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Irreversible Shock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260638/growth-recovery-and-faltering-through-early-adolescence-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-determinants-and-implications-for-cognitive-development
#1
Andreas Georgiadis, Liza Benny, Le Thuc Duc, Sheikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy, Tassew Woldehanna
Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development...
February 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214988/an-alternative-splice-variant-of-human-%C3%AE-a-crystallin-modulates-the-oligomer-ensemble-and-the-chaperone-activity-of-%C3%AE-crystallins
#2
Waldemar Preis, Annika Bestehorn, Johannes Buchner, Martin Haslbeck
In humans, ten genes encode small heat shock proteins with lens αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin representing two of the most prominent members. The canonical isoforms of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin collaborate in the eye lens to prevent irreversible protein aggregation and preserve visual acuity. α-Crystallins form large polydisperse homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers and as part of the proteostasis system bind substrate proteins in non-native conformations, thereby stabilizing them. Here, we analyzed a previously uncharacterized, alternative splice variant (isoform 2) of human αA-crystallin with an exchanged N-terminal sequence...
February 18, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123061/detection-of-vulnerable-neurons-damaged-by-environmental-insults-in-utero
#3
Masaaki Torii, Masanori Sasaki, Yu-Wen Chang, Seiji Ishii, Stephen G Waxman, Jeffery D Kocsis, Pasko Rakic, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii
Development of prognostic biomarkers for the detection of prenatally damaged neurons before manifestations of postnatal disorders is an essential step for prevention and treatment of susceptible individuals. We have developed a versatile fluorescence reporter system in mice enabling detection of Heat Shock Factor 1 activation in response to prenatal cellular damage caused by exposure to various harmful chemical or physical agents. Using an intrautero electroporation-mediated reporter assay and transgenic reporter mice, we are able to identify neurons that survive prenatal exposure to harmful agents but remain vulnerable in postnatal life...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011703/optogenetic-termination-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-whole-heart-towards-biological-cardiac-rhythm-management
#4
Emile C A Nyns, Annemarie Kip, Cindy I Bart, Jaap J Plomp, Katja Zeppenfeld, Martin J Schalij, Antoine A F de Vries, Daniël A Pijnappels
AIMS: Current treatments of ventricular arrhythmias rely on modulation of cardiac electrical function through drugs, ablation or electroshocks, which are all non-biological and rather unspecific, irreversible or traumatizing interventions. Optogenetics, however, is a novel, biological technique allowing electrical modulation in a specific, reversible and trauma-free manner using light-gated ion channels. The aim of our study was to investigate optogenetic termination of ventricular arrhythmias in the whole heart...
December 23, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999981/phospholipids-in-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-hemorrhagic-shock
#5
REVIEW
Galina F Leskova
Energy deficiency plays a key role in the development of irreversible shock conditions. Therefore, identifying mitochondrial functional disturbances during hemorrhagic shock should be considered a prospective direction for studying its pathogenesis. Phospholipid (PL)-dependent mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain (i.e., in the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and medulla oblongata) and liver, which, when damaged, leads to an encephalopathy, are examined in this review. These mechanisms show strong regional specificity...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988455/delayed-diagnosis-of-wernicke-encephalopathy-with-irreversible-neural-damage-after-subtotal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-case-of-medical-liability
#6
Pamela Tozzo, Luciana Caenazzo, Daniele Rodriguez, Matteo Bolcato
INTRODUCTION: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a neurological syndrome caused by thiamine deficiency, and clinically characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and acute confusion. In developed countries, most cases of WE have been seen in alcohol misusers. Other reported causes are gastrointestinal tract surgery, hyperemesis gravidarum, chronic malnutrition, prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation, and increased nutrient requirements as in trauma or septic shock...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777382/prenatal-hyperbaric-normoxia-treatment-improves-healthspan-and-regulates-chitin-metabolic-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Suyeun Yu, Eunil Lee, Bodokhsuren Tsogbadrakh, Gwang-Ic Son, Mari Kim
Aging is a universal, irreversible process accompanied by physiological declines that culminate in death. Rapid progress in gerontology research has revealed that aging can be slowed through mild stress-induced hormesis. We previously reported that hyperbaric normoxia (HN, 2 atm absolute pressure with 10% O2) induces a cytoprotective response in vitro by regulating fibronectin. In the present study, we investigated the hormetic effects of prenatal HN exposure on Drosophila healthspan related to molecular defense mechanisms...
October 24, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744332/the-function-of-small-heat-shock-proteins-and-their-implication-in-proteostasis
#8
Annika Strauch, Martin Haslbeck
All organisms rely on a conserved cellular machinery supporting and controlling the life cycle of proteins: the proteostasis network. Within this network, the main players that determine the fate of proteins are molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome and the lysosome-autophagy systems. sHsps (small heat-shock proteins) represent one family of molecular chaperones found in all domains of life. They prevent irreversible aggregation of unfolded proteins and maintain proteostasis by stabilizing promiscuously a variety of non-native proteins in an ATP-independent manner...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693939/irreversible-electroporation-inhibits-pro-cancer-inflammatory-signaling-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Ishan Goswami, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Ryan G Morrison, Irving C Allen, Rafael V Davalos, Scott S Verbridge, Lissett R Bickford
Low-level electric fields have been demonstrated to induce spatial re-distribution of cell membrane receptors when applied for minutes or hours. However, there is limited literature on the influence on cell signaling with short transient high-amplitude pulses typically used in irreversible electroporation (IRE) for cancer treatment. Moreover, literature on signaling pertaining to immune cell trafficking after IRE is conflicting. We hypothesized that pulse parameters (field strength and exposure time) influence cell signaling and subsequently impact immune-cell trafficking...
February 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641694/thermal-stress-depletes-energy-reserves-in-drosophila
#10
Peter Klepsatel, Martina Gáliková, Yanjun Xu, Ronald P Kühnlein
Understanding how environmental temperature affects metabolic and physiological functions is of crucial importance to assess the impacts of climate change on organisms. Here, we used different laboratory strains and a wild-caught population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to examine the effect of temperature on the body energy reserves of an ectothermic organism. We found that permanent ambient temperature elevation or transient thermal stress causes significant depletion of body fat stores. Surprisingly, transient thermal stress induces a lasting "memory effect" on body fat storage, which also reduces survivorship of the flies upon food deprivation later after stress exposure...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641668/differential-phosphorylation-based-regulation-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-chaperone-activity-for-multipass-transmembrane-proteins
#11
Michela Ciano, Simona Allocca, Maria Camilla Ciardulli, Lucrezia Della Volpe, Stefano Bonatti, Massimo D'Agostino
We have previously shown that αB-crystallin (CRYAB), a small heat shock protein (sHsp) that prevents irreversible aggregation of unfolded protein by an ATP-independent chaperone activity, plays a pivotal role in the biogenesis of multipass transmembrane proteins (TMPs) assisting their folding from the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (D'Agostino et al., 2013). Here we present evidence, based on phosphomimetic substitutions, that the three phosphorytable serine residues at position 19, 45 and 59 of CRYAB play a different regulatory role in this novel chaperone activity: S19 and S45 have a strong inhibitory effect, either alone or in combination, while S59 has not and counteracts the inhibition caused by single phosphomimetic substitutions at S19 and S45...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632364/multi-dose-romidepsin-reactivates-replication-competent-siv-in-post-antiretroviral-rhesus-macaque-controllers
#12
Benjamin B Policicchio, Cuiling Xu, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Kevin D Raehtz, Tianyu He, Dongzhu Ma, Hui Li, Ranjit Sivanandham, George S Haret-Richter, Tammy Dunsmore, Anita Trichel, John W Mellors, Beatrice H Hahn, George M Shaw, Ruy M Ribeiro, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615730/the-pentablock-amphiphilic-copolymer-t1107-prevents-aggregation-of-denatured-and-reduced-lysozyme
#13
Michael J Poellmann, Tobin R Sosnick, Stephen C Meredith, Raphael C Lee
Aggregation of denatured or unfolded proteins establishes a large energy barrier to spontaneous recovery of protein form and function following traumatic injury, tissue cryopreservation, and biopharmaceutical storage. Some tissues utilize small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) to prevent irreversible aggregation, which allows more complex processes to refold or remove the unfolded proteins. It is postulated that large, amphiphilic, and biocompatible block copolymers can mimic sHSP function. Reduced and denatured hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is used as a model aggregating protein...
February 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613549/the-right-ventricle-interaction-with-the-pulmonary-circulation
#14
REVIEW
Michael R Pinsky
The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during stress and exercise states the flow to the RV can vary widely. Also, instantaneous venous return varies widely for a constant cardiac output as ventilatory efforts alter the dynamic pressure gradient for venous return...
September 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474115/class-i-and-ii-small-heat-shock-proteins-together-with-hsp101-protect-protein-translation-factors-during-heat-stress
#15
Fionn McLoughlin, Eman Basha, Mary E Fowler, Minsoo Kim, Juliana Bordowitz, Surekha Katiyar-Agarwal, Elizabeth Vierling
The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444864/the-application-of-clinical-lithotripter-shock-waves-to-rna-nucleotide-delivery-to-cells
#16
Sandra Nwokeoha, Robert Carlisle, Robin O Cleveland
The delivery of genes into cells through the transfer of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) has been found to cause a change in the level of target protein expression. RNA-based transfection is conceptually more efficient than commonly delivered plasmid DNA because it does not require division or damage of the nuclear envelope, thereby increasing the chances of the cell remaining viable. Shock waves (SWs) have been found to induce cellular uptake by transiently altering the permeability of the plasma membrane, thereby overcoming a critical step in gene therapy...
October 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414772/oxidative-stress-does-not-mediate-heat-shock-induced-cell-damage-and-apoptosis
#17
M Marini, D Musiani, M A Raggi, P Schiavone, R L Levine
The hypothesis that oxidative damage arising from heat shock might significantly contribute to cell death and in particular to apoptosis has been tested in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cellular glutathione content and protein carbonyl groups were measured as indicators of oxidative injury. Cell viability and proliferative capacity were evaluated as measures of irreversible damage. Heat shock caused dose-dependent decreases in cell viability, and apoptotic cell death was found to be a major component of heat-shock-mediated mortality...
February 1997: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392441/role-of-cellular-events-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#18
REVIEW
Chandra Bhan, Pankaj Dipankar, Papiya Chakraborty, Pranita P Sarangi
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a dysregulated host immune response due to an uncontrolled infection. It is a leading cause of mortality in adult intensive care units globally. When the host immune response induced against a local infection fails to contain it locally, it progresses to sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock and death. METHOD: Literature survey was performed on the roles of different innate and adaptive immune cells in the development and progression of sepsis...
November 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298792/clinical-outcomes-of-heart-lung-transplantation-review-of-10-single-center-consecutive-patients
#19
Jae Kwang Yun, Se Hoon Choi, Seung-Il Park
BACKGROUND: Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) has provided hope to patients with end-stage lung disease and irreversible heart dysfunction. We reviewed the clinical outcomes of 10 patients who underwent heart-lung transplantation at Asan Medical Center. METHODS: Between July 2010 and August 2014, a total of 11 patients underwent HLT at Asan Medical Center. After excluding one patient who underwent concomitant liver transplantation, 10 patients were enrolled in our study...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279378/-assessment-of-microcirculation-in-critically-ill-patients
#20
C Jung, M Kelm, M Ferrari
Adequate organ supply of oxygen and of nutrients depends on microcirculation. Impaired microcirculation may result in temporary or irreversible loss of function. Therefore, critically ill patients require early diagnosis and therapy of microcirculatory disorders. Besides surrogate parameters of microcirculation like urine production or serum lactate levels, direct visualization became possible with sidestream darkfield intravital microscopy. This technique has been evaluated in clinical studies focusing on early diagnosis and therapy in cardiogenic shock like vasopressors, nitrates, or circulatory assist devices...
October 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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