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immune regulatory function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542882/butyrate-and-retinoic-acid-synergistically-imprint-mucosal-like-dendritic-cell-development-from-bone-marrow-cells
#1
Yetao Qiang, Jie Xu, Cheng Yan, Huimin Jin, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Liping Zhou, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Accumulating data show that the phenotypes and functions of distinctive mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut are regulated by retinoic acid (RA). Unfortunately, the exact role of butyrate in RA mediated mucosal DC differentiation has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Mucosal like dendritic cell differentiation was completed in vitro by culturing bone marrow cells with growth factors (GM-CSF/IL-4), RA and/or butyrate. The phenotypes, cytokine secretion, immune functions and levels of retinal dehydrogenase of different DCs were detected using qPCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542262/the-role-of-the-innate-immune-response-regulatory-gene-abcf1-in-mammalian-embryogenesis-and-development
#2
Sara M Wilcox, Hitesh Arora, Lonna Munro, Jian Xin, Franz Fenninger, Laura A Johnson, Cheryl G Pfeifer, Kyung Bok Choi, Juan Hou, Pamela A Hoodless, Wilfred A Jefferies
ABCF1 is an ABC transporter family protein that has been shown to regulate innate immune response and is a risk gene for autoimmune pancreatitis and arthritis. Unlike other members of ABC transporter family, ABCF1 lacks trans-membrane domains and is thought to function in translation initiation through an interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). To study ABCF1 expression and function in development and disease, we used a single gene trap insertion in the Abcf1 gene in murine embryonic stem cells (ES cells) that allowed lineage tracing of the endogenous Abcf1 promoter by following the expression of a β-galactosidase reporter gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541437/hyperferritinemia-and-inflammation
#3
Kate Kernan, Joseph A Carcillo
Understanding of ferritin biology has traditionally centered on its role in iron storage and homeostasis, with low ferritin levels indicative of deficiency and high levels indicative of primary or secondary hemochromatosis. However, further work has shown that iron, redox biology and inflammation are inexorably linked. During infection, increased ferritin levels represent an important host defense mechanism that deprives bacterial growth of iron and protect immune cell function. It may also be protective, limiting the production of free radicals and mediating immunomodulation...
May 25, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541302/the-long-noncoding-rna-lnc-egfr-stimulates-t-regulatory-cells-differentiation-thus-promoting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-immune-evasion
#4
Runqiu Jiang, Junwei Tang, Yun Chen, Lei Deng, Jie Ji, Yu Xie, Ke Wang, Wei Jia, Wen-Ming Chu, Beicheng Sun
Long noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in T-helper cell development but little is known about their roles in Treg differentiation and functions during the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that lnc-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upregulation in Tregs correlates positively with the tumour size and expression of EGFR/Foxp3, but negatively with IFN-γ expression in patients and xenografted mouse models. Lnc-EGFR stimulates Treg differentiation, suppresses CTL activity and promotes HCC growth in an EGFR-dependent manner...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539588/cooperation-of-oncolytic-herpes-virotherapy-and-pd-1-blockade-in-murine-rhabdomyosarcoma-models
#5
Chun-Yu Chen, Pin-Yi Wang, Brian Hutzen, Les Sprague, Hayley M Swain, Julia K Love, Joseph R Stanek, Louis Boon, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Oncolytic virotherapy is an effective immunotherapeutic approach for cancer treatment via a multistep process including direct tumor cell lysis, induction of cytotoxic or apoptosis-sensitizing cytokines and promotion of antitumor T cell responses. Solid tumors limit the effectiveness of immunotherapeutics in diverse ways such as secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and expression of immune inhibitory ligands to inhibit antitumor T cell function. Blocking programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 signaling, which mediates T cell suppression via engagement of its inhibitory ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2, is of particular interest due to recent successes in many types of cancer...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539427/tlr-induced-murine-dendritic-cell-dc-activation-requires-dc-intrinsic-complement
#6
Joong-Hyuk Sheen, Michael G Strainic, Jinbo Liu, Weijia Zhang, Zhengzi Yi, M Edward Medof, Peter S Heeger
Induction of proinflammatory T cell immunity is augmented by innate dendritic cell (DC) maturation commonly initiated by TLR signaling. We demonstrate that ligation of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 induces murine DC production of complement components and local production of the anaphylatoxin C5a. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses show that TLR-induced DC maturation, as assessed by surface phenotype, expression profiling by gene array, and functional ability to stimulate T cell responses, requires autocrine C3a receptor and C5a receptor (C3ar1/C5ar1) signaling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537058/unusual-suspects-in-the-development-of-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-nk-cells-inkt-cells-and-ilcs
#7
REVIEW
Beatriz Dal Santo Francisco Bonamichi, Jongsoon Lee
The notion that obesity-induced inflammation mediates the development of insulin resistance in animal models and humans has been gaining strong support. It has also been shown that immune cells in local tissues, in particular in visceral adipose tissue, play a major role in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation. Specifically, obesity increases the numbers and activation of proinflammatory immune cells, including M1 macrophages, neutrophils, Th1 CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells, while simultaneously suppressing anti-inflammatory cells such as M2 macrophages, CD4 regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, and eosinophils...
May 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536579/peripherally-induced-regulatory-t-cells-recruited-protectors-of-the-central-nervous-system-against-autoimmune-neuroinflammation
#8
REVIEW
Andrew Jones, Daniel Hawiger
Defects in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) aggravate multiple sclerosis (MS) after its onset and the absence of Treg cell functions can also exacerbate the course of disease in an animal model of MS. However, autoimmune neuroinflammation in many MS models can be acutely provoked in healthy animals leading to an activation of encephalitogenic T cells despite the induction of immune tolerance in the thymus including thymically produced (t)Treg cells. In contrast, neuroinflammation can be ameliorated or even completely prevented by the antigen-specific Treg cells formed extrathymically in the peripheral immune system (pTreg cells) during tolerogenic responses to relevant neuronal antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536578/expansion-of-cd25-negative-forkhead-box-p3-positive-t-cells-during-hiv-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Matías T Angerami, Guadalupe V Suarez, María B Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Diego Ameri, Graciela Ben, Hector Perez, Omar Sued, Horacio Salomón, María F Quiroga
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB) individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of "unconventional" CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) Treg (uTreg) population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg subsets (cTreg) in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536330/-exosomes-and-immune-cells
#10
Naohiro Seo
In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536145/monoterpenes-support-systemic-acquired-resistance-within-and-between-plants
#11
Marlies Riedlmeier, Andrea Ghirardo, Marion Wenig, Claudia Knappe, Kerstin Koch, Elisabeth Georgii, Sanjukta Dey, Jane E Parker, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler, Corina Vlot
This study investigates the role of volatile organic compounds in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a salicylic acid (SA)-associated, broad-spectrum immune response in systemic, healthy tissues of locally infected plants. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR-related emissions of wild-type and non-SAR-signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA- and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 (AZI1) gene and three of its paralogs...
May 23, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535201/regulatory-t-cells-ameliorate-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-after-stroke
#12
Leilei Mao, Peiying Li, Wen Zhu, Wei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Yanling Wang, Wenli Luo, Ruth A Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Gang Chen, Xiaoming Hu
Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia...
May 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533777/alternative-anaphylactic-routes-the-potential-role-of-macrophages
#13
REVIEW
María M Escribese, Domenico Rosace, Tomas Chivato, Tahia D Fernández, Angel L Corbí, Domingo Barber
Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators from effector cells. There are two potential pathways for anaphylaxis. The first one, IgE-dependent anaphylaxis, is induced by antigen (Ag) cross-linking of Ag-specific IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils. The second one, IgG-dependent anaphylaxis is induced by Ag cross-linking of Ag-specific IgG bound to IgG receptors (FcγRI, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIC, and FcγRIIIA) on macrophages, neutrophils, and basophils...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533469/the-phenotype-and-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-induced-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection
#14
Lingkai Su, Qingan Xu, Ping Zhang, Suzanne M Michalek, Jannet Katz
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a major etiologic agent of periodontitis, has been reported to induce the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC); however, little is known regarding the subpopulations of MDSC expanded by Pg infection. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate bone marrow and spleen cells from mice infected with Pg and controls for surface expression of CD11b, Ly6G and Ly6C. To characterize the phenotype of MDSC subpopulations induced by infection, cells were sorted based on the differential expression of Ly6G and Ly6C...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533409/inducible-ctcf-insulator-delays-the-igh-3-regulatory-region-mediated-activation-of-germline-promoters-and-alters-class-switching
#15
Fatima-Zohra Braikia, Chloé Oudinet, Dania Haddad, Zeliha Oruc, Domenico Orlando, Audrey Dauba, Marc Le Bert, Ahmed Amine Khamlichi
Class switch recombination (CSR) plays an important role in adaptive immune response by enabling mature B cells to switch from IgM expression to the expression of downstream isotypes. CSR is preceded by inducible germline (GL) transcription of the constant genes and is controlled by the 3' regulatory region (3'RR) in a stimulus-dependent manner. Why the 3'RR-mediated up-regulation of GL transcription is delayed to the mature B-cell stage is presently unknown. Here we show that mice devoid of an inducible CTCF binding element, located in the α constant gene, display a marked isotype-specific increase of GL transcription in developing and resting splenic B cells and altered CSR in activated B cells...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532535/-tumor-associated-fibroblasts-promote-pd-l1-expression-in-lung-cancer-cells
#16
Haiyang He, Luyu Qi, Yongsheng Xiao, Yiling Hou
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) is an important part of TME, which inhibits the function of immune cells. CD8+ T cells play a significant role in tumor immunity. T-cell membrane possesses a distinct type of molecule with a negative regulatory function. Upon interaction with its corresponding ligand [programmed death factor ligand 1 (PD-L1)], programmed death factor 1 (PD-1) is activated and thus inhibits the kinase activity of T cells. This study aims to explore the possible effects of TAF on PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells...
May 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531759/interferon-regulatory-factors-a-key-to-tumour-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Yan-Jie Chen, Jing Li, Nan Lu, Xi-Zhong Shen
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which have 10 members, belong to the transcription factor family and were named because of the regulation of interferon expression. They play important roles in the immune regulation, cell differentiation, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. This article will review the functional characteristics and immune activity of the family members, especially in the role of cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases. Intensive studies will help uncover the pathogenesis of the disease in a more comprehensive view, and provide novel targets for disease treatment...
May 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531376/immune-cell-signaling-in-autoimmune-diseases
#18
REVIEW
George C Tsokos, Noel R Rose
On September 20, 2016 the American Autoimmune Related Disease Association convened a selected group of 16 experts in Washington DC to discuss current issues and future directions of research in autoimmune diseases from the cell signaling perspective. The major topics considered included new findings on the follicular T cell cells in mice, their metabolic patterns and their control by the newly discovered T follicular regulatory cells. Current work on the metabolic pathways deemed important for the function of T cells was presented...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#19
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530657/normal-and-cancerous-mammary-stem-cells-evade-interferon-induced-constraint-through-the-mir-199a-lcor-axis
#20
Toni Celià-Terrassa, Daniel D Liu, Abrar Choudhury, Xiang Hang, Yong Wei, Jose Zamalloa, Raymundo Alfaro-Aco, Rumela Chakrabarti, Yi-Zhou Jiang, Bong Ihn Koh, Heath A Smith, Christina DeCoste, Jun-Jing Li, Zhi-Ming Shao, Yibin Kang
Tumour-initiating cells, or cancer stem cells (CSCs), possess stem-cell-like properties observed in normal adult tissue stem cells. Normal and cancerous stem cells may therefore share regulatory mechanisms for maintaining self-renewing capacity and resisting differentiation elicited by cell-intrinsic or microenvironmental cues. Here, we show that miR-199a promotes stem cell properties in mammary stem cells and breast CSCs by directly repressing nuclear receptor corepressor LCOR, which primes interferon (IFN) responses...
May 22, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
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