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Nicola Cellini
In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information...
September 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Nicolina E Savvaidou, Lazaros C Triarhou
Professor Emil Redlich (1866-1930) of the University of Vienna was born 150 years ago. Raised in a humble environment, he became an eminent researcher and neurology scholar, and succeeded in laying some of the key foundations of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. His name is linked to medical eponyms that define the dorsal root entry zone into the spinal cord, epidemic disseminated encephalomyelitis, narcolepsy, senile plaques and dementia. As its first director, he managed to organize the Maria-Theresien-Schlössel into a first-class neuropsychiatric hospital...
October 21, 2016: European Neurology
Edyta K Bichler, Courtney C Elder, Paul S García
Antibiotics are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, but effects on neuron excitability have been documented. A recent study demonstrated that clarithromycin alleviates daytime sleepiness in hypersomnia patients (Trotti et al. 2014). To explore the potential application of clarithromycin as a stimulant, we performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in rat pyramidal cells from the CA3 region of hippocampus. In the presence of the antibiotic, rheobase current was reduced by 50%, F-I relationship (number of action potentials as a function of injected current) was shifted to the left, and the resting membrane potential was more depolarized...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Virginia Ponziani, Monia Gennari, Fabio Pizza, Antonio Balsamo, Filippo Bernardi, Giuseppe Plazzi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) on anthropometric and endocrine features in childhood/adolescence, focusing on patterns and correlates of weight, pubertal development, and growth in treated and untreated patients. METHODS: We collected anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index (BMI) z-scores), pubertal, metabolic, and endocrine data from 72 NT1 patients at diagnosis and all available premorbid anthropometric parameters of patients from their pediatric files (n = 30)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Pavla Peřinová, Eva Feketeová, David Kemlink, Petra Kovalská, Karolína Chlebušová, Jiří Nepožitek, Veronika Ibarburu, Eva Králíková, Soňa Nevšímalová, Karel Šonka
Narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) is a chronic neurological disease with suggested autoimmune etiopathogenesis. Nicotine stimulates central nervous system and smoking increases the risk of autoimmune diseases. Assessment of smoking habits and its correlation to clinical parameters among 87 adult NC patients (38 male, 49 female) included night polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test. In our sample, 43.7% NC patients were regular smokers, and 19.5% former smokers compared to 22.2%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the general population...
2016: Prague Medical Report
Petra Kovalská, David Kemlink, Soňa Nevšímalová, Eszter Maurovich Horvat, Eva Jarolímová, Eva Topinková, Karel Šonka
OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a chronic disabling disease; however, there are insufficient data on older NC subjects. METHODS: A cross-sectional evaluation on health and social status, including intensity and progression of NC symptoms, was performed on 42 NC patients (age 71.9 years ± 7.5) and 46 age-and-sex-matched controls (age 72.2 years ± 7.0). RESULTS: A greater proportion of patients than controls suffered from hypertension and type 2 diabetes...
August 24, 2016: Sleep Medicine
Kiran Maski, Judith A Owens
Sleep problems are frequently encountered as presenting complaints in child neurology clinical practice. They can affect the functioning and quality of life of children, particularly those with primary neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders, since coexisting sleep problems can add substantially to neurocognitive and behavioural comorbidities. Additionally, symptoms of some sleep disorders such as parasomnias and narcolepsy can be confused with those of other neurological disorders (eg, epilepsy), posing diagnostic challenges for paediatric neurologists...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Natalie R Sealover, Bruce Felts, Charles P Kuntz, Rachel E Jarrard, Gregory H Hockerman, Eric L Barker, L Keith Henry
The substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), is a widely used drug of abuse that induces non-exocytotic release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine through their cognate transporters as well as blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the same transporters. The resulting dramatic increase in volume transmission and signal duration of neurotransmitters leads to psychotropic, stimulant, and entactogenic effects. The mechanism by which amphetamines drive reverse transport of the monoamines remains largely enigmatic, however, promising outcomes for the therapeutic utility of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder and the long-time use of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic-directed amphetamines in treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy increases the importance of understanding this phenomenon...
September 13, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Susumu Tanaka, Yoshiko Honda, Makoto Honda, Hisao Yamada, Kazuki Honda, Tohru Kodama
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Recent findings showed that 16-26% of narcolepsy patients were positive for anti-tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2) antibody, and the intracerebroventricular administration of IgG purified from anti-TRIB2 positive narcolepsy patients caused hypocretin/orexin neuron loss. We investigated the pathophysiological role of TRIB2 antibody using TRIB2-immunized rats and hypocretin/ataxin-3 transgenic (ataxin-3) mice. METHODS: Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hypothalamic tissues from TRIB2-immunized rats were collected...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Régis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Elisa Evangelista, Sofiene Chenini, Philippe Robert, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To follow the temporal changes of cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels in narcoleptic patients with unexpected hypocretin level at referral. METHODS: From 2007 to 2015, 170 HLA DQB1*06:02-positive patients with primary narcolepsy and definite (n=155, 95 males, 36 children) or atypical cataplexy (n=15, 4 males, 3 children) were referred to our center. Cerebrospinal hypocretin deficiency was found in 95.5% and 20% of patients with definitive and atypical cataplexy, respectively...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Poul Jørgen Jennum, Lars Østergaard Pedersen, Justyna Maria Czarna Bahl, Signe Modvig, Karina Fog, Anja Holm, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Steen Gammeltoft
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are altered in narcolepsy in order to evaluate whether the hypocretin deficiency and abnormal sleep-wake pattern in narcolepsy leads to neurodegeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with central hypersomnia (10 type 1 narcolepsy, 5 type 2 narcolepsy, and 6 idiopathic hypersomnia cases) aged 33 years on average, and with a disease duration of 2-29 years, and 12 healthy controls underwent CSF analyses of levels of β-amyloid, total tau protein (T-tau), phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau181), α-synuclein, neurofilament light chain (NF-L), and chitinase 3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1)...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Camille Planty, Corey P Mallett, Kevin Yim, Jorge C G Blanco, Marina Boukhvalova, Thomas March, Robbert van der Most, Eric Destexhe
An increased risk of narcolepsy following administration of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix™) was described in children and adolescents in certain European countries. We investigated the potential effects of administration of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, non-adjuvanted vaccine antigen and AS03 Adjuvant System alone, on the central nervous system (CNS) in one-month-old cotton rats. Naïve or A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-primed animals received 2 or 3 intramuscular injections, respectively, of test article or saline at two-week intervals...
September 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Raphaël Bernard-Valnet, Lidia Yshii, Clémence Quériault, Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Sébastien Arthaud, Magda Rodrigues, Astrid Canivet, Anne-Laure Morel, Arthur Matthys, Jan Bauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Yves Dauvilliers, Christelle Peyron, Roland S Liblau
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare and severe sleep disorder caused by the destruction of orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The genetic and environmental factors associated with narcolepsy, together with serologic data, collectively point to an autoimmune origin. The current animal models of narcolepsy, based on either disruption of the orexinergic neurotransmission or neurons, do not allow study of the potential autoimmune etiology. Here, we sought to generate a mouse model that allows deciphering of the immune mechanisms leading to orexin(+) neuron loss and narcolepsy development...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benjamin Goldstein, Robert C Speth, Malav Trivedi
HYPOTHESIS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms and altered gene expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. INTRODUCTION: Drugs that interact with the RAS have been shown to affect the course of neurodegenerative disease, suggesting that abnormalities in the RAS may contribute to neurodegenerative disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies and gene expression data for 14 RAS-related proteins was carried out for five neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, narcolepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Antonietta Messina, Carolina De Fusco, Vincenzo Monda, Maria Esposito, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Anna Valenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Emanuela Viggiano, Sergio Chieffi, Vincenzo De Luca, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
Hypocretin/orexin (ORX) are two hypothalamic neuropeptides discovered in 1998. Since their discovery, they have been one of the most studied neuropeptide systems because of their projecting fields innervating various brain areas. The orexinergic system is tied to sleep-wakefulness cycle, and narcolepsy is a consequence of their system hypofunction. Orexinergic system is also involved in many other autonomic functions such as feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. The main aim of this mini review article is to investigate the relationship between ORX and thyroid system regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kristin D Kernohan, Laila Cigana Schenkel, Lijia Huang, Amanda Smith, Guillaume Pare, Peter Ainsworth, Kym M Boycott, Jodi Warman-Chardon, Bekim Sadikovic
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark, controlled by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) proteins, which regulates chromatin structure and gene expression throughout the genome. In this study, we describe a family with adult-onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) caused by mutations in the maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 and assess the DNA methylation profile of these individuals. RESULTS: We report a family with six individuals affected with ADCA-DN; specifically, patients first developed hearing loss and ataxia, followed by narcolepsy, and cognitive decline...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
K V S Hari Kumar
Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
K V S Hari Kumar
Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kartini Gadroen, Sabine M J M Straus, Alexandra Pacurariu, Daniel Weibel, Xavier Kurz, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the frequency and quality of spontaneous narcolepsy case reports following administration of pandemic influenza vaccine as captured in the Eudravigilance database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of spontaneous Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs), reporting narcolepsy following administration of pandemic influenza vaccine as received by Eudravigilance until July 2014. De-duplication was carried out by Eudravigilance...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
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