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carob fruit

Tugrul Kaymak, Levent Türker, Hüseyin Tulay, Joerg Stroka
Background : Pekmez and pestil are traditional Turkish foods made from concentrated grapejuice, which can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA). Objective : To carry out a single-laboratory validation of a method to simultaneously determine aflatoxins B1 , B₂, G1 , and G₂ and ochratoxin A in pekmez and pestil. Methods : The homogenized sample is extracted with methanol-water (80 + 20) using a high-speed blender. The (sample) extract is filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline solution, and applied to a multi-immunoaffinity column (AFLAOCHRA PREP®)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Seyed Ali Hosseini, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz, Steph B J Menken, Michiel van Wijk, Peter Roessingh, Astrid T Groot
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract herbivore insects and have shown to have good potential to be exploited as alternatives or supplements to sex pheromones. To explore this possibility in carob moth, we assessed the attraction of moths to the volatiles of mature pistachio and different fruit stages of pomegranate, alone and in combination with virgin females, using sticky delta traps in pomegranate orchards of Iran...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mohamed A Farag, Dina M El-Kersh
Ceratonia siliqua is a legume tree of considerable commercial importance for the flavor and sweets industry cultivated mostly for its pods nutritive value and or several health benefits. Despite extensive studies on C. siliqua pod non-volatile metabolites, much less is known regarding volatiles composition which contributes to the flavor of its many food products. To gain insight into C. siliqua aroma, 31 volatile constituents from unroasted and roasted pods were profiled using headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HD-SPME) analyzed via quadruple mass spectrometer followed by multivariate data analyses...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
A Macho-González, A Garcimartín, M E López-Oliva, G Bertocco, F Naes, S Bastida, F J Sánchez-Muniz, J Benedí
The postprandial state plays a central role in the development and setting of chronic diseases. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenols with a known ability to modify carbohydrate digestion and absorption. The high concentration of CT in the pulp of carob fruit suggests a potential antidiabetic effect. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of carob fruit extract (CFE) on the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. α-Glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion were tested in vitro using 0...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
Cornelis VAN Achterberg, Sean R Thackeray, Martin P Hill
A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.
January 31, 2017: Zootaxa
Zahra Memari, Javad Karimi, Shokoofeh Kamali, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz, Mojtaba Hosseini
The carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) is the key pest of pomegranate, which causes a significant percentage of losses in pomegranate orchards and warehouses of Iran annually. The pest larvae are characterized by displaying a cryptic behavior within the fruit, which avoids most routine control techniques, especially chemical method. The low efficiency of traditional measurements and also the rich species diversity of natural enemies within the infested fruits highlight the necessity of exploring effective control methods, especially environmental friendly approaches...
December 2016: Journal of Nematology
Maja Benković, Siniša Srečec, Ingrid Bauman, Damir Ježek, Sven Karlović, Dario Kremer, Ksenija Karlović, Renata Erhatić
Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit...
December 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Vlasios Goulas, Evgenios Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Thomas Mavromoustakos, Andreas G Tzakos
The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation's capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haithem Bessi, Sihem Bellagha, Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi, Veronique Bikoba, Elizabeth J Mitcham
Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
Thomas M Perring, Justin E Nay
In experiments comparing conventional date paper wraps with polyester mesh bags, date bunches enclosed in polyester mesh bags had lower insect infestations than dates covered by paper wraps. Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infestations of marketable fruit were significantly lower for mesh bags (0.6-3.1%) compared with paper wraps (8.5-15.5%). Other fruit pests [raisin moth, Cadra figulilella (Gregson), and beetles in the family Nitidulidae] were less common than carob moth, and infestation by these insects was consistently lower in fruit protected by mesh bags...
April 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
María Valero-Muñoz, Beatriz Martín-Fernández, Sandra Ballesteros, Vicente Lahera, Natalia de las Heras
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0...
September 2014: Journal of Nutrition
B H Most, P Gaskin, J Macmillan
The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted for as abscisic acid by quantitative gas chromatography as the methyl ester. Trimethylsilylation of abscisic acid with bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide in pyridine gives two isomeric tris(trimethylsilyl) derivatives...
March 1970: Planta
I Ilahi, Y Vardar
Ceratonia siliqua L. exhibited a sigmoid growth pattern with each stage being controlled by specific substances. At least three auxin-like substances were involved during fruit morphogenesis with the main one being at indole-acetic acid Rf. Auxin-like substances were present at highest level during stage II, when fruit showed active growth, but decreased at the arrival of stage III. The inhibiting substance I1, at abscissic acid Rf, was present at the highest level at this stage. However, I2, detected towards the last stages of development, was not present at a significant level...
January 1976: Planta
Ozlem Inan, Derya Arslan, Sakir Taşdemir, Mehmet Musa Ozcan
Effects of heat treatment on physicochemical characteristics and sensory properties of different fruit juice concentrates (pekmez) were studied. Apricot pekmez had the highest viscosity followed by mulberry and date pekmez. Apricot and date pekmez had higher scores for odour, taste and consistency than others. Hydroxymethyl furfural concentration of all pekmez samples increased after heat treatments. Samples heated at 75°C showed highest L* values while at 65°C the lowest mean L* values. L* values of all pekmez samples were similar while carob Pekmez had higher L* values...
August 2011: Journal of Food Science and Technology
A B Shalby, A H Hamza, H H Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them in improving the renal dysfunction induced in rats by the cyclosporine. DESIGN: Sixty female albino rats were divided into six groups: healthy control rats, cyclosporine injected rats (positive control), other groups were injected by cyclosporine for 7 days and then diet was supplemented with either fennel, doum, carob or mixture of them. After 45 days of supplementation, rats were scarified...
April 2012: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L Custodio, E Fernandes, A L Escapa, A Fajardo, R Aligue, F Albericio, N R Neng, J M F Nogueira, A Romano
Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities...
July 13, 2011: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nedim Tetik, Irfan Turhan, Hatice R Oziyci, Mustafa Karhan
Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45...
September 2011: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
E Paul Cherniack
Greater understanding about the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and potential causes suggests that plant polyphenols might be useful as a treatment. Dietary excess energy can be stored in adipocytes, leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and adipose-related hormones that cause vascular injury. Plant polyphenols, organic compounds found in numerous plant species and their fruits, are being actively studied as potential treatments for components of the metabolic syndrome. Individual polyphenols that have been examined include resveratrol, quercetin, epigallocathechin-3-gallate, and curcumin...
June 2011: Nutrition
Günter C Müller, Rui-De Xue, Yosef Schlein
Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males...
April 2011: Acta Tropica
Jung-Joon Park, Thomas M Perring
The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan...
August 2010: Journal of Economic Entomology
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