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fast minds

Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Marco Furtner
Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state...
October 18, 2016: Appetite
Patrick C Even, Anne Blais
The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermogenic response to feeding (TEF), activity, and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22 and 30°C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than two times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR, and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Matthias Hartmann, Jochen Laubrock, Martin H Fischer
In the domain of language research, the simultaneous presentation of a visual scene and its auditory description (i.e., the visual world paradigm) has been used to reveal the timing of mental mechanisms. Here we apply this rationale to the domain of numerical cognition in order to explore the differences between fast and slow arithmetic performance, and to further study the role of spatial-numerical associations during mental arithmetic. We presented 30 healthy adults simultaneously with visual displays containing four numbers and with auditory addition and subtraction problems...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Francesca Happé, Jennifer L Cook, Geoffrey Bird
Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Alexander L Button, Jan A Hiss, Petra Schneider, Gisbert Schneider
Computational de novo molecular design and macromolecular target prediction have become routine in applied cheminformatics. In this study, we have generated populations of drug template-derived designs using ligand-based building block assembly, and predicted their potential targets. The results of our analysis show that the reaction-based de novo design generated new chemical entities with similar properties and pharmacophores as that of the template drugs as well as up to 44 % of the de novo compounds receiving the correct target predictions...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Informatics
Renata Domingos Alves, Roberto Romero-González, Rosalía López-Ruiz, M L Jiménez-Medina, Antonia Garrido Frenich
An analytical method based on a modified QuPPe (quick polar pesticide) extraction procedure coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of four polar compounds (chlorate, fosetyl-Al, maleic hydrazide, and perchlorate) in nutraceutical products obtained from soy. Experimental conditions including extraction such as solvent, acidification, time, and clean-up sorbents were varied. Acidified acetonitrile (1 % formic acid, v/v) was used as extraction solvent instead of methanol (conventional QuPPe), which provides a doughy mixture which cannot be injected into the LC...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Derya Tepe, Fatma Demirel, Esra Dag Seker, Ebru Petek Arhan, Meltem Tayfun, Ihsan Esen, Ozlem Kara, Murat Kizilgun
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is one of the most important and rare complications of obesity. Prevalence of IIH in childhood obesity is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of IIH in obese children and adolescents and to investigate the relevant factors. METHODS: In this study, 1058 obese children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years of age were included. Funduscopic examination was conducted for all subjects...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Fadel Zeidan, David R Vago
Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves interacting sensory, cognitive, and affective factors, rendering the treatment of chronic pain challenging and financially burdensome. Further, the widespread use of opioids to treat chronic pain has led to an opioid epidemic characterized by exponential growth in opioid misuse and addiction. The staggering statistics related to opioid use highlight the importance of developing, testing, and validating fast-acting nonpharmacological approaches to treat pain...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nafrizuan Mat Yahya, M Osman Tokhi, Hyreil Anuar Kasdirin
Bats sonar algorithm (BSA) as a swarm intelligence approach utilises the concept of echolocation of bats to find prey. However, the algorithm is unable to achieve good precision and fast convergence rate to the optimum solution. With this in mind, an adaptive bats sonar algorithm is introduced with new paradigms of real bats echolocation behaviour. The performance of the algorithm is validated through rigorous tests with several single objective optimisation benchmark test functions. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the BSA in terms of accuracy and convergence speed and can be efficiently employed to solve engineering problems...
2016: Evolutionary Intelligence
S Reaungamornrat, T De Silva, A Uneri, J-P Wolinsky, A J Khanna, G Kleinszig, S Vogt, J L Prince, J H Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: Localization of target anatomy and critical structures defined in preoperative MR images can be achieved by means of multi-modality deformable registration to intraoperative CT. We propose a symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration algorithm incorporating a modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) and a robust Huber metric for MR-to-CT registration. METHOD: The method, called MIND Demons, solves for the deformation field between two images by optimizing an energy functional that incorporates both the forward and inverse deformations, smoothness on the velocity fields and the diffeomorphisms, a modality-insensitive similarity function suitable to multi-modality images, and constraints on geodesics in Lagrangian coordinates...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Ruud Hortensius, Beatrice de Gelder, Dennis J L G Schutter
Threat demands fast and adaptive reactions that are manifested at the physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological level and are responsive to the direction of threat and its severity for the individual. Here, we investigated the effects of threat directed toward or away from the observer on motor corticospinal excitability and explicit recognition. Sixteen healthy right-handed volunteers completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) task and a separate three-alternative forced-choice emotion recognition task...
September 2016: Psychophysiology
Sureerat Reaungamornrat, Tharindu De Silva, Ali Uneri, Sebastian Vogt, Gerhard Kleinszig, A J Khanna, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Jerry L Prince, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
Intraoperative localization of target anatomy and critical structures defined in preoperative MR/CT images can be achieved through the use of multimodality deformable registration. We propose a symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration algorithm incorporating a modality-independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) and a robust Huber metric for MR-to-CT registration. The method, called MIND Demons, finds a deformation field between two images by optimizing an energy functional that incorporates both the forward and inverse deformations, smoothness on the integrated velocity fields, a modality-insensitive similarity function suitable to multimodality images, and smoothness on the diffeomorphisms themselves...
June 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Braulio Gómez Ruiz, Stéphanie Roux, Francis Courtois, Catherine Bonazzi
A simple, rapid and reliable method was developed for quantifying ascorbic (AA) and dehydroascorbic (DHAA) acids and validated in 20mM malate buffer (pH 3.8). It consists in a spectrophotometric measurement of AA, either directly on the solution added with metaphosphoric acid or after reduction of DHAA into AA by dithiothreitol. This method was developed with real time measurement of reactions kinetics in bulk reactors in mind, and was checked in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, fidelity and accuracy...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Atikarn Gainey, Thep Himathongkam, Hirofumi Tanaka, Daroonwan Suksom
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the effects of Buddhist walking meditation and traditional walking on glycemic control and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Twenty three patients with type 2 diabetes (50-75 years) were randomly allocated into traditional walking exercise (WE; n=11) or Buddhism-based walking meditation exercise (WM; n=12). Both groups performed a 12-week exercise program that consisted of walking on the treadmill at exercise intensity of 50-70% maximum heart rate for 30min/session, 3 times/week...
June 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
P Reddi Rani, Jasmina Begum
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as any glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. This definition helps for diagnosis of unrecognized pre-existing Diabetes also. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and prenatal outcome. It is important to screen, diagnose and treat Hyperglycemia in pregnancy to prevent an adverse outcome. There is no international consensus regarding timing of screening method and the optimal cut-off points for diagnosis and intervention of GDM...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Osman Yeşilbaş, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Sevim Meşe, Esra Şevketoğlu
Human bocavirus (HBoV), that was first identified in 2005 and classified in Parvoviridae family, is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus, responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children. Although HBoV generally causes self-limited influenza-like illness, it may also lead to pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup and asthma attacks. In this report, a case of acute bronchiolitis complicated with pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by HBoV has been presented...
January 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Meik Kunz, Chunguang Liang, Santosh Nilla, Alexander Cecil, Thomas Dandekar
The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2011: Harvard Health Letter
G Yorulmaz, M Cilekar, U Bilge, E Akcan, A Akalin
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine changes in insulin resistance, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), in morbid obese patients without any known associated chronic diseases who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were patients with minimum BMI of 40, who did not have any known chronic diseases. Sleeve gastrectomy was performed and perioperative control endoscopy was performed. The following values were measured before the operation and after follow-up period after the operation: Fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipid profile, BMI, liver function tests, right and left CIMT...
May 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Sait Ozturk, Necati Ucler, Omer Batu Hergunsel, Arif Gulkesen, Metin Kaplan
OBJECTIVES: Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLLDHs) can cause difficulty and differences in diagnosis and treatment compared with intraspinal herniation. We have aimed to analyze the efficacy of gabapentin as a noninvasive treatment of pain in patients with isolated FLLDH. METHODS: Thirteen patients with isolated FLLDH were evaluated for the study prospectively. All of the cases were diagnosed by lumbar magnetic resonance imaging. The previously prescribed medical therapy of the patients was not changed and gabapentin (3 × 600 mg/d) was added...
May 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
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