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Hélène Boulain, Fabrice Legeai, Endrick Guy, Stéphanie Morlière, Nadine E Douglas, Jonghee Oh, Marimuthu Murugan, Michael Smith, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean Peccoud, Frank F White, James C Carolan, Jean-Christophe Simon, Akiko Sugio
Effector proteins play crucial roles in plant-parasite interactions by suppressing plant defenses and hijacking plant physiological responses to facilitate parasite invasion and propagation. Although effector proteins have been characterized in many microbial plant pathogens, their nature and role in adaptation to host plants are largely unknown in insect herbivores. Aphids rely on salivary effector proteins injected into the host plants to promote phloem sap uptake. Therefore, gaining insight into the repertoire and evolution of aphid effectors is key to unveiling the mechanisms responsible for aphid virulence and host plant specialization...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Xiwen Gong, Oleksandr Voznyy, Ankit Jain, Wenjia Liu, Randy Sabatini, Zachary Piontkowski, Grant Walters, Golam Bappi, Sergiy Nokhrin, Oleksandr Bushuyev, Mingjian Yuan, Riccardo Comin, David McCamant, Shana O Kelley, Edward H Sargent
Low-dimensional perovskites have-in view of their high radiative recombination rates-shown great promise in achieving high luminescence brightness and colour saturation. Here we investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the luminescence of single crystals of two-dimensional perovskites, showing that reducing these interactions can lead to bright blue emission in two-dimensional perovskites. Resonance Raman spectra and deformation potential analysis show that strong electron-phonon interactions result in fast non-radiative decay, and that this lowers the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY)...
May 14, 2018: Nature Materials
Karen J Murphy, Natalie Parletta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. RECENT FINDINGS: In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity...
May 4, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Allison W Watts, Sarah A Rydell, Marla E Eisenberg, Melissa N Laska, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: A regular yoga practice may have benefits for young adult health, however, there is limited evidence available to guide yoga interventions targeting weight-related health. The present study explored the relationship between participation in yoga, healthy eating behaviors and physical activity among young adults. METHODS: The present mixed-methods study used data collected as part of wave 4 of Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a population-based cohort study in Minneapolis-St...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Anne Sjøbjerg, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Stine Kramer, Bjørn Richelsen
Postprandial hypoglycaemia with endogenous hyper-insulinaemia is relatively common after gastric bypass (GB) surgery. However, alternative aetiologies of hypoglycaemia should be kept in mind. We report a case of severe hypo-glycaemia in a patient who had previously undergone GB surgery for morbid obesity. Hypoglycaemic episodes differed from typical GB-related hypoglycaemia by occurring during fasting periods. Examination revealed insulinoma, and nine months after resection the patient remained symptom free...
April 23, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Bedia Mutay Suntur, Ferit Kuşçu
Background/aim: Tuberculous peritonitis may be difficult to diagnose due to its insidious and variable clinical manifestations as well as characteristics similar to malignancy. In this study, case reports from Turkey over the last 10 years were reviewed systematically using pooled analysis. Materials and methods: Thirty-four suitable articles were found and 163 tuberculous peritonitis cases were included in the study. Results: The mean age was 34.1 years (17–79 years), and 146 (98.6%) of the patients were female and 17 (10...
April 30, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Joanna I Lachowicz, Miriam Crespo-Alonso, Claudia Caltagirone, Giancarla Alberti, Raffaela Biesuz, James O Orton, Valeria M Nurchi
This paper presents an easy, fast and economic synthesis of chelating agents for medical, environmental and analytical applications, and the evaluation of the stability of their complexes with Fe3+ and Al3+ . Complex formation equilibria with Cu2+ and Zn2+ metal ions were also studied to evaluate if the chelating agents can perturb the homeostatic equilibria of these essential metal ions. Effective chelating agents for metal ions, in addition to their well-known medical uses, find an increasing number of applications in environmental remediation, agricultural applications (supplying essential elements in an easily available form), and in analytical chemistry as colorimetric reagents...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Gideon Rothschild
Our everyday lives present us with a continuous stream of multi-modal sensory inputs. While most of this information is soon forgotten, sensory information associated with salient experiences can leave long-lasting memories in our minds. Extensive human and animal research has established that the hippocampus is critically involved in this process of memory formation and consolidation. However, the underlying mechanistic details are still only partially understood. Specifically, the hippocampus has often been suggested to encode information during experience, temporarily store it, and gradually transfer this information to the cortex during sleep...
March 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Christopher Carroll, Rachel Houten, Angela Boland, Eva Kaltenthaler, Rumona Dickson
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has recently proposed that company submissions with a base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of less than £10,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) might be eligible for a "fast-track" appraisal. OBJECTIVES: To explore outcomes relating to previously conducted single-technology appraisals (STAs) with base-case ICERs of less than £10,000/QALY. METHODS: All STAs with published guidance from 2009 to 2016 were included; those with company base-case ICERs of less than £10,000/QALY were identified and analyzed...
March 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
M Tyloo, T Coletta, Ph Jacquod
In network theory, a question of prime importance is how to assess network vulnerability in a fast and reliable manner. With this issue in mind, we investigate the response to external perturbations of coupled dynamical systems on complex networks. We find that for specific, nonaveraged perturbations, the response of synchronous states depends on the eigenvalues of the stability matrix of the unperturbed dynamics, as well as on its eigenmodes via their overlap with the perturbation vector. Once averaged over properly defined ensembles of perturbations, the response is given by new graph topological indices, which we introduce as generalized Kirchhoff indices...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E García, M P Blanco, S Riaño, I González-Mendibil, T Carrascosa, M T Antolín
A description is presented on the management of a patient with an oesophageal neoplasm scheduled for oesophagectomy. Alloantibodies were detected during a blood components reservation procedure, which made it almost impossible to obtain compatible blood. Peri-operative anaemia management or "Patient Blood Management" should be routinely performed in all patients at transfusion risk. This strategy has been considered as one of the actions to bear in mind in fast-track surgery or enhanced recovery after surgery...
March 7, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Ujué Fresán, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Gina Segovia-Siapco, Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, Francisca Lahortiga, Pedro-Antonio de la Rosa, Miguel-Angel Martínez-Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the association of the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet and the Mediterranean diet (and their components), and depression risk. METHODS: We followed-up (median 10.4 years) 15,980 adults initially free of depression at baseline or in the first 2 years of follow-up. Food consumption was measured at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and was used to compute adherence to the MIND and the Mediterranean diets...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
July 2018: Environmental Research
Maria Lúcia Moleiro, Luís Guedes-Martins, Alexandrina Mendes, Cláudia Marques, Jorge Braga
Nowadays, postpartum hemorrhage is the major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Uterine atony is its main cause; thus, prophylactic measures, as well as medical and surgical fast approaches, have been developed to manage it. The uterine compression sutures are a possible treatment that preserves the uterus and, consequently, the fertility potential. Bearing that in mind, we report two cases of postpartum hemorrhage after caesarean section, successfully treated with a new modification of Pereira suture - longitudinal and transverse uterine sutures were applied after no response was registered to the first-line therapies...
February 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Christian Grundahl Frankær, Kishwar J Hussain, Martin Rosenberg, Anders Jensen, Bo W Laursen, Thomas Just Sørensen
A new four-component organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) material was developed with optical pH sensors in mind. Through a sol-gel process, the porosity of an ORMOSIL framework was optimized to allow rapid diffusion of protons, ideal for fast response to pH in an optical sensor. The optically transparent material was produced by catalyzing the dual polymerization of 3-(glycidoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and propyltriethoxysilane (PrTES) with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The performance of the resulting material in fluorescence based optical pH sensors was evaluated by incorporation of active dye components in the inorganic polymer framework...
March 23, 2018: ACS Sensors
Erika Guyot, Julia Baudry, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau
The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Moritz M Daum, Günter Meinhardt, Malte Persike
According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
T Satheesh Divya, M T Vijayalakshmi, K Mini, K Asish, M Pushpalatha, Varun Suresh
Background: Yoga the spiritual union of mind with the divine intelligence of the universe aims to liberate a human being from conflicts of body-mind duality. Beneficial cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of yoga are in par with aerobic exercise, even amounting to replace the exercise model. We conducted an interventional study in healthy volunteers, to analyze the impact of short-term yoga training on cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests...
September 2017: International Journal of Yoga
Amela Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Ermin Begovic, Azra Burekovic, Zelija Velija-Asimi, Amina Godinjak, Vanja Karlovic
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus(DM) is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Having in mind concomitant occurence of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, it is expected that patients with poor glucoregulation will have more cardiovascular risk factors and higher cardiovascular risk than patients with good glucoregulation. Aim: To compare cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular risk factors between patients with poorly controlled and patients with well-controlled Diabetes mellitus...
February 2018: Medical Archives
Brian P Keane
In his monograph Modularity of Mind (1983), philosopher Jerry Fodor argued that mental architecture can be partly decomposed into computational organs termed modules, which were characterized as having nine co-occurring features such as automaticity, domain specificity, and informational encapsulation. Do modules exist? Debates thus far have been framed very generally with few, if any, detailed case studies. The topic is important because it has direct implications on current debates in cognitive science and because it potentially provides a viable framework from which to further understand and make hypotheses about the mind's structure and function...
May 2018: Cognition
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