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Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont, Miriam Kulkarni, Pedro Tomas-Domingo, Craig Anderson, Denise McCormack, Khoa Tu, Bharath Chakravarthy, Shahram Lotfipour
We evaluated the effectiveness of text messaging, versus email, as a delivery method to enhance knowledge retention of emergency medicine (EM) content in EM residents. We performed a multi-centered, prospective, randomized study consisting of postgraduate year (PGY) 1 to PGY 3 & 4 residents in three United States EM residency programs in 2014. Residents were randomized into one delivery group: text message or email. Participants completed a 40 question pre- and post-intervention exam. Primary outcomes were the means of pre- and post-intervention exam score differences...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Marianne Goodman, David Banthin, Nicholas J Blair, Kathryn A Mascitelli, Jaime Wilsnack, Jennifer Chen, Julie W Messenger, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Joseph Triebwasser, Harold W Koenigsberg, Raymond R Goetz, Erin A Hazlett, Antonia S New
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in suicide prevention implemented throughout the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) including the hiring of Suicide Prevention Coordinators (SPCs) at every VA hospital, enhanced monitoring, and the availability of 24-hour crisis hotline services, suicide by veterans remains a critical problem affecting 20 veterans daily. Few empirically based treatment strategies for suicide prevention for postdeployment military personnel exist. This study aimed to test whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), one of the few psychosocial treatments with proven efficacy in diminishing suicidal behavior in individuals with personality disorder, can be applied to veterans irrespective of personality diagnosis...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
David W Crumpacker
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a socially debilitating condition that primarily affects people with neurologic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. This condition is characterized by uncontrolled, exaggerated expressions of laughing or crying-often when the situation does not warrant this behavior. Although the true prevalence of PBA is surprisingly high, this condition remains widely misdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. While its exact etiology is unknown, PBA likely results from disruptions in the brain structures and/or neurotransmitters that regulate emotions...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Yuefeng Zhang, Risheng Huang, Weihe Zhou, Qifeng Zhao, Zhenye Lü
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-192-5p in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to H/R and tested for miR-192-5p expression. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the effects of manipulating miR-192-5p on apoptotic responses. H/R-treated H9c2 cells exhibited a 2.2-fold increase in miR-192-5p levels. Overexpression of miR-192-5p significantly augmented apoptosis in H9c2 cells after H/R, which was accompanied by a significant increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Max Kolton, Ellen R Graber, Ludmila Tsehansky, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn
The 'biochar effect' depicts a phenomenon in which biochar soil amendment enhances plant performance by promoting growth and suppressing disease. Although this phenomenon has been observed in numerous studies, the mode of action that explains it is currently unknown. In order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the 'biochar effect', we comprehensively monitored tomato plant development and resistance to the foliar fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, in biochar-amended and nonamended soils using native biochar and washed biochar, striped of labile chemical constituents...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Ashlee J Howarth, Cassandra T Buru, Yangyang Liu, Ann M Ploskonka, Karel J Hartlieb, Monica McEntee, John J Mahle, James H Buchanan, Erin M Durke, Salih S Al-Juaid, J Fraser Stoddart, Jared B Decoste, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
A fullerene-based photosensitizer is incorporated postsynthetically into a Zr6-based MOF, NU-1000, for enhanced singlet oxygen production. The structural organic linkers in the MOF platform also act as photosensitizers which contribute to the overall generation of singlet oxygen from the material under UV irradiation. The singlet oxygen generated by the MOF/fullerene material is shown to oxidize sulfur mustard selectively to the less toxic bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfoxide with a half-life of only 11 min.
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Aurélien Guillou, Katia Troha, Hui Wang, Nathalie C Franc, Nicolas Buchon
Phagocytosis is an ancient mechanism central to both tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Both the identity of the receptors that mediate bacterial phagocytosis and the nature of the interactions between phagocytosis and other defense mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Croquemort (Crq), a Drosophila member of the CD36 family of scavenger receptors, is required for microbial phagocytosis and efficient bacterial clearance. Flies mutant for crq are susceptible to environmental microbes during development and succumb to a variety of microbial infections as adults...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Even Hovig Fyllingen, Anne Line Stensjøen, Erik Magnus Berntsen, Ole Solheim, Ingerid Reinertsen
To facilitate a more widespread use of volumetric tumor segmentation in clinical studies, there is an urgent need for reliable, user-friendly segmentation software. The aim of this study was therefore to compare three different software packages for semi-automatic brain tumor segmentation of glioblastoma; namely BrainVoyagerTM QX, ITK-Snap and 3D Slicer, and to make data available for future reference. Pre-operative, contrast enhanced T1-weighted 1.5 or 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in 20 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for glioblastoma...
2016: PloS One
Caijun Yang, Lina Wu, Wenfang Cai, Wenwen Zhu, Qian Shen, Zongjie Li, Yu Fang
OBJECTIVE: Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. METHODS: A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities...
2016: PloS One
Olivia Langhamer, Håkon Holand, Gunilla Rosenqvist
Worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization in terms of artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when planning offshore installations since it can create habitat enhancement. Wind power is the most advanced technology within offshore renewable energy sources and there is an urgent need to study its impacts on the marine environment. To test the hypothesis that offshore wind power increases the abundance of reef species relative to a reference area, we conduct an experiment on the model species common shore crab (Carcinus maenas)...
2016: PloS One
E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Ala Khazendar, Eric Rignot, Dustin M Schroeder, Helene Seroussi, Michael P Schodlok, Bernd Scheuchl, Jeremie Mouginot, Tyler C Sutterley, Isabella Velicogna
Enhanced submarine ice-shelf melting strongly controls ice loss in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, but its magnitude is not well known in the critical grounding zones of the ASE's major glaciers. Here we directly quantify bottom ice losses along tens of kilometres with airborne radar sounding of the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves, which buttress the rapidly changing Smith, Pope and Kohler glaciers. Melting in the grounding zones is found to be much higher than steady-state levels, removing 300-490 m of solid ice between 2002 and 2009 beneath the retreating Smith Glacier...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Joseph G Christenbury, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, Anna Tan, K Bailey Freund, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To describe two cases of dome-shaped macula (DSM) and serous macular detachment, the diagnosis of which was enhanced with a radial optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning protocol. METHODS: Retrospective case series of DSM associated with serous macular detachment. Multimodal retinal imaging was performed including spectral domain OCT with a radial scan protocol and en face OCT angiography. Anatomical outcomes before and after therapy are presented...
September 30, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
H Lu, K B Lua, Y J Lee, T T Lim, K S Yeo
This paper reports the results of combined experimental and numerical studies on the ground effect on a pair of three-dimensional (3D) hovering wings. Parameters investigated include hovering kinematics, wing shapes, and Reynolds numbers (Re). The results are consistent with the observation by another study (Gao and Lu, 2008 Phys. Fluids, 20 087101) which shows that the cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by two-dimensional (2D) wings in close proximity to the ground can be broadly categorized into three regimes with respect to the ground clearance; force enhancement, force reduction, and force recovery...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi
Heart valves are currently under thorough investigation in tissue engineering (TE) research. Mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses which are recently used have several shortcomings. While allogenic and xenogenic biological prostheses are related to graft rejection, degeneration and thrombosis, resulting in a high rate of reoperation. Mechanical prostheses on the other hand are based on metallic, carbon, and polymeric components, and require continuous treatment with anticoagulant, which result in adverse reactions, e...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kaichun Li, Mingzhen Ying, Dan Feng, Jie Du, Shiyu Chen, Bing Dan, Cuihua Wang, Yajie Wang
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is a tumor suppressor that frequently down-regulated in cancers, especially breast cancer. Here, we provide both supporting and contradicting evidences about the expression pattern and function of FBP1 in breast cancer. Data mining of Oncomine database showed that FBP1 is commonly up-regulated in tumor tissues compared with non-tumor tissues regardless of histological type. Analysis of a large-scale cohort derived from Kaplan-Meier Plotter showed that lower FBP1 expression associated with poor clinical outcome...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Neena Prasad, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian
We report, the enhanced photocatalytic behaviour of Cu doped ZnS micro crystals. ZnS and different concentrations of Cu doped ZnS microcrystals were prepared. X-ray diffraction confirms the crystalline and phase of the particles. Morphology and sizes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Recorded optical absorption spectra show a band for around 365nm for pure ZnS, but there is a broad band in the near infrared regime for the Cu-doped ZnS microcrystals which are attributed to the d-d transitions of Cu(2+) ions...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Liyan Kong, Jiaming Zhu, Wen Wang, Lehe Jin, Yanjiao Fu, Bohui Duan, Liang Tan
As an integral glycoprotein on the surface of endothelial cells, thrombomodulin (TM) has very high affinity for thrombin. TM has been regarded to be a marker of endothelial damage since it can be released during endothelial cell injury. In this work, a highly sensitive fluorescence method for the quantitative detection of TM was developed. TM antibody (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were bound on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct BSA-AuNPs-Ab nanocomposites and they were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-vis spectrophotometry...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mohammad Shakir, Summaiya Hanif, Md Fazle Alam, Hina Younus
Novel bio-relevant monometallic Schiff base complexes of the type, [Cu(L(1))2] (1), [Zn(L(1))2]·2H2O (2), [Cu(L(2))2]·2H2O (3) and [Zn(L(2))2]·H2O (4) [L(1)(E)-3-(((3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol and L(2)(E)-2-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)amino)phenol] were synthesized and characterized. A comparative account of analytical, spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, Mass, UV-vis and EPR), thermal (TGA/DTA), XRD and SEM studies revealed a correlation between the structure and function of these biologically active molecular entities...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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