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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454715/-sleepiness-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-the-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
L Lerousseau
Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major symptom in cases of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Most often, it is vastly improved by treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The most effective way to confirm its disappearance is through wakefulness maintenance testing. If residual sleepiness remains, despite CPAP, further diagnostic investigation must be carried out. Firstly, it must be assessed whether the treatment is fully effective (apnea hypopnea index<10/h) by examining flow limitations under treatment (polysomnography) and whether it is sufficiently used (>6h/night)...
February 14, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449194/prostaglandin-d2-receptor-dp1-antibodies-predict-vaccine-induced-and-spontaneous-narcolepsy-type-1-large-scale-study-of-antibody-profiling
#2
Helle Sadam, Arno Pihlak, Anri Kivil, Susan Pihelgas, Mariliis Jaago, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Olli Vapalahti, Toomas Neuman, Dan Lindholm, Markku Partinen, Antti Vaheri, Kaia Palm
BACKGROUND: Neuropathological findings support an autoimmune etiology as an underlying factor for loss of orexin-producing neurons in spontaneous narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy; sNT1) as well as in Pandemrix influenza vaccine-induced narcolepsy type 1 (Pdmx-NT1). The precise molecular target or antigens for the immune response have, however, remained elusive. METHODS: Here we have performed a comprehensive antigenic repertoire analysis of sera using the next-generation phage display method - mimotope variation analysis (MVA)...
February 2, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445542/assessing-the-sleeping-habits-of-patients-in-a-sleep-disorder-centre-a-review-of-sleep-diary-accuracy
#3
Geoffrey Lawrence, Rexford Muza
Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a complaint common to many aspects of medicine. There are primary and secondary causes for EDS, with secondary causes including a large number of common conditions. Primary causes, such as narcolepsy, are much rarer. When assessing for primary hypersomnia, restricted or fragmented sleep must be ruled out. This process involves assessment of sleeping habits using a sleep diary and/or actigraphy. Clinicians are suspicious of the accuracy with which patients use the former...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445282/orexin-hypocretin-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-characteristics-of-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness
#4
Yuki Omori, Takashi Kanbayashi, Aya Imanishi, Ko Tsutsui, Yohei Sagawa, Yuka S Kikuchi, Masahiro Takeshima, Kazuhisa Yoshizawa, Sachiko Uemura, Tetsuo Shimizu
Purpose: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is often characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods caused by muscleblind-like protein 2. The EDS tends to persist even after treatment of sleep apnea. We measured the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin levels in DM1 patients with EDS and compared the clinical characteristics with narcolepsy type 1 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) patients. Patients and methods: We measured the CSF orexin levels in 17 DM1 patients with EDS and evaluated subjective sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), objective sleepiness using mean sleep latency (MSL), and sleep apnea using apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432500/large-animals-as-potential-models-of-human-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432244/pediatric-sleep-disorders
#6
Kiran Maski, Judith Owens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, parasomnias, narcolepsy, and sleep-related breathing disorders among children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric presentations of sleep disorders differ from adult presentations, making diagnosis challenging. Specific clinical syndromes, such as cataplexy in children with narcolepsy type 1, can have an altogether different presentation compared to adult-onset symptoms, contributing to diagnostic delays and potential misdiagnoses...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425380/the-distinguishing-motor-features-of-cataplexy-a-study-from-video-recorded-attacks
#7
Fabio Pizza, Elena Antelmi, Stefano Vandi, Stefano Meletti, Roberto Erro, Christian R Baumann, Kailash P Bhatia, Yves Dauvilliers, Mark J Edwards, Alex Iranzo, Sebastiaan Overeem, Michele Tinazzi, Rocco Liguori, Giuseppe Plazzi
Objectives: To describe the motor pattern of cataplexy and to determine its phenomenological differences from pseudocataplexy in the differential diagnosis of episodic falls. Methods: We selected 30 video recorded cataplexy and 21 pseudocataplexy attacks in 17 and 10 patients evaluated for suspected narcolepsy and with final diagnosis of narcolepsy type 1 and conversion disorder respectively, together with self-reported attacks features, and asked expert neurologists to blindly evaluate the motor features of the attacks...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425374/an-epigenome-wide-association-study-of-dna-methylation-and-an-integrated-genetic-and-epigenetic-approach-for-narcolepsy
#8
Mihoko Shimada, Taku Miyagawa, Hiromi Toyoda, Katsushi Tokunaga, Makoto Honda
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, which is a hypersomnia characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Several genetic factors including HLA-DQB1*06:02 have been identified, however the disease etiology is still unclear. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Here we examined DNA methylation profiles of blood samples from narcolepsy and healthy control individuals, and performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to investigate methylation loci associated with narcolepsy...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425331/modafinil-in-forensic-and-clinical-toxicology-case-reports-analytics-and-literature
#9
Lars Radünz, Hannah Reuter, Hilke Andresen-Streichert
Modafinil is used because of its wakefulness-promoting properties for treatment of diseases associated with extreme sleepiness (i.e., narcolepsy). Additionally, it is misused as a "cognitive enhancer" to increase alertness and to improve concentration. We present modafinil concentrations in serum samples in five cases of our routine work measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector after solid-phase extraction. One sample was analyzed for clinical toxicology purposes...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422603/rem-sleep-respiratory-behaviours-mental-content-in-narcoleptic-lucid-dreamers
#10
Delphine Oudiette, Pauline Dodet, Nahema Ledard, Emilie Artru, Inès Rachidi, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Arnulf
Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419528/sleep-disorders-as-primary-and-secondary-factors-in-relation-with-daily-functioning-in-medical-students
#11
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Rasoul Sabri Piro
BACKGROUND: College students experience various types of sleep disorders that impact daily functioning. Previous studies have focused on the effect of one sleep disorder. OBJECTIVE: Examine factors that might relate to several sleep disorders and the impacts of sleep disorders on the daily functioning in medical students. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Medical college. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A random sample of medical students from a public university was invited to participate in a cross-sectional study using the structured SLEEP-50 self-reported questionnaire...
January 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414488/examining-social-supply-among-nonmedical-prescription-stimulant-users-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#12
Fiona Murphy, Sheigla Murphy, Paloma Sales, Nicholas Lau
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410740/crude-and-adjusted-prevalence-of-sleep-complaints-in-mexico-city
#13
Alejandro Jiménez-Genchi, Jorge Caraveo-Anduaga
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the crude prevalence rates of several sleep complaints and the prevalence for each one adjusted for the coexistence of symptoms in other sleep domains in a representative sample of adult individuals from Mexico City. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of 1933 adult individuals living in Mexico City was surveyed using fourteen questions of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire to assess sleep-related symptoms and sleep complaints. Estimates of crude prevalence rates for each sleep disturbance and adjusted for a score ≥ the 80th...
July 2017: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388195/vaccines-for-preventing-influenza-in-healthy-children
#14
REVIEW
Tom Jefferson, Alessandro Rivetti, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Vittorio Demicheli
BACKGROUND: The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368327/-neuropsychological-alterations-in-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-a-review
#15
REVIEW
P Medrano-Martinez, M J Ramos-Platon, R Peraita-Adrados
AIM: To describe the current state of the art about the main cognitive deficits that appear in patients affected with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NT1). DEVELOPMENT: The majority of the studies have found that the most impaired cognitive functions are attention (especially maintenance of attention or sustained attention), speed of information processing and executive functions (in particular, verbal fluency and resistance to the stimuli interference). These data indicate the difficulty to use the available cognitive resources of the patient...
February 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365206/leg-movement-activity-during-sleep-in-school-age-children-and-adolescents-a-detailed-study-in-normal-controls-and-subjects-with-restless-legs-syndrome-and-narcolepsy-type-1
#16
Raffaele Ferri, Lourdes M DelRosso, Debora Aricò, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Daniel L Picchietti, Fabio Pizza, Giuseppe Plazzi, Mauro Manconi, Oliviero Bruni
Study Objectives: To evaluate leg movement activity during sleep (LMS) in normal school-age children and adolescents, to eventually establish age-specific periodic LMS (PLMS) index thresholds that support the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and to evaluate the utility of other LMS indices. Methods: Polysomnographic recordings from 61 controls, 46 children with RLS, and 44 children with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) were analyzed for total leg movements (LMS), PLMS, and isolated leg movements (ISOLMS) duration and indices, separately for school-age children and adolescents...
January 22, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351827/nocturnal-rem-sleep-without-atonia-is-a-diagnostic-biomarker-of-pediatric-narcolepsy
#17
Saadoun Bin-Hasan, Aleksandar Videnovic, Kiran Maski
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Compare nocturnal REM sleep without atonia (nRWA) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) between pediatric patients with and without narcolepsy and determine if the nRWA index is a valid diagnostic biomarker for narcolepsy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of children ages 6 to 18 years who completed a nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Our study sample included 11 patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), 6 with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), 12 with idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and 11 with subjective hypersomnia (sHS)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340766/wanted-a%C3%A2-better-cut-off-value-for-the-epworth-sleepiness-scale
#18
Karin Trimmel, Magdalena Żebrowska, Marion Böck, Andrijana Stefanic, Daniel Mayer, Gerhard Klösch, Eduard Auff, Stefan Seidel
BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is the main complaint in many neurological sleep disorders, such as idiopathic hypersomnia, narcolepsy, or obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS). The validity of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) as a screening tool for EDS remains controversial. We therefore investigated (1) the interrelation of the ESS total score and the mean sleep latency (MSL) during the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of the ESS total score to detect EDS in patients with the chief complaint of subjective EDS...
January 16, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325115/fast-sleep-spindle-density-is-associated-with-rs4680-val108-158met-genotype-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt
#19
Claudia Schilling, Lena Gappa, Michael Schredl, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Josef Frank, Michael Deuschle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt
Study Objectives: Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning, and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamo-cortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321233/effect-of-psychostimulants-on-blood-pressure-profile-and-endothelial-function-in-narcolepsy
#20
Adriana Bosco, Régis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Sofiene Chenini, Carole Pesenti, Jean-Louis Pépin, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of psychostimulant treatments on the 24-hour blood pressure (BP) profile of patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). METHODS: Heart rate (HR) and BP were monitored for 24 hours and morning endothelial function was evaluated in 160 consecutive patients with NT1: 68 untreated (41 male, median age 34.9 years), 54 treated (32 male, median age 40.9 years), and 38 evaluated twice (21 male, median age 32 years), before and during treatment...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
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