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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212113/age-and-gender-dependency-of-physiological-networks-in-sleep
#1
Dagmar Krefting, Christoph Jansen, Thomas Penzel, Fang Han, Jan Kantelhardt
Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211961/an-extended-vascular-model-for-less-biased-estimation-of-permeability-parameters-in-dce-t1-images
#2
Siamak P Nejad-Davarani, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, James R Ewing, Douglas C Noll, Tom Mikkelsen, Michael Chopp, Quan Jiang
One of the key elements in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) image analysis is the arterial input function (AIF). Traditionally, in DCE studies a global AIF sampled from a major artery or vein is used to estimate the vascular permeability parameters; however, not addressing dispersion and delay of the AIF at the tissue level can lead to biased estimates of these parameters. To find less biased estimates of vascular permeability parameters, a vascular model of the cerebral vascular system is proposed that considers effects of dispersion of the AIF in the vessel branches, as well as extravasation of the contrast agent (CA) to the extravascular-extracellular space...
February 17, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210222/icariside-ii-a-broad-spectrum-anti-cancer-agent-reverses-beta-amyloid-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-reducing-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#4
Yuanyuan Deng, Long Long, Keke Wang, Jiayin Zhou, Lingrong Zeng, Lianzi He, Qihai Gong
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, associated neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation are considered as the important factors which lead to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariside II (ICS II), an active flavonoid compound derived from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been extensively used to treat erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis and dementia in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, ICS II attracts great interest due to its broad-spectrum anti-cancer property. ICS II shows an anti-inflammatory potential both in cancer treatment and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203254/malformations-of-cortical-development-genetic-mechanisms-and-diagnostic-approach
#5
REVIEW
Jeehun Lee
Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202424/gnao1-associated-epileptic-encephalopathy-and-movement-disorders-c-607g-a-variant-represents-a-probable-mutation-hotspot-with-a-distinct-phenotype
#6
Ravindra Arya, Christine Spaeth, Donald L Gilbert, James L Leach, Katherine D Holland
We describe a case of GNAO1-associated epilepsy and chorea in a patient with a de novo pathogenic mutation. This patient is unique in being the first reported male with this phenotype, and we propose that this genetic variant may represent a mutation hotspot that characterizes a unique phenotype. This 5.2-years-old boy presented with seizures, chorea, and severe global developmental delay. Brain imaging showed progressive diffuse cerebral atrophy. EEG monitoring revealed multifocal and diffuse discharges, along with generalized-onset seizures...
February 15, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187749/identification-of-a-large-intronic-transposal-insertion-in-slc17a5-causing-sialic-acid-storage-disease
#7
Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Britt I Drögemöller, Wyeth W Wasserman, Colin J D Ross, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Niklas Darin, Gittan Kollberg, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Maria Blomqvist
BACKGROUND: Sialic acid storage diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in the lysosome. These disorders are caused by mutations in SLC17A5, the gene encoding sialin, a sialic acid transporter located in the lysosomal membrane. The most common form of sialic acid storage disease is the slowly progressive Salla disease, presenting with hypotonia, ataxia, epilepsy, nystagmus and findings of cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Hypomyelination and corpus callosum hypoplasia are typical as well...
February 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187734/the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-butyrate-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#8
Joanna Jaworska, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Sypecka, Teresa Zalewska
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced inflammation. We therefore anticipated that SB will provide a suitable option for brain injury in immature animals. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by SB after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with anti-inflammatory action...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186448/retrospective-review-of-previous-minor-leak-before-major-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-diagnosed-by-mri-as-a-predictor-of-occurrence-of-symptomatic-delayed-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Shinri Oda, Masami Shimoda, Akihiro Hirayama, Masaaki Imai, Fuminari Komatsu, Hideaki Shigematsu, Jun Nishiyama, Kazuko Hotta, Mitsunori Matsumae
OBJECTIVE This study attempted to determine whether a previous minor leak correlated with the occurrence of symptomatic delayed cerebral ischemia (sDCI). METHODS The authors retrospectively evaluated sDCI-related clinical features and findings from MRI, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI)-FLAIR mismatch at the time of admission, in 151 patients admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within 48 hours of ictus. RESULTS The overall incidence of sDCI was 23% (35 of 151 patients). In all subjects, multivariate analysis revealed that World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grades II-V, age 70 years or older, presence of rebleeding after admission, a previous minor leak before the major SAH attack as diagnosed by T1WI-FLAIR mismatch, acute infarction on diffusion-weighted imaging, and CT SAH score were significantly associated with occurrence of sDCI...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169942/rbc-transfusion-improves-cerebral-oxygen-delivery-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#10
Rajat Dhar, Allyson R Zazulia, Colin P Derdeyn, Michael N Diringer
OBJECTIVES: Impaired oxygen delivery due to reduced cerebral blood flow is the hallmark of delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since anemia reduces arterial oxygen content, it further threatens oxygen delivery increasing the risk of cerebral infarction. Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage may constitute an important exception to current restrictive transfusion practices, wherein raising hemoglobin could reduce the risk of ischemia in a critically hypoperfused organ...
February 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169856/postinterventional-critical-care-management-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#11
Sudhir Datar, Alejandro A Rabinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm (aSAH) is a complex disorder with the potential to have devastating effects on the brain as well as other organ systems. After more than 3 decades of research, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain incompletely understood and important questions remain regarding the evaluation and management of these patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze the recent literature and improve our understanding of certain key clinical aspects...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167348/3d-functional-ultrasound-imaging-of-the-cerebral-visual-system-in-rodents
#12
Marc Gesnik, Kevin Blaize, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, José-Alain Sahel, Mathias Fink, Serge Picaud, Mickaël Tanter
3D functional imaging of the whole brain activity during visual task is a challenging task in rodents due to the complex tri-dimensional shape of involved brain regions and the fine spatial and temporal resolutions required to reveal the visual tract. By coupling functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging with a translational motorized stage and an episodic visual stimulation device, we managed to accurately map and to recover the activity of the visual cortices, the Superior Colliculus (SC) and the Lateral Geniculate Nuclei (LGN) in 3D...
February 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156213/structural-brain-differences-in-school-age-children-with-and-without-single-suture-craniosynostosis
#13
Kristina Aldridge, Brent R Collett, Erin R Wallace, Craig Birgfeld, Jordan R Austin, Regina Yeh, Madison Feil, Kathleen A Kapp-Simon, Elizabeth H Aylward, Michael L Cunningham, Matthew L Speltz
OBJECTIVE Single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC), the premature fusion of a cranial suture, is characterized by dysmorphology of the craniofacial skeleton. Evidence to suggest that children with SSC are at an elevated risk of mild to moderate developmental delays and neurocognitive deficits is mounting, but the associations among premature suture fusion, neuroanatomy, and neurocognition are unexplained. The goals of this study were to determine 1) whether differences in the brain are present in young children with the 2 most common forms of SSC (sagittal and metopic) several years following surgical correction, and 2) whether the pattern of differences varies by affected suture (sagittal or metopic)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152266/bold-fmri-with-median-nerve-electrical-stimulation-predict-hemodynamic-improvement-after-revascularization-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#14
Peng-Gang Qiao, Cong Han, Tianyi Qian, Gong-Jie Li, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: To assess the severity of cerebral hemodynamic impairment and hemodynamic improvements, after revascularization in moyamoya disease (MMD) by means of blood-oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BOLD-fMRI with median nerve electrical stimulation based on echo planar imaging was performed in 73 volunteers with MMD and 15 healthy volunteers using a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Twenty-four MMD patients were reexamined after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152144/association-between-moderate-and-late-preterm-birth-and-neurodevelopment-and-social-emotional-development-at-age-2-years
#15
Jeanie L Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Alice C Burnett, Katherine J Lee, Jennifer M Walsh, Cody R Potter, Karli Treyvaud, Deanne K Thompson, Joy E Olsen, Peter J Anderson, Alicia J Spittle
Importance: Moderate and late preterm (MLPT) births comprise most preterm infants. Therefore, long-term developmental concerns in this population potentially have a large public health influence. While there are increasing reports of developmental problems in MLPT children, detail is lacking on the precise domains that are affected. Objective: To compare neurodevelopment and social-emotional development between MLPT infants and term-born control infants at age 2 years...
February 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148925/a-novel-mutation-in-the-proteolytic-domain-of-lonp1-causes-atypical-codas-syndrome
#16
Takehiko Inui, Mai Anzai, Yusuke Takezawa, Wakaba Endo, Yosuke Kakisaka, Atsuo Kikuchi, Akira Onuma, Shigeo Kure, Ichizo Nishino, Chihiro Ohba, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Haginoya
Cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, skeletal (CODAS) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by mutations in LONP1. It is characterized by intellectual disability, cataracts, delayed tooth eruption, malformed auricles and skeletal abnormalities. We performed whole-exome sequencing on a 12-year-old Japanese male with severe intellectual disability, congenital bilateral cataracts, spasticity, hypotonia with motor regression and progressive cerebellar atrophy with hyperintensity of the cerebellar cortex on T2-weighted images...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145796/identification-of-neurovascular-changes-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-from-subject-specific-hemodynamic-response-functions
#17
Rebecca J Williams, Bradley G Goodyear, Stefano Peca, Cheryl R McCreary, Richard Frayne, Eric E Smith, G Bruce Pike
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a small-vessel disease preferentially affecting posterior brain regions. Recent evidence has demonstrated the efficacy of functional MRI in detecting CAA-related neurovascular injury, however, it is unknown whether such perturbations are associated with changes in the hemodynamic response function (HRF). Here we estimated HRFs from two different brain regions from block design activation data, in light of recent findings demonstrating how block designs can accurately reflect HRF parameter estimates while maximizing signal detection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144896/temporal-evolution-of-the-signal-intensity-of-hyper-acute-ischemic-lesions-in-a-canine-stroke-model-influence-of-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker
#18
Xiao-Quan Xu, Chen-Jiang Wu, Qing-Quan Zu, Shan-Shan Lu, Xing-Long Liu, Qian-Qian Gao, Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi
BACKGROUND: To assess the influence of the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on the relative signal intensity (rSI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyper-acute ischemic lesions in a canine stroke model. METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established using autologous clot embolization. Diffusion-weighted (DW) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4.5 and 6 h after embolization...
January 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144702/endovascular-thrombectomy-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-outcome-in-referred-versus-directly-admitted-patients
#19
Philipp Bücke, Marta Aguilar Pérez, Elisabeth Schmid, Christian H Nolte, Hansjörg Bäzner, Hans Henkes
PURPOSE: Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (mTE) in acute ischemic stroke due to large cerebral artery occlusion is effective and safe. The procedure is currently offered by specialized hospitals. Physicians from smaller hospitals need to refer patients to stroke centers. Secondary referrals involve delays for transportation. Little is known about effects of distant referrals on outcome and complications as compared to direct admittance. METHODS: To evaluate the effects of referral patterns on outcome and safety, we analyzed 941 patients with anterior circulation stroke receiving mTE between January 2010 and December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143519/severe-malaria-in-europe-an-8-year-multi-centre-observational-study
#20
Florian Kurth, Michel Develoux, Matthieu Mechain, Denis Malvy, Jan Clerinx, Spinello Antinori, Ida E Gjørup, Joaquím Gascon, Kristine Mørch, Emanuele Nicastri, Michael Ramharter, Alessandro Bartoloni, Leo Visser, Thierry Rolling, Philipp Zanger, Guido Calleri, Joaquín Salas-Coronas, Henrik Nielsen, Gudrun Just-Nübling, Andreas Neumayr, Anna Hachfeld, Matthias L Schmid, Pietro Antonini, Tilman Lingscheid, Peter Kern, Annette Kapaun, José Saraiva da Cunha, Peter Pongratz, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Mirjam Schunk, Norbert Suttorp, Christoph Hatz, Thomas Zoller
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (TropNet) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe...
January 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
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