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Francesco Corrivetti, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
BACKGROUND: Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, with however a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomo-functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Zaira Cattaneo, Roberta Daini, Manuela Malaspina, Federico Manai, Mariarita Lillo, Valentina Fermi, Susanna Schiavi, Boris Suchan, Sergio Comincini
Face-recognition deficits, referred to with the term prosopagnosia (i.e., face blindness) may manifest during development in the absence of any brain injury (from here the term congenital prosopagnosia, CP). It has been estimated that approximately 2.5% of the population is affected by face-processing deficits not depending on brain lesions, and varying a lot in severity. The genetic bases of this disorder are not known. In this study we tested for genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and CP in a restricted cohort of Italian participants...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Alfredo Ardila, Monica Rosselli
It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Benjamin de Haas, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Ivan Alvarez, Rebecca P Lawson, Linda Henriksson, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Geraint Rees
UNLABELLED: Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cristina Rubino, Sherryse L Corrow, Jeffrey C Corrow, Brad Duchaine, Jason J S Barton
The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Angela Marra, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
OBJECT: Semantic dementia is one of the main clinical variants of frontotemporal dementia and it is characterized by severe loss of conceptual knowledge with relative preservation of other cortical abilities. METHODS: We described a case of a patient affected by right temporal variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, characterized by prosopagnosia as an unusual disease onset. RESULTS: The neuropsychological evaluation showed a progressive deficit in face recognition and a slow decline in language in the absence of behavioral alterations...
August 4, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Janina Esins, Johannes Schultz, Claudia Stemper, Ingo Kennerknecht, Isabelle Bülthoff
Congenital prosopagnosia, the innate impairment in recognizing faces, is a very heterogeneous disorder with different phenotypical manifestations. To investigate the nature of prosopagnosia in more detail, we tested 16 prosopagnosics and 21 controls with an extended test battery addressing various aspects of face recognition. Our results show that prosopagnosics exhibited significant impairments in several face recognition tasks: impaired holistic processing (they were tested amongst others with the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)) as well as reduced processing of configural information of faces...
January 2016: I-Perception
Yuanfang Zhao, Jingguang Li, Xiqin Liu, Yiying Song, Ruosi Wang, Zetian Yang, Jia Liu
Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) exhibit severe difficulties in recognizing faces and to a lesser extent, also exhibit difficulties in recognizing non-face objects. We used fMRI to investigate whether these behavioral deficits could be accounted for by altered spontaneous neural activity. Two aspects of spontaneous neural activity were measured: the intensity of neural activity in a voxel indexed by the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and the connectivity of a voxel to neighboring voxels indexed by regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Michal Tanzer, Noam Weinbach, Elite Mardo, Avishai Henik, Galia Avidan
Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, Margarida Vicente, Filomena Coelho, Isabel Santana
Whipple disease is a rare, chronic multisystem infectious disease. The central nervous system (CNS) is secondarily involved in 43% of patients; 5% of patients have isolated or primary CNS involvement. The most frequent CNS symptoms are cognitive changes. Prosopagnosia is an inability to recognize familiar faces, in a person who does not have vision impairments or cognitive alterations. This relatively rare condition is usually related to vascular, traumatic, degenerative, or infectious lesions. We report a 54-year-old woman who presented subacutely with fever, headache, and seizures that led to a diagnosis of infectious meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Jason J S Barton, Sherryse L Corrow
Developmental prosopagnosia has received increased attention in recent years, but as yet has no confirmed genetic or structural markers. It is not certain whether this condition reflects simply the low-end of the spectrum of normal face recognition, an 'under-development', or a pathologic failure to develop such mechanisms, a 'mal-development'. This difference in views creates challenges for the diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia by behavioural criteria alone, which also vary substantially between studies, with secondary effects on issues such as determining its prevalence...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Daniel Moroz, Sherryse L Corrow, Jeffrey C Corrow, Alistair R S Barton, Brad Duchaine, Jason J S Barton
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral dyschromatopsia is sometimes associated with acquired prosopagnosia. Given the variability in structural lesions that cause acquired prosopagnosia, this study aimed to investigate the structural correlates of prosopagnosia-associated dyschromatopsia, and to determine if such colour processing deficits could also accompany developmental prosopagnosia. In addition, we studied whether cerebral dyschromatopsia is typified by a consistent pattern of hue impairments. METHODS: We investigated hue discrimination in a cohort of 12 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia and 9 with developmental prosopagnosia, along with 42 matched controls, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Sarah Bate, Jeremy J Tree
Over the last 20 years much attention in the field of face recognition has been directed towards the study of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), with some authors investigating the behavioural characteristics of the condition and many others using these individuals to further our theoretical understanding of the typical face-processing system. It is broadly agreed that the term "DP" refers to people who have failed to develop the ability to recognize faces in the absence of neurological illness or injury, yet more precise terminology in relation to potential subtypes of the population are yet to be confirmed...
June 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Federica Biotti, Richard Cook
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by difficulties recognising faces. Despite severe difficulties recognising facial identity, expression recognition is typically thought to be intact in DP; case studies have described individuals who are able to correctly label photographic displays of facial emotion, and no group differences have been reported. This pattern of deficits suggests a locus of impairment relatively late in the face processing stream, after the divergence of expression and identity analysis pathways...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Katie Fisher, John Towler, Martin Eimer
Contrast-related signals from the eye region are known to be important for the processing of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have severe face recognition problems, which may be linked to deficits in the perceptual processing of identity-related information from the eyes. We tested this hypothesis by measuring N170 components in DP participants and age-matched controls in response to face images where the contrast polarity of the eyes and of other face parts was independently manipulated...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
M Behrmann, A C H Lee, J Z Geskin, K S Graham, M D Barense
There has been growing recognition of the contribution of medial and anterior temporal lobe structures to non-mnemonic functions, such as perception. To evaluate the nature of this contribution, we contrast the perceptual performance of three patient groups, all of whom have a perturbation of these temporal lobe structures. Specifically, we compare the profile of patients with focal hippocampal (HC) lesions, those with more extensive lesions to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that include HC and perirhinal cortex (PrC), and those with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), whose deficit has been attributed to the disconnection of the anterior temporal lobe from more posterior structures...
September 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kirsten A Dalrymple, Jed T Elison, Brad Duchaine
Evidence suggests that face and object recognition depend on distinct neural circuitry within the visual system. Work with adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) demonstrates that some individuals have preserved object recognition despite severe face recognition deficits. This face selectivity in adults with DP indicates that face- and object-processing systems can develop independently, but it is unclear at what point in development these mechanisms are separable. Determining when individuals with DP first show dissociations between faces and objects is one means to address this question...
May 4, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Richard Cook, Federica Biotti
A Quick guide to developmental prosopagnosia, a condition definied by problems in recognising faces that, in contrast with acquired prosopagnosia, develop in the absence of manifest brain injury.
April 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Philip I N Ulrich, David T Wilkinson, Heather J Ferguson, Laura Smith, Markus Bindemann, Robert A Johnston, Laura Schmalzl
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is commonly associated with the failure to properly perceive individuating facial properties, notably those conveying configural or holistic content. While this may indicate that the primary impairment is perceptual, it is conceivable that some cases of DP are instead caused by a memory impairment, with any perceptual complaint merely allied rather than causal. To investigate this possibility, we administered a battery of face perception tasks to 11 individuals who reported that their face recognition difficulties disrupt daily activity and who also performed poorly on two formal tests of face recognition...
April 15, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Davide Rivolta, Rebecca P Lawson, Romina Palermo
It has been estimated that one out of 40 people in the general population suffer from congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty identifying people by their faces. CP involves impairment in recognizing faces, although the perception of non-face stimuli may also be impaired. Given that social interaction depends not only on face processing, but also on the processing of bodies, it is of theoretical importance to ascertain whether CP is also characterized by body perception impairments...
April 26, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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