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exercise in diabetes

Andrew D Schreiner, Brad A Keith, Karen E Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang, Walter A Brzezinski
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Effiong Ekong Akpan, Udeme Ekpenyong Ekrikpo, Aniema Isaac Assam Udo
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing the world over, and it is now regarded as a public health problem. The prevalence of CKD in Nigeria remained largely unknown with hospital-based data of 2-8%. However, emerging community studies show a prevalence of 10-26.8%. This study was conducted during the 2013 world kidney day activities in Uyo, Akwa Ibom, State of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 554,906 people. Sensitizations of members of the public were ensured through the media...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Robert Buresh, Kris Berg
Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Free radicals and, most prominently, the superoxide radical, result from oxidative metabolism and several enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and endogenous cellular antioxidants dismutate many reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under certain conditions, ROS production can outpace dismutation (e.g., long-term sedentariness and positive energy balance) and the result is oxidative stress, with proteins, lipids, and DNA the most common targets of radicals...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
BACKGROUND: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile, glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Ahmed M Selim, Nitasha Sarswat, Iosif Kelesidis, Muhammad Iqbal, Ramesh Chandra, Ronald Zolty
BACKGROUND: The relationship between heart failure (HF) and the serotonergic system has been established in animal studies. However, data on human plasma serotonin level in HF and its significance over the course of the disease is lacking. METHODS: Serotonin levels were measured in 173 patients (108 males, 65 females), 116 were stable HF and 40 were acute decompensated HF patients. The normal control group included 17 healthy volunteers with no known medical or psychiatric conditions...
September 17, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Clark K Ho, Ganesh Sriram, Katrina M Dipple
Mathematical modeling approaches have been commonly used in complex signaling pathway studies such as the insulin signal transduction pathway. Our expanded mathematical model of the insulin signal transduction pathway was previously shown to effectively predict glucose clearance rates using mRNA levels of key components of the pathway in a mouse model. In this study, we re-optimized and applied our expanded model to study insulin sensitivity in other species and tissues (human skeletal muscle) with altered protein activities of insulin signal transduction pathway components...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
G Kim, Y-H Lee, J Y Jeon, H Bang, B-W Lee, E S Kang, I-K Lee, B-S Cha, C S Kim
OBJECTIVE: The association between resting heart rate (RHR) and the development of diabetes has yet to be fully elucidated, and the relationship between changes in RHR and incidence of diabetes also remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the association between changes in RHR over 2 years and the risk of diabetes. METHODS: A total of 7416 adults without diabetes were included. All had participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a community-based, 10-year prospective study in which RHR was measured at baseline and 2 years later...
October 10, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
Sansnee Jirojwong, Suzanne Brownhill, Hannah G Dahlen, Maree Johnson, Virginia Schmied
Issue addressed: In many developed countries the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for Asian-born women is higher than other groups. Studies suggest that some women have limited knowledge of the disease and poor self-management leading to health problems for themselves and their baby. Few studies report the experience of GDM among Southeast Asian migrant women living in Australia and factors that influence their management of the disease. Methods: A qualitative interpretive design was used to explore Southeast Asian migrant women's experience and management of GDM...
October 13, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Erik A Richter, Thomas E Jensen
Skeletal muscle extracts glucose from the blood to maintain demand for carbohydrates as an energy source during exercise. Such uptake involves complex molecular signalling processes that are distinct from those activated by insulin. Exercise-stimulated glucose uptake is preserved in insulin-resistant muscle, emphasizing exercise as a therapeutic cornerstone among patients with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Exercise increases uptake of glucose by up to 50-fold through the simultaneous stimulation of three key steps: delivery, transport across the muscle membrane and intracellular flux through metabolic processes (glycolysis and glucose oxidation)...
October 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Trinath Kumar Mishra, Biswajit Das
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rising in epidemic proportions with India not being an exception. CAD in Indian scenario has its onset at a younger age with multitude of risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to obtain complete information about demographic profile, risk factors, clinical scenario, therapeutic modalities, natural course, outcome and changing profile of acute ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 45,122 acute STEMI patients admitted 1st March 1990 to 1st March 2014...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Elisa Fabbri, Chee W Chia, Richard G Spencer, Kenneth W Fishbein, David A Reiter, Donnie Cameron, Ariel C Zane, Zenobia A Moore, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Marco Zoli, Stephanie A Studenski, Rita R Kalyani, Josephine M Egan, Luigi Ferrucci
Whether individuals with insulin resistance but without criteria for diabetes exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity is unclear; addressing this question could guide research for new therapeutics. We investigated 248 non-diabetic participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) to determine whether impaired mitochondrial capacity is associated with prediabetes, insulin resistance, duration and severity of hyperglycemia exposure. Mitochondrial capacity was assessed as post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery time constant (τPCr) by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with higher τPCr reflecting reduced capacity...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
Olga Perelshtein Brezinov, Shaye Kivity, Shlomo Segev, Yechezkel Sidi, Ilan Goldenberg, Elad Maor, Robert Klempfner
Men tend to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) earlier in life than women. Whether this difference is attributable only to gender is a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in cardiovascular risk in a large cohort of asymptomatic men and women and explore gender-related risk in prespecified risk factor subgroups. We investigated 14,966 asymptomatic men and women free of diabetes, hypertension, or ischemic heart disease who were annually screened. The primary end point of the present study was the occurrence of ischemic or cerebrovascular disease as composite end point...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Viswanathan Mohan, Sunil Jain, Jothydev Kesavadev, Manoj Chawla, Abhay Mutha, Vijay Viswanathan, Banshi Saboo, Rajiv Kovil, Ambrish Mithal, Dharmen Punatar, John Shin
BACKGROUND: Retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) studies may provide healthcare professionals (HCPs) with better understanding of glycemic patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and thereby support patient education and appropriate therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Adults with T2D and A1C values between 8% and 10% were eligible for this 3-month study. Patients were scheduled for 5 visits that included baseline and a month-2 retrospective CGM study (iPro2, Medtronic) followed by data review and therapy modifications...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mark D DeBoer, Daniel R Cherñavvsky, Katarina Topchyan, Boris P Kovatchev, Gary L Francis, Marc D Breton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of using a heart rate (HR) monitor to inform an artificial pancreas (AP) system during exercise among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, cross-over trial, adolescents with T1D age 13 - 18 years were enrolled to receive on separate days either the unmodified UVa AP (stdAP) or an AP system connected to a portable HR monitor (AP-HR) that triggered an exercise algorithm for blood glucose (BG) control...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Christina M DuBois, Rachel A Millstein, Christopher M Celano, Deborah J Wexler, Jeff C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: Positive psychological attributes (eg, optimism) have been associated with a healthier lifestyle and superior medical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, there has been minimal study of behavioral interventions that target positive psychological constructs in this population. Accordingly, we developed a novel, telephone-based, 12-week positive psychology intervention and assessed its feasibility and short-term impact in adults with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal health behavior adherence...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Naoto Fujii, Sheila M Dervis, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Both cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contribute to sweating, whereas NOS alone contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in the heat. Here, we evaluated if type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) modulates these responses. Adults with (n=11, 25±5 years) and without (n=12, 24±4 years) T1DM performed two bouts of 30-min cycling at a fixed rate of heat production of 400W in the heat (35°C); each followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery period respectively. Sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured at four intradermal microdialysis sites treated with either 1) lactated Ringer (vehicle control site), 2) 10mM ketorolac (non-selective COX inhibitor), 3) 10mM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (non-selective NOS inhibitor), or 4) a combination of both inhibitors...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Valery S Effoe, Jeffrey A Katula, Julienne K Kirk, Carolyn F Pedley, Linda Y Bollhalter, W Mark Brown, Margaret R Savoca, Stedman T Jones, Janet Baek, Alain G Bertoni
BACKGROUND: The use of the electronic medical record (EMR) system in recruitment in clinical trials has the potential for providing a very reliable and cost-effective recruiting methodology which may improve participant recruitment in clinical trials. We examined a recruitment approach centered on the use of the EMR, as well as other traditional methods, in the Lifestyle Intervention for Treatment of Diabetes (LIFT Diabetes) trial. METHODS: LIFT Diabetes is a randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the effects of two contrasting interventions on cardiovascular disease risk: a community-based intensive lifestyle program aimed at achieving weight loss and a clinic-based enhanced diabetes self-management program...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Ritu Karoli, Sanjay Bhat, Jalees Fatima, Vaibhav Shukla, Sachin Khanduri, Moidur Rehman, Abdul Allam Waris
BACKGROUND / OBJECTIVE: The availability and use of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography for diagnostic purposes has led to frequent detection of asymptomatic renal cysts. Recent evidence suggests their association with hypertension. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of simple renal cysts in patients with hypertension and prehypertension. METHODS: In a hospital based cross-sectional study, all consecutive adult patients aged > 25 years were enrolled...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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