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Zhi-Peng Qi, Tao Chen, Bing Li, Zhong Ren, Li-Qing Yao, Qiang Shi, Shi-Lun Cai, Yun-Shi Zhong, Ping-Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: According to the Japanese Esophageal Society (JES) guidelines, early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involving the muscularis mucosae (M3) or upper submucosal (SM1) layers are relative indications for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Additional esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy is recommended for patients with relative indications after evaluation. However, elderly patients (≥ 60 years) with relative indications in China often refuse additional treatment because of the debilitating side effects...
March 16, 2018: Endoscopy
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Kelsey A Herrmann, Heather T Broihier
Although retrograde neurotrophin signaling has provided an immensely influential paradigm for understanding growth factor signaling in the nervous system, recent studies indicate that growth factors also signal via cell-autonomous, or autocrine, mechanisms. Autocrine signals have been discovered in many neuronal contexts, providing insights into their regulation and function. The growing realization of the importance of cell-autonomous signaling stems from advances in both conditional genetic approaches and in sophisticated analyses of growth factor dynamics, which combine to enable rigorous in vivo dissection of signaling pathways...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, Álvaro C Romero-Valenzuela, Vanessa M Vázquez-Grande, Teresa Roldán-Arjona, Rafael R Ariza, Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
Base excision repair (BER) is a major defense pathway against spontaneous DNA damage. This multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognise and excise the damaged base, and proceeds by the concerted action of additional proteins that perform incision of the abasic site, gap filling and ligation. BER has been extensively studied in bacteria, yeasts and animals. Although knowledge of this pathway in land plants is increasing, there are no reports detecting BER in algae. We describe here an experimental in vitro system allowing the specific analysis of BER in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
March 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Jared T Hammill, Daniel C Scott, Jaeki Min, Michele C Connelly, Gloria Holbrook, Fangyi Zhu, Amy Matheny, Lei Yang, Bhuvanesh Singh, Brenda A Schulman, R Kiplin Guy
We previously discovered and validated a class of piperidinyl ureas that regulate defective in cullin neddylation 1 (DCN1)-dependent neddylation of cullins. Here, we report preliminary structure-activity relationship studies aimed at advancing our high-throughput screen hit into a tractable tool compound for dissecting the effects of acute DCN1-UBE2M inhibition on the NEDD8/cullin pathway. Structure-enabled optimization led to a 100-fold increase in biochemical potency and modestly increased solubility and permeability as compared to our initial hit...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Parkinson Soubam, Shashwat Mishra, Ashish Suri, Renu Dhingra, Sankat Mochan, Sanjeev Lalwani, T S Roy, Ashok K Mahapatra
A surgeon's understanding of the surgical anatomy can be greatly enhanced by the dissection of preserved cadaveric specimens. A reliable and inexpensive biological model for testing and standardization of dye injection concentrations is proposed utilizing the goat's head as a biological model. The first phase was concerned with standardization of the dye by titrating its concentration and injecting various amounts into cerebral vessels of a goat's head until an optimal concentration had been ascertained. In the second phase, this optimum concentration of the dye was injected into four human cadaveric heads following the same technique standardized using the goat's head...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ahmed Hegazy, Hieder Al-Shami, Mohammed Fathy Adel Ali, Mohamad Fathallah, Ahmed Salah, Hashim Mohamed, Emad Ibrahim Ahmed, Haytham Hussien Mohammed Osman, Arundhati Biswas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding mobilization of the outer cavernous sinus membrane as a part of the approach, in large spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus extension, would reduce bleeding and increase the extent of resection. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was held between February 2016 and April 2017 at Cairo University Hospitals. The study recruited 94 patients with spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus involvement...
March 2018: Neurology India
Prashant Rao, Jack B Keenan, Taufiek K Rajab, Samuel Kim, Richard Smith, Orazio Amabile, Zain Khalpey
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular complications represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome. Here, we describe a unique case where a total artificial heart was implanted in a young Marfan syndrome woman. METHODS: A 22-year-old postpartum African American female with Marfan syndrome developed multiple severe valve dysfunction and biventricular failure that was refractory to medical management. She previously had a Bentall procedure for Type A aortic dissection and repair of a Type B dissection...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Sunandan Mukherjee, Chandran Nithin, Yasaswi Divakaruni, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur
We dissect the protein-protein interfaces into water preservation (WP), water hydration (WH) and water dehydration (WD) sites by comparing the water mediated hydrogen bonds (H-bond) in the bound and unbound states of the interacting subunits. Upon subunit complexation, if a H-bond between an interface water and a protein polar group is retained, we assign it as WP site; if it is lost, we assign it as WD site and if a new H-bond is created, we assign it as WH site. We find that the density of WD sites is highest followed by WH and WP sites except in antigen and (or) antibody complexes, where the density of WH sites is highest followed by WD and WP sites...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Leili Pourafkari, Samad Ghaffari, Mojan Ahmadi, Rezvaniye Salehi, Sarvin Mazani, Raziyeh Parizad, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: Aortic dissection is an uncommon and potentially fatal complication of pregnancy; however, the association of the number of pregnancies with the indexed and absolute size of ascending aorta in patients without aortic aneurysm or connective tissue disorders is not well elucidated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, women aged 18-80 years old undergoing transesophageal echocardiography in a university-affiliated echocardiography laboratory between January 1st 2015 and September 1st 2015 were enrolled...
March 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables visualization of the ultrastructure of the myelin sheath. Schwann cells on the posterior lateral line nerves and motor nerves can be imaged by TEM. Here, we detail the multiday processing of larval trunks and dissected posterior lateral line for TEM, as well as how to trim embedded samples, section, and stain grids for imaging.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Natalia D Andersen, Paula V Monje
Adult Schwann cell (SC) cultures are usually derived from nerves subjected to a lengthy step of pre-degeneration to facilitate enzymatic digestion and recovery of viable cells. To overcome the need for pre-degeneration, we developed a method that allows the isolation of adult rat sciatic nerve SCs immediately after tissue harvesting. This method combines the advantages of implementing a rapid enzymatic dissociation of the nerve fibers and a straightforward separation of cells versus myelin that improves both cell yield and viability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell precursors are the first defined stage in the generation of Schwann cells from the neural crest and represent the glial cell of embryonic nerves. Highly pure cultures of these cells can be obtained by enzymatic dissociation of nerves dissected from the limbs of 14- or 12-day-old rat and mouse embryos, respectively. Since Schwann cell precursors, unlike Schwann cells, are acutely dependent on axonal signals for survival, they require addition of trophic factors, typically β-neuregulin-1, for maintenance in cell culture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mаhmoud Youns, Abeer ElKhoely, Rehab Kamel
Pancreatic cancer, the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, is one of the most aggressive and devastating human malignancies with increasing incidence worldwide. To date, surgical resection is the only potentially curative therapy available for pancreatic cancer patients. Early diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is difficult, and hence, nearly 80% of patients cannot receive surgical resection. Natural products have always been a vital source for novel compounds for cancer treatment. The naturally occurring prenylated xanthone, gambogic acid, has been previously shown to exert potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant activities...
March 15, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Shiguang Wang, Bingtian Ma, Qiang Gao, Guojing Jiang, Lei Zhou, Bin Tu, Peng Qin, Xueqin Tan, Peixiong Liu, Yunhai Kang, Yuping Wang, Weilan Chen, Chengzhi Liang, Shigui Li
Shuhui498 (R498) is an elite parent of heavy panicle hybrid rice by pyramiding the rare gn1a and null gs3 alleles. This finding reveals the genetic basis and great potential application in future breeding of R498. The heavy panicle trait, defined as 5 g or more of grain weight per panicle, is one of the target traits in super-high-yield rice breeding programs. The use of heavy panicle-type hybrid rice has been shown to be a successful strategy for super-high-yield breeding programs, particularly under the environmental conditions of high humidity and deficient solar radiation in southwestern China...
March 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Mohamed A Mohamed, Rohit Abraham, Tareq I Maraqa, Samir Elian
Aortic dissection is a rare and fatal complication of cocaine-induced hypertension. The injury mechanism is through shear stress that penetrates the intimal vessel layer, allowing blood flow to separate intimal and medial layers. Due to its scarcity and the paucity of related literature, our knowledge of this condition is limited. We present a rare case of a cocaine-induced aortic dissection, which extended continuously from the aortic root to the common iliacs, along with a literature review of similar cases...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Gopalakrishnan M Sasidharan
Epidermoid cysts are notorious for their propensity to sneak into deep recesses between cranial nerves in the posterior fossa. Attempts to achieve complete excision using ordinary instruments when tempted by the seeming ease of dissection is known to cause unacceptable deficits. The Xomed monopolar stimulator electrode probe of the nerve integrity electromyography monitor has several advantages when used as the primary dissection tool for deep-seated epidermoid cysts. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid is the classical prototype of a strategically placed deep-seated epidermoid tumor...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Mohamed A Mohamed, Kewan A Hamid
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) classically manifests with sudden, severe chest pain radiating to the back or abdomen, often described as ripping or tearing sensation. Considering its abrupt onset, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion prompting immediate imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast. However, the use of contrast is a relative contraindication in the patients with renal compromise and acute care physicians are often deterred from contrast use in these patients. Herein, we present an unusual case of hematuria as the presenting symptom of a developing the Stanford type-A AAD...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Tereza Losmanova, Ivo Tosoni, Stella Fahrni, Peter Ernst Ballmer
Aortic dissection is one of the severe but rare vascular complications arising from transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This paper presents an autopsy case of an 81-year-old male patient with delayed aortic dissection with underlying haemorrhages and acute inflammation 3 years after TAVI.
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jeroen G V Habets, Roel H L Haeren, Suen A N Lie, Noel J C Bauer, Jim T A Dings
BACKGROUND: We present a case of orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) leading to monocular irreversible blindness following a pterional craniotomy for clipping of an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. OCS is an uncommon but vision-threatening entity requiring urgent decompression to reduce the risk of permanent visual loss. Iatrogenic orbital roof defects are a common finding following pterional craniotomies. However, complications related to these defects are rarely reported...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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