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immune regulatory function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#1
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349904/lysosome-remodelling-and-adaptation-during-phagocyte-activation
#2
REVIEW
Victoria E B Hipolito, Erika Ospina-Escobar, Roberto J Botelho
Lysosomes are acidic and hydrolytic organelles responsible for receiving and digesting cargo acquired during endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For macrophages and dendritic cells, the lysosome is kingpin, playing a direct role in microbe killing and antigen processing for presentation. Strikingly, the historic view that lysosomes are homogeneous and static organelles is being replaced with a more elegant paradigm, in which lysosomes are heterogeneous, dynamic and respond to cellular needs. For example, lysosomes are signaling platforms that integrate stress detection and molecular decision hubs like mTORC1 and AMPK to modulate cellular activity...
January 19, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349763/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-breast-cancer
#3
April Swoboda, Rita Nanda
An effective antitumor immune response requires interaction between cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Three key elements are required: generation of activated tumor-directed T cells, infiltration of activated T cells into the tumor microenvironment, and killing of tumor cells by activated T cells. Tumor immune evasion can occur as a result of the disruption of each of these three key T cell activities, resulting in three distinct cancer-immune phenotypes. The immune inflamed phenotype, characterized by the presence of a robust tumor immune infiltrate, suggests impaired activated T cell killing of tumor cells related to the presence of inhibitory factors...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349658/the-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-b10-cells-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#4
Eun Bin Cho, Hye-Jin Cho, Jin Myoung Seok, Ju-Hong Min, Eun-Suk Kang, Byoung Joon Kim
B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by producing Aquaporin 4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4-ab); on the other hand, there are certain B cells that suppress immune responses by producing regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10. In this study, we investigated the presence of IL-10-producing Breg cells among lymphocyte subsets. Twenty-two seropositive NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients (29 samples) and 13 healthy controls (HCs) (14 samples) were enrolled. All NMOSD patients have received one or more immunosuppressive drugs...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348878/identification-of-cancer-prognosis-associated-functional-modules-using-differential-co-expression-networks
#5
Wenshuai Yu, Shengjie Zhao, Yongcui Wang, Brian Nlong Zhao, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid accumulation of cancer-related data owing to high-throughput technologies has provided unprecedented choices to understand the progression of cancer and discover functional networks in multiple cancers. Establishment of co-expression networks will help us to discover the systemic properties of carcinogenesis features and regulatory mechanisms of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed a computational workflow to identify differentially co-expressed gene modules across 8 cancer types by using combined gene differential expression analysis methods and a higher-order generalized singular value decomposition...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348497/rna-binding-proteins-control-gene-expression-and-cell-fate-in-the-immune-system
#6
REVIEW
Martin Turner, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential for the development and function of the immune system. They interact dynamically with RNA to control its biogenesis and turnover by transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RBPs allow gene expression changes to occur at different speeds and to varying degrees, and which RBPs regulate the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. These proteins are nodes for integration of transcriptional and signaling networks and are intimately linked to intermediary metabolism...
January 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347945/microrna-transcriptome-analysis-of-porcine-vital-organ-responses-to-immunosuppressive-porcine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
Xiao Liu, Haoche Wei, Shan Liao, Jianheng Ye, Ling Zhu, Zhiwen Xu
BACKGROUND: Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune functions; it has significantly damaged the farming industry. Although recent studies have shown that miRNAs play important roles in immune responses, the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during immunosuppressive virus infection remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, porcine small-RNA transcriptomes of PCMV-infected and uninfected vital organs were first characterised by high-throughput sequencing...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346764/sgk1-governs-the-reciprocal-development-of-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells
#8
Chuan Wu, Zuojia Chen, Sheng Xiao, Theresa Thalhamer, Asaf Madi, Timothy Han, Vijay Kuchroo
A balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is critical for immune homeostasis and tolerance. Our previous work has shown Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) is critical for the development and function of Th17 cells. Here, we show that SGK1 restrains the function of Treg cells and reciprocally regulates development of Th17/Treg balance. SGK1 deficiency leads to protection against autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance by promoting Treg cell development and disarming Th17 cells. Treg cell-specific deletion of SGK1 results in enhanced Treg cell-suppressive function through preventing Foxo1 out of the nucleus, thereby promoting Foxp3 expression by binding to Foxp3 CNS1 region...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345851/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-on-dendritic-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
Pei-Pei Zhou, Juan Xu, Ming-Jia Dai, Yin-Yue Shi, Gui-Ping Wu, Yuan Fang, Xue-Bing Yan
The characteristics and functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been well defined in murine and human systems. However, the interaction or cross-talk between CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs) remains controversial. In this study, the effects of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) CD4+ CD25+ Tregs on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs were examined. The results showed that CD4+ CD25+ render the DCs inefficient as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) despite prestimulation with CD40 ligand...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344274/immunotherapy-of-patient-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-ex-vivo-activated-with-tumor-antigen-pulsed-dendritic-cells
#10
Ying Wang, Xijing Yang, Yi Yu, Zenghui Xu, Yan Sun, Hui Liu, Jingbo Cheng, Min Liu, Bibo Sha, Linfang Li, Na Ding, Zhong Li, Huajun Jin, Qijun Qian
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical response of immunotherapy with dendritic cell-cytotoxic T lymphocytes (DC-CTLs) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Sixty-eight patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HCC and who received follow-up until December 2015 were enrolled. We measured immune phenotypes of DCs and activated T cells using flow cytometry and clinical indexes using an electrochemiluminescence method. Results DCs exhibited up-regulation of the maturation markers CD83, CD80, CD11c, and CD86 on day8...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344269/early-and-partial-reduction-in-cd4-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-during-colitis-associated-colon-cancer-induces-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-activation-inhibiting-tumorigenesis
#11
Jonadab E Olguín, Itzel Medina-Andrade, Emmanuel Molina, Armando Vázquez, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Rafael Saavedra, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Luis E Arias-Romero, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Sonia A León-Cabrera, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343631/stochastic-resonances-in-a-distributed-genetic-broadcasting-system-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-paradigm
#12
Zhipeng Wang, Davit A Potoyan, Peter G Wolynes
Gene regulatory networks must relay information from extracellular signals to downstream genes in an efficient, timely and coherent manner. Many complex functional tasks such as the immune response require system-wide broadcasting of information not to one but to many genes carrying out distinct functions whose dynamical binding and unbinding characteristics are widely distributed. In such broadcasting networks, the intended target sites are also often dwarfed in number by the even more numerous non-functional binding sites...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343584/human-herpesvirus-8-interferon-regulatory-factors-1-and-3-mediate-replication-and-latency-activities-via-interactions-with-usp7-deubiquitinase
#13
Qiwang Xiang, Hyunwoo Ju, Qian Li, Szu-Chieh Mei, Daming Chen, Young Bong Choi, John Nicholas
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. It is notable that vIRFs 1 and 4 have been reported to interact with the deubiquitinase USP7, substrates of which include p53 and p53-targeting and destabilizing ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Structural studies of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 USP7-binding sequences in association with USP7 have been reported; both involve interactions with N-terminal domain residues of USP7, via EGPS and ASTS motifs in vIRF-1 and vIRF-4, respectively, but vIRF-4 residues also contact the catalytic site...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#14
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#15
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341247/secretory-expression-of-negative-regulatory-region-of-human-notch1-in-e-coli-and-preparation-of-a-functional-polyclonal-antibody
#16
Dengyang Zhang, Tianzhu Sun, Jingyun Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway existed in multicellular organisms. It plays roles in normal human body development, human cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. The Notch negative regulatory region (NRR) is critical for Notch signaling, and cleavage at the S2 site in the NRR ultimately leads to the activation of Notch signaling. To study the function of human NRR1, we expressed the recombinant human NRR1 (rhNRR1) domain in Escherichia coli. After purification, rhNRR1 was obtained with approximately 94% purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341118/inhibition-of-the-fgl2-fc%C3%AE-riib-riii-immunosuppressive-pathway-enhances-antiviral-t-cell-and-b-cell-responses-leading-to-clearance-of-lcmv-cl-13
#17
Olga Klingberg, Ramzi Khattar, Kaveh Farrokhi, Dario Ferri, Nataliya Yavorska, Jianhua Zhang, Hassan Sadozai, Oyedele Adeyi, Andrzej Chruscinski, Gary A Levy, Nazia Selzner
Persistent viruses evade immune detection by interfering with virus-specific innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Fibrinogen-Like Protein-2 (FGL2) is a potent effector molecule of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and exerts its immunosuppressive activity following ligation to its cognate receptor, FcγRIIB/RIII. The role of FGL2 in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infection caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Clone-13 (LCMV cl-13) was assessed in this study. Chronically infected fgl2+/+ mice had increased plasma levels of FGL2, with reduced expression of the maturation markers, CD80, CD86 and MHC-II on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) and impaired production of neutralizing antibody...
January 17, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339459/a-novel-two-component-system-of-streptococcus-sanguinis-affecting-functions-associated-with-viability-in-saliva-and-biofilm-formation
#18
Tarsila M Camargo, Rafael N Stipp, Lívia A Alves, Erika N Harth-Chu, José F Höfling, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Streptococcus sanguinis is a pioneer species of teeth and a common opportunistic pathogen of infective endocarditis. In this study, we identified a two-component system, SptRS Ss , affecting S. sanguinis survival in saliva and biofilm formation. Isogenic mutants of sptRSs (SKsptR) and sptSSs (SKsptS) showed reduced cell counts in ex vivo assays of viability in saliva, compared to parent strain SK36 and complemented mutants. Reduced counts of the mutants in saliva were associated with reduced growth rates in poor nutrient medium (RPMI) and increased susceptibility to deposition of C3b and MAC of the complement system, a defense component of saliva and serum...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339435/corrected-and-republished-from-the-cop9-signalosome-interacts-with-and-regulates-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-protein-stability
#19
Justyna Korczeniewska, Betsy J Barnes
The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) exerts crucial functions in the regulation of host immunity against extracellular pathogens, DNA damage-induced apoptosis, death receptor signaling, and macrophage polarization. Tight regulation of IRF5 is thus warranted for an efficient response to extracellular stressors and for limiting autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Here we report that the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a general modulator of diverse cellular and developmental processes, associates constitutively with IRF5 and promotes its protein stability...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338551/the-regulatory-roles-of-b-cell-subsets-in-transplantation
#20
Zhulang Chu, Weilong Zou, Yanan Xu, Qiquan Sun, Yong Zhao
B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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