKGROUND: Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) signifies failure of the placental barrier with whole blood transfer. Fetal anemia following FMH is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. If FMH is identified early, fetal anemia can be treated to minimize adverse outcomes. Risk factors for FMH are not known, limiting efforts to provide targeted screening for FMH. OBJECTIVE: To identify maternal and/or pregnancy characteristics associated with FMH that are recognizable prior to fetal morbidity...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760526/the-choice-of-amniotic-fluid-in-metabolomics-for-the-monitoring-of-fetus-health
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Palmas, Claudia Fattuoni, Antonio Noto, Luigi Barberini, Angelica Dessì, Vassilios Fanos
Amniotic fluid (AF) is a biological fluid in which metabolite transport is regulated by the placenta, the permeable skin, fetal lung egress and gastric fluid. During pregnancy, the composition of AF changes from similar to the interstitial fluid of the mother, to a more complex system, influenced by the fetus's urine. Since AF reflects the mother's and the fetus's health status at the same time, it may be an important diagnostic tool for a wider spectrum of clinical conditions. Indeed, the metabolic characterization of AF in relation to pathological occurrences may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers for a better clinical practice...
2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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