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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834921/functional-components-of-carob-fruit-linking-the-chemical-and-biological-space
#1
REVIEW
Vlasios Goulas, Evgenios Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Thomas Mavromoustakos, Andreas G Tzakos
The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation's capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470221/ethyl-formate-fumigation-of-dry-and-semidry-date-fruits-experimental-kinetics-modeling-and-lethal-effect-on-carob-moth
#2
Haithem Bessi, Sihem Bellagha, Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi, Veronique Bikoba, Elizabeth J Mitcham
Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470176/evaluation-of-bunch-protectors-for-preventing-insect-infestation-and-preserving-yield-and-fruit-quality-of-dates-phoenix-dactylifera-l
#3
Thomas M Perring, Justin E Nay
In experiments comparing conventional date paper wraps with polyester mesh bags, date bunches enclosed in polyester mesh bags had lower insect infestations than dates covered by paper wraps. Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infestations of marketable fruit were significantly lower for mesh bags (0.6-3.1%) compared with paper wraps (8.5-15.5%). Other fruit pests [raisin moth, Cadra figulilella (Gregson), and beetles in the family Nitidulidae] were less common than carob moth, and infestation by these insects was consistently lower in fruit protected by mesh bags...
April 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25031331/carob-pod-insoluble-fiber-exerts-anti-atherosclerotic-effects-in-rabbits-through-sirtuin-1-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE
#4
María Valero-Muñoz, Beatriz Martín-Fernández, Sandra Ballesteros, Vicente Lahera, Natalia de las Heras
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0...
September 2014: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24500128/the-occurrence-of-abscisic-acid-in-inhibitors-b1-and-c-from-immature-fruit-of-ceratonia-siliqua-l-carob-and-in-commercial-carob-syrup
#5
B H Most, P Gaskin, J Macmillan
The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted for as abscisic acid by quantitative gas chromatography as the methyl ester. Trimethylsilylation of abscisic acid with bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide in pyridine gives two isomeric tris(trimethylsilyl) derivatives...
March 1970: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24430900/studies-in-the-turkish-carob-ceratonia-siliqua-l-iv-acidic-auxin-like-and-inhibitory-substances-in-fruit-morphogenesis
#6
I Ilahi, Y Vardar
Ceratonia siliqua L. exhibited a sigmoid growth pattern with each stage being controlled by specific substances. At least three auxin-like substances were involved during fruit morphogenesis with the main one being at indole-acetic acid Rf. Auxin-like substances were present at highest level during stage II, when fruit showed active growth, but decreased at the arrival of stage III. The inhibiting substance I1, at abscissic acid Rf, was present at the highest level at this stage. However, I2, detected towards the last stages of development, was not present at a significant level...
January 1976: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23572766/application-of-fuzzy-expert-system-approach-on-prediction-of-some-quality-characteristics-of-grape-juice-concentrate-pekmez-after-different-heat-treatments
#7
Ozlem Inan, Derya Arslan, Sakir Taşdemir, Mehmet Musa Ozcan
Effects of heat treatment on physicochemical characteristics and sensory properties of different fruit juice concentrates (pekmez) were studied. Apricot pekmez had the highest viscosity followed by mulberry and date pekmez. Apricot and date pekmez had higher scores for odour, taste and consistency than others. Hydroxymethyl furfural concentration of all pekmez samples increased after heat treatments. Samples heated at 75°C showed highest L* values while at 65°C the lowest mean L* values. L* values of all pekmez samples were similar while carob Pekmez had higher L* values...
August 2011: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22696872/new-insights-on-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-some-egyptian-plants-against-renal-dysfunction-induced-by-cyclosporine
#8
A B Shalby, A H Hamza, H H Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them in improving the renal dysfunction induced in rats by the cyclosporine. DESIGN: Sixty female albino rats were divided into six groups: healthy control rats, cyclosporine injected rats (positive control), other groups were injected by cyclosporine for 7 days and then diet was supplemented with either fennel, doum, carob or mixture of them. After 45 days of supplementation, rats were scarified...
April 2012: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21639092/antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-carob-tree-fruit-pulps-are-strongly-influenced-by-gender-and-cultivar
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L Custodio, E Fernandes, A L Escapa, A Fajardo, R Aligue, F Albericio, N R Neng, J M F Nogueira, A Romano
Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities...
July 13, 2011: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21466274/determination-of-d-pinitol-in-carob-syrup
#10
Nedim Tetik, Irfan Turhan, Hatice R Oziyci, Mustafa Karhan
Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45...
September 2011: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21367579/polyphenols-planting-the-seeds-of-treatment-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
E Paul Cherniack
Greater understanding about the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and potential causes suggests that plant polyphenols might be useful as a treatment. Dietary excess energy can be stored in adipocytes, leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and adipose-related hormones that cause vascular injury. Plant polyphenols, organic compounds found in numerous plant species and their fruits, are being actively studied as potential treatments for components of the metabolic syndrome. Individual polyphenols that have been examined include resveratrol, quercetin, epigallocathechin-3-gallate, and curcumin...
June 2011: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21310142/differential-attraction-of-aedes-albopictus-in-the-field-to-flowers-fruits-and-honeydew
#12
Günter C Müller, Rui-De Xue, Yosef Schlein
Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males...
April 2011: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20857763/development-of-a-binomial-sampling-plan-for-the-carob-moth-lepidoptera-pyralidae-a-pest-of-california-dates
#13
Jung-Joon Park, Thomas M Perring
The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan...
August 2010: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20189805/ethanol-production-from-carob-extract-by-using-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Irfan Turhan, Katherine L Bialka, Ali Demirci, Mustafa Karhan
Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method...
July 2010: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20087856/proanthocyanidin-metabolites-associated-with-dietary-fibre-from-in-vitro-colonic-fermentation-and-proanthocyanidin-metabolites-in-human-plasma
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fulgencio Saura-Calixto, Jara Pérez-Jiménez, Sonia Touriño, José Serrano, Elisabet Fuguet, Josep Lluis Torres, Isabel Goñi
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) or condensed tannins, a major group of dietary polyphenols, are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ol and flavan-3, 4-diols widely distributed in plant foods. Most literature data on PAs' metabolic fate deal with PAs that can be extracted from the food matrix by aqueous-organic solvents ( extractable proanthocyanidins). However, there are no data on colonic fermentation of non-extractable proanthocyanidins (NEPAs), which arrive almost intact to the colon, mostly associated to dietary fibre (DF)...
July 2010: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19763833/nutrient-content-of-carob-pod-ceratonia-siliqua-l-flour-prepared-commercially-and-domestically
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Faik A Ayaz, Hülya Torun, Robert H Glew, Zehra D Bak, Luther T Chuang, Jack M Presley, Ronnie Andrews
Although the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae) is nutritious and widely available in Turkey, especially in West and South Anatolia, much remains to be learned about its nutrient composition. The main goal of our study was to determine if there are differences in the content of certain nutrients in commercially-prepared carob flour (CPCP) and domestic or home-prepared carob powder (HPCP). Sucrose was the main sugar in CPCP and HPCP. Total protein was 40% lower in CPCP than HPCP due mainly to decreases in the content of several essential amino acids...
December 2009: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19610407/effect-of-center-cut-strand-thinning-on-fruit-abscission-and-ectomyelois-ceratoniae-lepidoptera-pyralidae-infestation-in-california-date-gardens
#17
Justin E Nay, Thomas M Perring
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infests different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages during the summer months in southern California. Abscised fruit in the kimri stage become heavily infested when they get stuck in tight date bunches and do not fall to the ground. Previous work on date palm horticulture found that the percentage of fruit abscission could be reduced by thinning fruit out of the bunch. Our objective in this study was to determine whether center cut strand thinning reduced fruit abscission and, if so, to determine any concurrent effect on carob moth summer population densities...
June 2009: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18419930/influence-of-host-plant-stages-on-carob-moth-lepidoptera-pyralidae-development-and-fitness
#18
Justin E Nay, Thomas M Perring
Different generations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), use different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages as they become available during the summer months in southern California. These are the kimri, khalal, and tamar fruit stages. This study was conducted to determine whether carob moth development and fitness were affected by these different fruit stages. Developmental time from neonate larvae to adult, when reared at 31.9 degrees C and 82.1% RH, ranged from 30.5 to 32.3 d for females and 27...
April 2008: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17852490/some-compositional-properties-and-mineral-contents-of-carob-ceratonia-siliqua-fruit-flour-and-syrup
#19
Mehmet Musa Ozcan, Derya Arslan, Harun Gökçalik
The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0...
December 2007: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17601731/production-of-a-carob-enzymatic-extract-potential-use-as-a-biofertilizer
#20
J Parrado, J Bautista, E J Romero, A M García-Martínez, V Friaza, M Tejada
In this paper, we describe a biological process that converts carob germ (CG), a proteinic vegetable by-product, into a water-soluble enzymatic hydrolyzate extract (CGHE). The chemical and physical properties are also described. The conversion is done using a proteolytic enzyme mixture. The main component of CGHE extracted by the enzymatic process is protein (68%), in the form of peptides and free amino acids, having a high content of glutamine and arginine, and a minor component of phytohormones, which are also extracted and solubilized from the CG...
May 2008: Bioresource Technology
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