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Shock—Etiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471182/the-impact-of-vitamin-a-supplementation-in-childhood-on-adult-outcomes-an-exploration-of-mechanisms-timing-of-exposure-and-heterogeneous-effects
#1
Yubraj Acharya
There is now a critical threshold of evidence documenting the relationship between one's exposure to shocks in early life and outcomes in adulthood. Using Nepal's vitamin A supplementation program, this study provides additional insights on the mechanisms and differences in effects by the timing of the first exposure and across different groups. The program's sequential rollout between 1993 and 2001 and the age eligibility provide an exogenous variation in exposure to the program. I utilize that variation and data on more than 700,000 individuals from the 2011 census to estimate the program's causal effect on long-term health and educational outcomes...
February 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471019/hsp90-co-chaperone-p23-contributes-to-dopaminergic-mitochondrial-stress-via-stabilization-of-phd2-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Anand Rane, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Manuj Ahuja, Bobby Thomas, Shankar J Chinta, Julie K Andersen
The heat shock factor 90 (hsp90) complex has long been associated with neuropathological phenotypes linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and its inhibition is neuroprotective in disease models. Hsp90 is conventionally believed to act by suppressing induction of hsp70. Here, we report a novel hsp70-independent mechanism by which Hsp90 may also contribute to PD-associated neuropathology. We previously reported that inhibition of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) in conjunction with increases in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) results in protection of vulnerable dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta (DAergic SNpc) neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of PD...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470918/early-immune-function-and-duration-of-organ-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-septic-children
#3
Jennifer A Muszynski, Ryan Nofziger, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Kristin Greathouse, Larissa Anglim, Lisa Steele, Josey Hensley, Lisa Hanson-Huber, Jyotsna Nateri, Octavio Ramilo, Mark W Hall
RATIONALE: Late immune suppression is associated with nosocomial infection and mortality in septic adults and children. Relationships between early immune suppression and outcomes in septic children remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that early innate and adaptive immune suppression are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction in children with severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods, Measurements and Main Results: Children aged < 18 years meeting consensus criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were sampled within 48 hours of sepsis onset...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470824/turning-up-the-heat-an-evaluation-of-the-evidence-for-heating-to-promote-exercise-recovery-muscle-rehabilitation-and-adaptation
#4
REVIEW
Hamish McGorm, Llion A Roberts, Jeff S Coombes, Jonathan M Peake
Historically, heat has been used in various clinical and sports rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries. More recently, interest has emerged in using heat to pre-condition muscle against injury. The aim of this narrative review was to collate information on different types of heat therapy, explain the physiological rationale for heat therapy, and to summarise and evaluate the effects of heat therapy before, during and after muscle injury, immobilisation and strength training. Studies on skeletal muscle cells demonstrate that heat attenuates cellular damage and protein degradation (following in vitro challenges/insults to the cells)...
February 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470620/dengue-viruses-and-promising-envelope-protein-domain-iii-based-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470531/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-extensively-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#6
Nattawan Palavutitotai, Anupop Jitmuang, Sasima Tongsai, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nosocomial infections from extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) has been increasing worldwide. We investigated the prevalence and factors associated with XDR-PA infections, including the factors that predict mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of adult, hospitalized patients with P. aeruginosa (PA) infections between April and December 2014. RESULTS: Of the 255 patients with PA infections, 56 (22%) were due to XDR-PA, 32 (12...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470361/early-heterogenic-response-of-renal-microvasculature-to-hemorrhagic-shock-resuscitation-and-the-influence-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-blockade
#7
Rui Yan, Matijs van Meurs, Eliane R Popa, Ranran Li, Peter J Zwiers, Jan G Zijlstra, Jill Moser, Grietje Molema
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with low blood pressure due to excessive loss of circulating blood and causes both macrocirculatory and microcirculatory dysfunction. Fluid resuscitation after HS is used in the clinic to restore tissue perfusion. The persistent microcirculatory damage caused by HS and/or resuscitation can result in multiple organ damage, with the kidney being one of the involved organs. The kidney microvasculature consists of different segments that possess a remarkable heterogeneity in functional properties...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#8
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470097/a-novel-minimally-invasive-method-of-successful-tissue-glue-injection-in-patients-with-iatrogenic-pseudoaneurysm
#9
Jacek Kurzawski, Agieszka Janion-Sadowska, Marcin Sadowski
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided tissue glue injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. METHODS: The study comprised of nine patients with unsuccessful ultrasound-guided thrombin injection and one patient with rapidly progressing anaemia. All patients had undergone recanalization procedures at least twice, including two subjects with a very rapidly enlarging pseudoaneurysm lobe or significant anaemia...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469783/delayed-presentation-of-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-like-cutaneous-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-the-setting-of-recent-immunosuppressant-discontinuation
#10
Parul K Kathuria Goyal, Shuai Xu, Jennifer Choi
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a process that classically has been defined as occurring less than 100 days after stem cell transplant. When Stage IV cutaneous acute GvHD occurs outside this window, it can be difficult to distinguish clinically from toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). A 50-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had undergone an allogeneic stem cell transplant 20 months previously was admitted for neutropenic septic shock. He developed a slowly progressing macular/papular eruption with multiple tender bullae found to be consistent with TEN-like Stage IV cutaneous acute GvHD on biopsy...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469690/non-canonical-escherichia-coli-transcripts-lacking-a-shine-dalgarno-motif-have-very-different-translational-efficiencies-and-do-not-form-a-coherent-group
#11
Petra Ludwig, Madeleine Huber, Matthias Lehr, Marius Wegener, Karolin Zerulla, Christian Lange, Joerg Soppa
Translation initiation in 50-70 % of transcripts in Escherichia coli requires base pairing between the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motif in the mRNA and the anti-SD motif at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA. However, 30-50 % of E. coli transcripts are non-canonical and are not preceded by an SD motif. The 5' ends of 44 E. coli transcripts were determined, all of which contained a 5'-UTR (no leaderless transcripts), but only a minority contained an SD motif. The 5'-UTR lengths were compared with those listed in RegulonDB and reported in previous publications, and the identities and differences were obtained in all possible combinations...
February 22, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469097/a-surge-of-light-at-the-birth-of-a-supernova
#12
M C Bersten, G Folatelli, F García, S D Van Dyk, O G Benvenuto, M Orellana, V Buso, J L Sánchez, M Tanaka, K Maeda, A V Filippenko, W Zheng, T G Brink, S B Cenko, T de Jaeger, S Kumar, T J Moriya, K Nomoto, D A Perley, I Shivvers, N Smith
It is difficult to establish the properties of massive stars that explode as supernovae. The electromagnetic emission during the first minutes to hours after the emergence of the shock from the stellar surface conveys important information about the final evolution and structure of the exploding star. However, the unpredictable nature of supernova events hinders the detection of this brief initial phase. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of a newly born, normal type IIb supernova (SN 2016gkg), which reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths of about 40 magnitudes per day...
February 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469010/effect-of-blood-thiamine-concentrations-on-mortality-influence-of-nutritional-status
#13
Heitor Pons Leite, Lúcio Flávio Peixoto de Lima, José Augusto de A C Taddei, Ângela Tavares Paes
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that low blood thiamine concentrations in malnourished critically ill children are associated with higher risk of 30-d mortality. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 202 consecutively admitted children who had whole blood thiamine concentrations assessed on admission and on days 5 and 10 of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary outcome variable was 30-d mortality. Mean blood thiamine concentrations within the first 10 d of ICU stay, age, sex, malnutrition, C-reactive protein concentration, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, and severe sepsis/septic shock were the main potential exposure variables for outcome...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468839/the-iron-stress-activated-rna-1-isar1-coordinates-osmotic-acclimation-and-iron-starvation-responses-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#14
Henriette Rübsam, Friedrich Kirsch, Viktoria Reimann, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Martin Hagemann, Wolfgang R Hess, Stephan Klähn
In nature, microorganisms are exposed to multiple stress factors in parallel. Here, we investigated the response of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to simultaneous iron limitation and osmotic stresses. Iron is a major limiting factor for bacterial and phytoplankton growth in most environments. Thus, bacterial iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Synechocystis, it is mediated mainly by the transcriptional regulator FurA and the iron-stress activated RNA 1 (IsaR1). IsaR1 is an important riboregulator that affects the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to iron starvation in multiple ways...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468584/assessment-of-cardiovascular-function-and-microvascular-permeability-in-a-conscious-rat-model-of-alcohol-intoxication-combined-with-hemorrhagic-shock-and-resuscitation
#15
Travis M Doggett, Jared J Tur, Natascha G Alves, Sarah Y Yuan, Srinivas M Tipparaju, Jerome W Breslin
Hypotension, cardiac depression, and elevated microvascular permeability are known problems that complicate resuscitation of patients following traumatic injury, particularly those who are also intoxicated from alcohol consumption. A conscious rat model of combined alcohol intoxication and hemorrhagic shock has been used to study the hemodynamic mechanisms involved. Here, we describe using this model to study microvascular leakage and cardiac electrical activity.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468583/a-rat-model-of-hemorrhagic-shock-for-studying-vascular-hyperpermeability
#16
Prince Esiobu, Ed W Childs
Vascular hyperpermeability is one of the known detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock, which we continually try to understand, minimize, and reverse. Here, we describe induction of hemorrhagic shock in a rat and studying of its effects on vascular permeability, using intravital microscopy. In this protocol, hemorrhagic shock will be induced by withdrawing blood to reduce the mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 40 mmHg for 60 min followed by resuscitation for 60 min. To study the changes in vascular permeability following hemorrhagic shock, the rats will be given FITC-albumin, a fluorescent tracer, intravenously...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468579/mouse-injury-model-of-polytrauma-and-shock
#17
Juan C Mira, Dina C Nacionales, Tyler J Loftus, Ricardo Ungaro, Brittany Mathias, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
Severe injury and shock remain major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunologic dysregulation following trauma contributes to these poor outcomes. Few, if any, therapeutic interventions have benefited these patients, and this is due to our limited understanding of the host response to injury and shock. The Food and Drug Administration requires preclinical animal studies prior to any interventional trials in humans; thus, animal models of injury and shock will remain the mainstay for trauma research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468430/impaired-aspirin-mediated-platelet-function-inhibition-in-resuscitated-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-a-prospective-observational-non-randomized-single-centre-study
#18
Florian Prüller, Oliver Leopold Milke, Lukasz Bis, Friedrich Fruhwald, Daniel Scherr, Philipp Eller, Sascha Pätzold, Siegfried Altmanninger-Sock, Peter Rainer, Jolanta Siller-Matula, Dirk von Lewinski
The majority of resuscitated patients present with underlying cardiac disease, and out of these myocardial infarction is most common. Immediate interventional treatment is recommended and routinely requires dual antiplatelet therapy including aspirin and a P2Y12-inhibitor. Therapeutic hypothermia or target temperature management is also recommended in these patients. Cardiogenic shock as well as reduced body temperature impacts platelet reactivity and its medical inhibition. The study aims to quantify aspirin- and P2Y12-mediated platelet inhibition in patients presenting with myocardial infarction and cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468337/psychosocial-impact-of-a-positive-gene-result-for-asymptomatic-relatives-at-risk-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Carissa Bonner, Catherine Spinks, Christopher Semsarian, Alex Barratt, Jodie Ingles, Kirsten McCaffery
Families with a history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may be offered genetic testing in addition to clinical surveillance. Asymptomatic family members who are gene positive (silent gene carriers) represent a new group of "patients" who may not develop HCM, with little evidence available to assist clinical management. This study explored experiences of HCM genetic testing to identify potential benefits and harms. Thirty-two individuals previously offered genetic testing for HCM were recruited...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468258/intermuscular-implantation-technique-for-subcutaneous-cardioverter-defibrillators
#20
K P Letsas, S Xydonas, N Karamichalakis, M Efremidis, D Manolatos, G Bazoukis, D Asvestas, K Vlachos, S Georgopoulos, A Saplaouras, J Winter, A Sideris
BACKGROUND: The conventional technique for subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) implantation has been associated with pocket complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alternative intermuscular technique for S‑ICD implantation. METHODS: S-ICDs were implanted in ten consecutive patients (ten males, mean age: 46.8 ± 14.7 years). The pocket for the pulse generator was made above the serratus anterior muscular fascia and beneath the latissimus dorsi muscle by detaching the fibrous tissue between the muscles...
February 21, 2018: Herz
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