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immune regulatory function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231588/checkpoint-inhibition-in-head-and-neck-cancer-immune-therapeutic-options-limitations-and-beyond
#1
Bastian Höchst, Percy A Knolle
The immune system functions to defend the organism against infectious microorganisms but also against transformed cells. This key role of the immune system, in particular cancer-specific T cells, in eliminating cancer cells is compromised by various immune escape strategies employed by cancer cells and the cancer microenvironment. Here, we review the current knowledge about the immune escape mechanisms of cancer and the attempts to reconstitute cancer-specific immunity by using checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#2
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225866/circulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-predict-disease-activity-and-treatment-response-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#3
J Zhou, Y Zhou, J Wen, X Sun, X Zhang
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Abnormal effector T cell activation is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of ITP. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a strong immunosuppressive function for T cell activation and their importance in the pathophysiology and clinical treatment of ITP has been confirmed. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are other immunosuppressive cells, which can also suppress T cell activation by secreting arginase, iNOS and ROS, and are essential for Treg cells' differentiation and maturation...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225631/conformational-changes-in-c-reactive-protein-affect-binding-to-curved-membranes-in-a-lipid-bilayer-model-of-the-apoptotic-cell-surface
#4
Aml Abd Alnaas, Carrie L Moon, Mitchell Alton, Scott M Reed, Michelle K Knowles
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum protein that binds to damaged membranes through a phosphatidylcholine binding site. The membrane binding process can initiate the complement immune response and facilitates the clearance of apoptotic cells, likely aiding in the protection of autoimmunity. The initiation of an immune response relies on a conformation change from a native, pentameric form to a modified form, where the modified form binds complement proteins (i.e. C1q) and regulatory proteins substantially better than the native form...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224733/nk1-1-cd4-nkg2d-t-cells-suppress-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-through-production-of-tgf-%C3%AE
#5
Xingxing Qian, Chunxia Hu, Sen Han, Zhijie Lin, Weiming Xiao, Yanbing Ding, Yu Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoqing Jia, Guoqiang Zhu, Weijuan Gong
CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells are associated with tumour, infection and autoimmune diseases. Some CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α to promote inflammation, but others produce TGF-β and FasL to facilitate tumour evasion. Here, murine CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells were further classified into NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) and NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) subpopulations. The frequency of NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells decreased in inflamed colons, whereas more NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells infiltrated into colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224362/analysis-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-and-tissue-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Angelika Schmidt, Cosima C Rieger, Ram Kumar Venigalla, Szabolcs Éliás, Regina Max, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Peter H Krammer, Annegret Kuhn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical mediators of immune tolerance, yet their involvement in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is incompletely understood. We analyzed CD4(+) T cell subpopulations with Treg-related phenotypes and their association with disease activity in peripheral blood (PB) and tissues of patients with SLE. In detail, we quantified subpopulations regarding CD25, FOXP3, CD62L, CCR6, CD27, CD45RA, and CD45RO expression in PB from 31 patients with SLE divided into two disease activity groups and 32 healthy controls using flow cytometry...
February 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224211/mechanisms-overseeing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-production-in-neoplastic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Colleen S Netherby, Scott I Abrams
Perturbations in myeloid cell differentiation are common in neoplasia, culminating in immature populations known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs favor tumor progression due to their ability to suppress host immunity or promote invasion and metastasis. They are thought to originate from the bone marrow as a result of exposure to stromal- or circulating tumor-derived factors (TDFs). Although great interest has been placed on understanding how MDSCs function, less is known regarding how MDSCs develop at a transcriptional level...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223316/energy-metabolism-drives-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-differentiation-and-functions-in-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss
Over the last decade, a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions has been described in cancer and other pathologic conditions and ultimately defined as MDSCs. Most of the early work on the origins and functions of MDSCs has been in murine and human tumor bearers in which MDSCs are known to be immunosuppressive and to result in both reduced immune surveillance and antitumor cytotoxicity. More recent studies, however, suggest that expansion of these immature myeloid cells may be linked to most, if not all, chronic and acute inflammatory processes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222773/nitric-oxide-generating-compound-gsno-suppresses-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Chuanmin Liu, Libin Wen, Qi Xiao, Kongwang He
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule with biological functions, has antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens including viruses. To our knowledge, little information is available about the regulatory effect of NO on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection. This study was conducted to investigate the antiviral activity of NO generated from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), during PCV2 infection of PK-15 cells and BALB/c mice. RESULTS: GSNO released considerable NO in the culture medium of PK-15 cells, and NO was scavenged by its scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) in a dose-dependent manner...
February 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220904/recent-advances-in-occupational-and-environmental-health-hazards-of-workers-exposed-to-gasoline-compounds
#10
REVIEW
Christopher E Ekpenyong, Asuquo E Asuquo
The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220815/cbx3-hp1%C3%AE-deficiency-confers-enhanced-tumor-killing-capacity-on-cd8-t-cells
#11
Michael Sun, Ngoc Ha, Duc-Hung Pham, Megan Frederick, Bandana Sharma, Chie Naruse, Masahide Asano, Matthew E Pipkin, Rani E George, To-Ha Thai
Cbx3/HP1γ is a histone reader whose function in the immune system is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that in CD8(+) T cells, Cbx3/HP1γ insufficiency leads to chromatin remodeling accompanied by enhanced Prf1, Gzmb and Ifng expression. In tumors obtained from Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient mice or wild type mice treated with Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient CD8(+) T cells, there is an increase of CD8(+) effector T cells expressing the stimulatory receptor Klrk1/NKG2D, a decrease in CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) as well as CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CTLA4...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220421/analysis-of-pamp-triggered-ros-burst-in-plant-immunity
#12
Yuying Sang, Alberto P Macho
The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220253/myd88-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
EDITORIAL
Jorge L Cervantes
MyD88 adaptor protein mediates numerous biologically important signal transduction pathways in innate immunity. MyD88 signaling fosters bacterial containment and is necessary to raise an adequate innate and acquired immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The phagosome is a crucial cellular location not only for Mtb replication, but it is also where components of the Myddosome and inflammasome are recruited. Besides its function as a TLR-adaptor protein, MyD88 may help stabilizing cytosolic receptors that are recruited to the phagosome...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219342/effects-of-exposure-to-streptococcus-iniae-on-microrna-expression-in-the-head-kidney-of-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#14
Jun Qiang, Fanyi Tao, Jie He, Lanyi Sun, Pao Xu, Wenjin Bao
BACKGROUND: Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are susceptible to infection by Streptococcus iniae when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. GIFT are commercially important fishes that are cultured widely in southern China. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory response of GIFT to S. iniae infection has been underestimated and has not yet been well studied. Head kidney has an important immune function in teleost fishes. The main aim of this study was to determine the possible function of miRNAs in head kidney of S...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219335/stress-responsive-pathways-and-small-rna-changes-distinguish-variable-developmental-phenotypes-caused-by-msh1-loss
#15
Mon-Ray Shao, Sunil Kumar Kenchanmane Raju, John D Laurie, Robersy Sanchez, Sally A Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: Proper regulation of nuclear-encoded, organelle-targeted genes is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial function. Among these genes, MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) is notable for generating an assortment of mutant phenotypes with varying degrees of penetrance and pleiotropy. Stronger phenotypes have been connected to stress tolerance and epigenetic changes, and in Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants, two generations of homozygosity with the msh1 insertion are required before severe phenotypes begin to emerge...
February 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216262/efis-lecture-understanding-the-ctla-4-checkpoint-in-the-maintenance-of-immune-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Lucy S K Walker
The past 20 years have heralded fascinating developments in the field of CTLA-4 biology. The CTLA-4 protein is a critical negative regulator of T cell immunity and its absence provokes severe lymphoproliferative disease. In a surprising twist, the generation of mixed bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CTLA-4 predominantly functions in a cell-extrinsic manner, suggesting that CTLA-4 expressed on one cell can modify the behaviour of another cell. This was followed by the demonstration that CTLA-4 is highly expressed in regulatory T cells and can contribute to their suppressive activity...
February 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216098/potential-influences-of-complement-factor-h-in-autoimmune-inflammatory-and-thrombotic-disorders
#17
Janez Ferluga, Lubna Kouser, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Robert B Sim, Uday Kishore
Complement system homeostasis is important for host self-protection and anti-microbial immune surveillance, and recent research indicates roles in tissue development and remodelling. Complement also appears to have several points of interaction with the blood coagulation system. Deficiency and altered function due to gene mutations and polymorphisms in complement effectors and regulators, including Factor H, have been associated with familial and sporadic autoimmune inflammatory - thrombotic disorders, in which autoantibodies play a part...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215564/expression-analysis-and-atr-ftir-characterization-of-the-secondary-structure-of-recombinant-human-tnf-%C3%AE-from-escherichia-coli-shuffle-%C3%A2-t7-express-and-bl21-de3-cells
#18
Hossein Safarpour, Sahar Barzegari Banadkoki, Zahra Keshavarzi, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Mahdieh Soleimanpour, Shokoufeh Pourmolaei, Farshad H Shirazi
TNF-α, a prototype member of the TNF family of ligands, has both pro-inflammatory and immune-regulatory functions, which make it as an appropriate therapeutic target for selective blockade in antibody therapy of many diseases like in rheumatoid arthritis. Using two models of SHuffle(®) T7 Express and BL21 (DE3) cells, we have expressed this protein and recognized it by SDS-PAGE analysis. FTIR biospectroscopy of the resulted purified proteins has been performed and mathematical calculations has been done for further identification of the structural and conformational differences between the two products...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215530/rationale-for-the-combination-of-dendritic-cell-based-vaccination-approaches-with-chemotherapy-agents
#19
I Truxova, M Hensler, P Skapa, M J Halaska, J Laco, A Ryska, R Spisek, J Fucikova
Owing to their central role in the initiation and regulation of antitumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) have been widely tested for use in cancer immunotherapy. Despite several encouraging clinical applications, existing DC-based immunotherapy efforts have yielded inconsistent results. Recent work has identified strategies that may allow for more potent DC-based vaccines, such as the combination with antitumor agents that have the potential to synergistically enhance DC functions. Selected cytotoxic agents may stimulate DCs either by directly promoting their maturation or through the induction of immunogenic tumor cell death...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215223/the-functional-stability-of-foxp3-and-ror%C3%AE-t-in-treg-and-th17-and-their-therapeutic-applications
#20
J Ren, B Li
The balance of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells plays a key role in maintaining immune homeostasis, while the imbalance of them is related to many inflammatory diseases in both human and mice. Here we discuss about the plasticity of Tregs and Th17 cells, and the related human diseases resulted from the imbalance of them. Further, we will focus on the mechanisms regulating the plasticity between Tregs and Th17 cells and the potential therapeutic strategies by targeting regulators of the expression and activity of FOXP3 and RORγt or regulators of Treg/Th17 balance in autoimmune diseases, allergy, infection, and cancer...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
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