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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886468/do-drives-drive-the-train-of-thought-effects-of-hunger-and-sexual-arousal-on-mind-wandering-behavior
#1
Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827423/on-the-effective-stress-law-for-rock-on-rock-frictional-sliding-and-fault-slip-triggered-by-means-of-fluid-injection
#2
Ernest Rutter, Abigail Hackston
Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples...
September 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821228/sg-adviser-mtdna-a-web-server-for-mitochondrial-dna-annotation-with-data-from-200-samples-of-a-healthy-aging-cohort
#3
Manuel Rueda, Ali Torkamani
BACKGROUND: Whole genome and exome sequencing usually include reads containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Yet, state-of-the-art pipelines and services for human nuclear genome variant calling and annotation do not handle mitochondrial genome data appropriately. As a consequence, any researcher desiring to add mtDNA variant analysis to their investigations is forced to explore the literature for mtDNA pipelines, evaluate them, and implement their own instance of the desired tool. This task is far from trivial, and can be prohibitive for non-bioinformaticians...
August 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793781/second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-it-is-time-to-mind-the-gaps
#4
Richard A Murphy, Richard Court, Gary Maartens, Henry Sunpath
The delay between first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and initiation of second-line ART in resource-limited settings can be prolonged. Increasing evidence links delayed antiretroviral switch with increased risk for opportunistic infection (OI) and death, particularly in patients with advanced HIV at the time of first-line failure. As access to viral load (VL) monitoring widens beyond a few countries, mechanisms are needed to optimize the use of routine virologic monitoring and assure that first-line regimen failure results in prompt second-line switch...
September 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757907/mind-your-crossings-mining-gis-imagery-for-crosswalk-localization
#5
Dragan Ahmetovic, Roberto Manduchi, James M Coughlan, Sergio Mascetti
For blind travelers, finding crosswalks and remaining within their borders while traversing them is a crucial part of any trip involving street crossings. While standard Orientation & Mobility (O&M) techniques allow blind travelers to safely negotiate street crossings, additional information about crosswalks and other important features at intersections would be helpful in many situations, resulting in greater safety and/or comfort during independent travel. For instance, in planning a trip a blind pedestrian may wish to be informed of the presence of all marked crossings near a desired route...
April 2017: ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721513/does-pyuria-always-suggest-urinary-tract-infection-with-common-microorganisms-questions
#6
Mehmet Taşdemir, Hüseyin Kaya, Zeynep Atam Taşdemir
Genitourinary system tuberculosis (GUTB) is a chronic granulomatous infection in which tuberculous bacilli affect one or more organs in the genitourinary system. In this report, an unusual presentation of miliary tuberculosis was presented as GUTB. A 15-year-old girl presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and dysuria. Abdominal examination showed tenderness and defense. Pyuria and microscopic hematuria were observed. Acute abdominal causes could not be excluded through abdominal ultrasound. On abdominal computed tomography, a necrotic lesion was detected in the right kidney...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717920/mother-and-adolescent-eating-in-the-context-of-food-insecurity-findings-from-urban-public-housing
#7
Meg Bruening, Joanna Lucio, Stephanie Brennhofer
Introduction Anecdotal evidence suggests that parents protect their children from food insecurity and its effects, but few studies have concurrently assessed food insecurity among youth and parents. The purpose of this study was to examine food insecurity and eating behaviors among an urban sample of mother-adolescent dyads. Methods Mother-adolescent dyads (n = 55) were from six public housing sites in Phoenix, Arizona who completed surveys during 2014. Multivariate mixed linear and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between mother and adolescent eating behaviors in the context of food insecurity...
July 17, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686006/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-women-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Nazia Raja-Khan, Katrina Agito, Julie Shah, Christy M Stetter, Theresa S Gustafson, Holly Socolow, Allen R Kunselman, Diane K Reibel, Richard S Legro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS: Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4...
August 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#9
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#10
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619307/pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-based-group-intervention-in-adolescent-girls-at-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-with-depressive-symptoms
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lauren B Shomaker, Stephanie Bruggink, Bernadette Pivarunas, Amanda Skoranski, Jillian Foss, Ella Chaffin, Stephanie Dalager, Shelly Annameier, Jordan Quaglia, Kirk Warren Brown, Patricia Broderick, Christopher Bell
OBJECTIVE: (1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. DESIGN AND SETTING: Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599130/negligible-interaction-of-ru-phen-3-2-with-human-serum-albumin-makes-it-promising-for-a-reliable-invivo-assessment-of-the-tissue-oxygenation
#12
Dominik Belej, Zuzana Jurasekova, Michal Nemergut, Georges Wagnieres, Daniel Jancura, Veronika Huntosova
The interaction between a ruthenium - based water soluble oxygen probe ([Ru(Phen)3](2+), phen - phenanthroline) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated with the aim of describing the influence of HSA on the [Ru(Phen)3](2+) luminescence properties. Nowadays, several oxygen sensitive luminescent probes are used to determine the oxygen level in different compartments of living organisms. However, they can interact, depending on their hydrophilic/hydrophobic characters, with various serum proteins, and/or lipids, during their utilization for invivo oxygen measurement...
September 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557246/extended-calorie-restriction-suppresses-overall-and-specific-food-cravings-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
C N Kahathuduwa, M Binks, C K Martin, J A Dawson
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have concluded that calorie restriction for at least 12 weeks is associated with reduced food cravings, while others have shown that calorie restriction may increase food cravings. We addressed this ambiguity in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for studies conducted on subjects with obesity, implemented calorie restriction for at least 12 weeks and measured food cravings pre-intervention and post-intervention...
May 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554328/the-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#14
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Gema Frühbeck, Maria De Angelis, Ornella De Bari, David Q-H Wang, Frank Lammert, Piero Portincasa
Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#15
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network, purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486175/ileocaecal-and-transverse-colonic-tuberculosis-mimicking-colonic-malignancy-a-case-report
#16
Prashant Lakhe, Asma Khalife, Jayashri Pandya
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is common in the developing world especially in the lower socioeconomic groups. In elderly, it may mimic malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old female presented with a 6 month history of diffuse pain in abdomen with low grade fever and loss of weight and appetite. Clinically, differential of malignancy of the large bowel was considered. The computerized tomography(CT) scan of the abdomen revealed a diffuse concentric long segmental thickening of terminal ileum, ileo ceacal junction, ascending colon and narrowing of the transverse colonic end of the splenic flexure suggesting an infective etiology...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481075/innovative-nanosensor-for-disease-diagnosis
#17
Sang-Joon Kim, Seon-Jin Choi, Ji-Soo Jang, Hee-Jin Cho, Il-Doo Kim
As a futuristic diagnosis platform, breath analysis is gaining much attention because it is a noninvasive, simple, and low cost diagnostic method. Very promising clinical applications have been demonstrated for diagnostic purposes by correlation analysis between exhaled breath components and specific diseases. In addition, diverse breath molecules, which serve as biomarkers for specific diseases, are precisely identified by statistical pattern recognition studies. To further improve the accuracy of breath analysis as a diagnostic tool, breath sampling, biomarker sensing, and data analysis should be optimized...
May 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443523/do-non-reflective-thinkers-apply-extreme-personal-meanings-to-their-activated-moods
#18
Alyson L Dodd, Matthew Haigh
BACKGROUND: The integrative cognitive model of mood swings proposes that mood symptoms are driven by extreme, self-referent appraisals. For example, if activated mood is appraised positively, this prompts selection of mood regulation strategies that act to up-regulate mood. Appraisals are driven by fast and automatic Type 1 cognitive processes, which, left unchecked, can cause activated mood to escalate. AIMS: It was hypothesized that greater propensity to override these automatic processes by engaging in reflective (Type 2) thinking would be negatively associated with extreme appraisals of activation and activation...
April 26, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438745/management-of-chronic-pain-using-complementary-and-integrative-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Lucy Chen, Andreas Michalsen
Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) encompasses both Western-style medicine and complementary health approaches as a new combined approach to treat a variety of clinical conditions. Chronic pain is the leading indication for use of CIM, and about 33% of adults and 12% of children in the US have used it in this context. Although advances have been made in treatments for chronic pain, it remains inadequately controlled for many people. Adverse effects and complications of analgesic drugs, such as addiction, kidney failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding, also limit their use...
April 24, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432224/a-bacterial-cause-of-cancer-an-historical-essay
#20
Marshall A Lichtman
This article reviews the history of the discovery of microbes that increase the risk of cancer of some tissues with a special emphasis on the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the role played by two Australian physicians, neither schooled in research, who had open minds about the shibboleth that mycobacteria (acid-fast organisms) can survive the acid environment of the stomach, but that other pathogenic bacteria cannot. They discovered one of the most important human pathogens, Helicobacter pylori, and showed it capable of inducing severe gastric inflammatory disease...
May 2017: Oncologist
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