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M Tyloo, T Coletta, Ph Jacquod
In network theory, a question of prime importance is how to assess network vulnerability in a fast and reliable manner. With this issue in mind, we investigate the response to external perturbations of coupled dynamical systems on complex networks. We find that for specific, nonaveraged perturbations, the response of synchronous states depends on the eigenvalues of the stability matrix of the unperturbed dynamics, as well as on its eigenmodes via their overlap with the perturbation vector. Once averaged over properly defined ensembles of perturbations, the response is given by new graph topological indices, which we introduce as generalized Kirchhoff indices...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E García, M P Blanco, S Riaño, I González-Mendibil, T Carrascosa, M T Antolín
A description is presented on the management of a patient with an oesophageal neoplasm scheduled for oesophagectomy. Alloantibodies were detected during a blood components reservation procedure, which made it almost impossible to obtain compatible blood. Peri-operative anaemia management or "Patient Blood Management" should be routinely performed in all patients at transfusion risk. This strategy has been considered as one of the actions to bear in mind in fast-track surgery or enhanced recovery after surgery...
March 7, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Ujué Fresán, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Gina Segovia-Siapco, Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, Francisca Lahortiga, Pedro-Antonio de la Rosa, Miguel-Angel Martínez-Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the association of the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet and the Mediterranean diet (and their components), and depression risk. METHODS: We followed-up (median 10.4 years) 15,980 adults initially free of depression at baseline or in the first 2 years of follow-up. Food consumption was measured at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and was used to compute adherence to the MIND and the Mediterranean diets...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Maria Lúcia Moleiro, Luís Guedes-Martins, Alexandrina Mendes, Cláudia Marques, Jorge Braga
Nowadays, postpartum hemorrhage is the major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Uterine atony is its main cause; thus, prophylactic measures, as well as medical and surgical fast approaches, have been developed to manage it. The uterine compression sutures are a possible treatment that preserves the uterus and, consequently, the fertility potential. Bearing that in mind, we report two cases of postpartum hemorrhage after caesarean section, successfully treated with a new modification of Pereira suture - longitudinal and transverse uterine sutures were applied after no response was registered to the first-line therapies...
February 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Christian Grundahl Frankær, Kishwar J Hussain, Martin Rosenberg, Anders Jensen, Bo W W Laursen, Thomas Just Sørensen
: A new four-component organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) material was developed with optical pH sensors in mind. Through a sol-gel process, the porosity of an ORMOSIL framework was optimized to allow rapid diffusion of protons, ideal for fast response to pH in an optical sensor. The optically transparent material was produced by catalyzing the dual polymerization of 3-(glycidoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and propyltriethoxysilane (PrTES) with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The performance of the resulting material in fluorescence based optical pH sensors was evaluated by incorporation of active dye components in the inorganic polymer framework...
February 23, 2018: ACS Sensors
Erika Guyot, Julia Baudry, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau
The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Moritz M Daum, Günter Meinhardt, Malte Persike
According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
T Satheesh Divya, M T Vijayalakshmi, K Mini, K Asish, M Pushpalatha, Varun Suresh
Background: Yoga the spiritual union of mind with the divine intelligence of the universe aims to liberate a human being from conflicts of body-mind duality. Beneficial cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of yoga are in par with aerobic exercise, even amounting to replace the exercise model. We conducted an interventional study in healthy volunteers, to analyze the impact of short-term yoga training on cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests...
September 2017: International Journal of Yoga
Amela Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Ermin Begovic, Azra Burekovic, Zelija Velija-Asimi, Amina Godinjak, Vanja Karlovic
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus(DM) is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Having in mind concomitant occurence of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, it is expected that patients with poor glucoregulation will have more cardiovascular risk factors and higher cardiovascular risk than patients with good glucoregulation. Aim: To compare cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular risk factors between patients with poorly controlled and patients with well-controlled Diabetes mellitus...
February 2018: Medical Archives
Brian P Keane
In his monograph Modularity of Mind (1983), philosopher Jerry Fodor argued that mental architecture can be partly decomposed into computational organs termed modules, which are characterized as having nine co-occurring features such as automaticity, domain specificity, and informational encapsulation. Do modules exist? Debates thus far have been framed very generally with few, if any, detailed case studies. The topic is important because it has direct implications on current debates in cognitive science and because it potentially provides a viable framework from which to further understand and make hypotheses about the mind's structure and function...
January 26, 2018: Cognition
Luiz Pessoa
How do motivation and cognitive control interact in brain and behavior? The past decade has witnessed a steady growth in studies investigating both the behavioral and the brain basis of these interactions. In this paper, I describe such interactions in the context of the dual completion model, which proposes that motivational significance influences both perceptual and executive competition. Embracing a research agenda that attempts to understand cognition-motivation interactions highlights considerable challenges faced by investigators...
September 2017: Motivation Science
Johanna K Kaakinen, Ugo Ballenghein, Geoffrey Tissier, Thierry Baccino
The present study utilized a novel methodological combination of eye tracking and postural movement recordings to study task-induced changes in cognitive engagement during expository text reading. Thirty-three participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye and postural movements were concurrently recorded, and after reading recalled the text from memory. The results showed that readers spent longer total fixation time and had better memory for task-relevant than irrelevant text information...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong, Andra Davis, Cassius Spencer, Melody Rasmor, Lida Dekker
BACKGROUND: Health care environments are fraught with fast-paced critical demands and ethical dilemmas requiring decisive nursing actions. Nurse educators must prepare nursing students to practice skills, behaviors, and attitudes needed to meet the challenges of health care demands. Evidence-based, innovative, multimodal techniques with novice and seasoned nurses were incorporated into a baccalaureate (BSN) completion program (RN to-BSN) to deepen learning, complex skill building, reflective practice, teamwork, and compassion toward the experiences of others...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Paolo Pozzilli
As Diabetes/Metabolism: Research & Reviews (DMRR) begins its transition to a new editorial team, incoming Editor-in-Chief, Dr Paolo Pozzilli, reflects on the lessons learned from the past editorship and envisions the future of the journal. In today's fast-paced world, a medical journal should be fast in communicating decisions. Authors are eager to publish their work as fast as possible, and a journal must guarantee this, whilst at the same time ensuring a rigorous peer-review process. With this in mind, we hope to help the diabetes scientific community...
January 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Thomas Brabletz, Raghu Kalluri, M Angela Nieto, Robert A Weinberg
Similar to embryonic development, changes in cell phenotypes defined as an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to play a role in the tumorigenic process. Although the first description of EMT in cancer was in cell cultures, evidence for its role in vivo is now widely reported but also actively debated. Moreover, current research has exemplified just how complex this phenomenon is in cancer, leaving many exciting, open questions for researchers to answer in the future. With these points in mind, we asked four scientists for their opinions on the role of EMT in cancer and the challenges faced by scientists working in this fast-moving field...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Kirill Lozovoy, Andrey Kokhanenko, Alexander Voitsekhovskii
In this paper theoretical modeling of formation and growth of germanium-silicon quantum dots in the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on different surfaces is carried out. Silicon substrates with crystallographic orientations (100) and (111) are considered. Special attention is paid to the question of growth of quantum dots on the silicon surface covered by tin, since germanium-silicon-tin system is extremely important for contemporary nano- and optoelectronics: for creation of photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and fast-speed transistors...
February 2, 2018: Nanotechnology
Vamık D Volkan
There are many aspects-political, economic, legal, medical, cultural, religious-of the present refugee crisis in Europe. Difficulties at border crossings, settlement programs, life-saving issues, and security measures come to mind immediately, but the refugee crisis also needs to be examined from a psychological angle. This paper outlines psychoanalytic findings on voluntary and forced immigration and human responses to the Other. Change in the twenty-first century is occurring at an unprecedented pace and scale...
December 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
David Cucchiari, Irene Colombo, Ottavia Amato, Manuel Alfredo Podestà, Francesco Reggiani, Rossella Valentino, Irene Faravelli, Silvia Testolin, Maurizio Moggio, Salvatore Badalamenti
Rhabdomyolysis is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) that is usually triggered by trauma. However, less common causes of rhabdomyolysis may precipitate AKI as well, possibly representing a diagnostic challenge even for the experienced nephrologist. Genetic defects of muscle metabolism represent one of these causes and can be overlooked in adults, since these diseases usually become apparent in childhood. We present here a case in which an adult patient with severe exertional rhabdomyolysis leading to AKI was finally diagnosed with a genetic defect of lipid metabolism...
December 12, 2017: CEN Case Reports
Michelle I Dangerfield, Kenneth Ward, Luke Davidson, Milena Adamian
We report the largest experience, to our knowledge, of home cardiorespiratory monitoring in 47,495 newborns using the novel Owlet Smart Sock (OSS) technology (October 2015 to May 2017). On average, 47,495 newborns were monitored for 6 months, 4.5 d/wk, 9.9 h/d. Continuous readings of oxygen saturation and heart rate were obtained from 39,626 full-term newborns. OSS users were likely first-time parents in their 30s with at least a college degree; 37% had a healthcare professional in the family; and 28% were at or below median income level per the US Census Bureau...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
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