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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627505/monitoring-alert-and-drowsy-states-by-modeling-eeg-source-nonstationarity
#1
Sheng-Hsiou Hsu, Tzyy-Ping Jung
As a human brain performs various cognitive functions within ever-changing environments, states of the brain characterized by recorded brain activities such as electroencephalogram (EEG) are inevitably nonstationary. The challenges of analyzing the nonstationary EEG signals include finding neurocognitive sources that underlie different brain states and using EEG data to quantitatively assess the state changes. Approach. This study hypothesizes that brain activities under different states, e.g. levels of alertness, can be modeled as distinct compositions of statistically independent sources using independent component analysis (ICA)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625664/effects-of-different-numbers-of-mini-dental-implants-on-alveolar-ridge-strain-distribution-under-mandibular-implant-retained-overdentures
#2
Pongsakorn Warin, Pimduen Rungsiyakull, Chaiy Rungsiyakull, Pathawee Khongkhunthian
PURPOSE: To investigate the strains around mini-dental implants (MDIs) and retromolar edentulous areas when using different numbers of MDIs in order to retain mandibular overdentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different prosthetic situations were fabricated on an edentulous mandibular model including a complete denture (CD), and three overdentures, retained by four, three or two MDIs in the interforaminal region with retentive attachments. A static load of 200N was applied on the posterior teeth of the dentures under bilateral or unilateral loading conditions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593514/influence-of-formulation-factors-on-the-aerosol-performance-of-suspension-and-solution-metered-dose-inhalers-a-systematic-approach
#3
Poonam Sheth, Dennis Sandell, Denise S Conti, Jay T Holt, Anthony J Hickey, Bhawana Saluja
Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are complex drug-device combination products widely used to treat pulmonary disorders. The efficacy, driven by aerosol performance of the products, depends on a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, the physicochemical properties of drug and nature and amount of excipient(s). Under the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, systematic investigations are necessary to understand how changes in critical quality attributes (CQAs) of formulation, device, and manufacturing process influence key product performance parameters, such as delivered dose (DD) and fine particle dose (FPD)...
June 7, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560037/instant-velocity-and-consistency-of-emitted-cloud-change-by-the-different-levels-of-canister-filling-with-metered-dose-inhalers-mdis-but-not-with-soft-mist-inhalers-smis-a%C3%A2-bench-study
#4
Roberto W Dal Negro, Pietro Longo, Orestepaolo Villanis Ziani, Luca Bonadiman, Paola Turco
BACKGROUND: Inhalation is the preferred route for respiratory drug delivery, but several factors contribute to the variability of the respirable dose fraction. Instant velocity and the dynamic characteristics of the droplet cloud represent crucial factors. Aim was to measure and compare the instant velocity and the consistency of emitted cloud from five different MDIs (A - Salbutamol sulphate 100mcg, GSK; B - Salbutamol sulphate 100mcg, Valeas; C - Salmeterol xinafoate/Fluticasone propionate 25/125mcg, GSK; D - Formoterol fumarate/Bechlomethasone propionate 6/100mcg, Chiesi; E - Formoterol fumarate/Fluticasone dipropionate 5/125mcg, Mundipharma) and one SMI (Tiotropium bromide 5mcg, Boehringer Ingelheim), at different distance from the nozzle and canister filling...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462508/osseointegration-of-standard-and-mini-dental-implants-a-histomorphometric-comparison
#5
Jagjit S Dhaliwal, Rubens F Albuquerque, Monzur Murshed, Jocelyne S Feine
BACKGROUND: Mini dental implants (MDIs) are becoming increasingly popular for rehabilitation of edentulous patients because of their several advantages. However, there is a lack of evidence on the osseointegration potential of the MDIs. The objective of the study was to histomorphometrically evaluate and compare bone apposition on the surface of MDIs and standard implants in a rabbit model. METHODS: Nine New Zealand white rabbits were used for the study to meet statistical criteria for adequate power...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440211/a-cluster-randomised-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-psychosocial-evaluation-of-insulin-pump-therapy-compared-with-multiple-injections-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-the-repose-trial
#6
Simon Heller, David White, Ellen Lee, Julia Lawton, Daniel Pollard, Norman Waugh, Stephanie Amiel, Katharine Barnard, Anita Beckwith, Alan Brennan, Michael Campbell, Cindy Cooper, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Simon Dixon, Jackie Elliott, Mark Evans, Fiona Green, Gemma Hackney, Peter Hammond, Nina Hallowell, Alan Jaap, Brian Kennon, Jackie Kirkham, Robert Lindsay, Peter Mansell, Diana Papaioannou, David Rankin, Pamela Royle, W Henry Smithson, Carolin Taylor
BACKGROUND: Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388723/high-sclerostin-and-dickkopf-1-dkk-1-serum-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Maria Felicia Faienza, Annamaria Ventura, Maurizio Delvecchio, Anna Fusillo, Laura Piacente, Gabriella Aceto, Graziana Colaianni, Silvia Colucci, Luciano Cavallo, Maria Grano, Giacomina Brunetti
Context: Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with decreased bone mass. Sclerostin and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) are Wnt inhibitors that regulate bone formation. Objective: To evaluate sclerostin and DKK-1 levels in T1DM children and to analyze the influence of glycemic control on bone health. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: One hundred and six T1DM subjects (12...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238902/effect-of-spacers-on-the-bipolar-electrostatic-charge-properties-of-metered-dose-inhaler-aerosols-a-case-study-with-tilade-%C3%A2
#8
Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Adam Chong Ming Chiow, Philip Chi Lip Kwok, Ari Ukkonen, Hak-Kim Chan
Aerosols emitted from metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are generally electrically charged and bipolar in nature. Although a spacer can effectively dampen the charge magnitude of aerosols, the electrostatic interactions between the positively and negatively charged particles and the spacer have not yet been characterized separately. The Bipolar Charge Analyzer (BOLAR) was employed to investigate interactions between the spacer and the charged aerosols. Three individual actuations of Tilade(®) MDI were introduced without a spacer and through an antistatic AeroChamber Plus® Z Stat(®), an uncoated and a detergent-coated AeroChamber Plus(®) spacer into the BOLAR at 60 L/min...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157430/factors-determining-in-vitro-lung-deposition-of-albuterol-aerosol-delivered-by-ventolin-metered-dose-inhaler
#9
Rajoshi Biswas, Nicola A Hanania, Ashutosh Sabharwal
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) in delivering medication to the lungs highly depends on its correct usage technique. Current guidelines state optimal technique for high lung deposition should include a slow inhalation (>5 seconds) at an inspiratory flow rate of 30 L/min and inhaler actuation at the start of inhalation. However, these recommendations were based on clinical studies using CFC (chlorofluorocarbon)-MDIs and in vitro studies of HFA (hydrofluoroalkane)-MDIs using idealized MDI techniques of uniform inhalation and actuation, disregarding the nonuniform techniques of actual patients...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150188/customized-smartpeg-for-measurement-of-resonance-frequency-of-mini-dental-implants
#10
Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal, Rubens F Albuquerque, Ali Fakhry, Sukhbir Kaur, Jocelyne S Feine
BACKGROUND: One-piece narrow diameter implants (NDIs) have been recommended as "Single-tooth replacements in the anterior zones, single posterior, multiple-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), edentulous jaws to be rehabilitated with FDP, and edentulous jaws rehabilitation with overdentures in situations with reduced mesiodistal space or reduced ridge width." (ITI consensus 2013). Since NDIs can be immediately loaded, it is important to be able to carry out stability testing. We developed and validated a customized SmartPeg for this type of implant to measure the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ)...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137488/patient-characteristics-associated-with-poor-inhaler-technique-among-a-cohort-of-patients-with-copd
#11
Anne C Melzer, Bijan J Ghassemieh, Suzanne E Gillespie, Peter K Lindenauer, Mary Ann McBurnie, Richard A Mularski, Edward T Naureckas, William M Vollmer, David H Au
BACKGROUND: Inhaled therapies are the cornerstone of pharmacologic management for COPD. Each device requires a unique series of steps to be most effective, making appropriate instruction in inhaler technique a key part of the management of COPD. OBJECTIVES: Examine characteristics of patients and devices associated with poor technique among patients with COPD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of subjects with COPD using at least one of: metered dose inhaler, Advair Diskus, Spiriva Handihaler, identified from the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) registry...
February 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108685/a-tablet-based-multimedia-education-tool-improves-provider-and-subject-knowledge-of-inhaler-use-techniques
#12
Aaron M Mulhall, Muhammad A Zafar, Samantha Record, Herman Channell, Ralph J Panos
BACKGROUND: Although inhaled medications are effective therapies for COPD, many patients and providers use them incorrectly. METHODS: We recruited providers who prescribe inhalers or teach inhaler technique and assessed their use of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), various dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and Respimat using predefined checklists. Then they watched tablet-based multimedia educational videos that demonstrated correct inhaler technique by a clinical pharmacist with teach-back from a patient and were re-evaluated...
February 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095080/missed-opportunities-to-transition-from-nebulizers-to-inhalers-during-hospitalization-for-acute-asthma-a-multi-center-observational-study
#13
Valerie G Press, Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan Heidt, Jane C Bittner, Carlos A Camargo
OBJECTIVE: Hospitalizations for acute asthma are thought to be highly preventable through the use of efficacious medications, though many patients have poor metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique, lessening these medications' real-world effectiveness. Teaching MDI technique during hospitalization may therefore lead to improved outcomes. However, MDIs may be underutilized to deliver short-acting β-agonists in the inpatient setting, despite equivalent efficacy to nebulizer delivery. We sought to characterize delivery methods of short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) therapy among hospitalized patients with acute asthma to understand if there are missed opportunities for self-management education...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061907/a-randomized-seven-day-study-to-assess-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-glycopyrrolate-formoterol-fumarate-fixed-dose-combination-metered-dose-inhaler-using-novel-co-suspension%C3%A2-delivery-technology-in-patients-with-moderate-to-very-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary
#14
Colin Reisner, Leonardo M Fabbri, Edward M Kerwin, Charles Fogarty, Selwyn Spangenthal, Klaus F Rabe, Gary T Ferguson, Fernando J Martinez, James F Donohue, Patrick Darken, Earl St Rose, Chad Orevillo, Shannon Strom, Tracy Fischer, Michael Golden, Sarvajna Dwivedi
BACKGROUND: Long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2-agonist combinations are recommended for patients whose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not managed with monotherapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) fixed-dose combination delivered via a Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology-based metered dose inhaler (MDI) (GFF MDI). METHODS: This was a Phase IIb randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, chronic-dosing (7 days), crossover study in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD ( NCT01085045 )...
January 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042449/stress-and-strain-distribution-in-three-different-mini-dental-implant-designs-using-in-implant-retained-overdenture-a-finite-element-analysis-study
#15
W Aunmeungtong, P Khongkhunthian, P Rungsiyakull
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used for prediction of stress and strain between dental implant components and bone in the implant design process. PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to characterize and analyze stress and strain distribution occurring in bone and implants and to compare stress and strain of three different implant designs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different mini dental implant designs were included in this study: 1. a mini dental implant with an internal implant-abutment connection (MDIi); 2...
October 2016: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034717/crystal-structure-of-a-phospholipase-a2-from-bothrops-asper-venom-insights-into-a-new-putative-myotoxic-cluster
#16
Guilherme H M Salvador, Juliana I Dos Santos, Bruno Lomonte, Marcos R M Fontes
Snake venoms from the Viperidae and Elapidae families often have several phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which may display different functions despite having a similar structural scaffold. These proteins are considered an important target for the development of drugs against local myotoxic damage because they are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. PLA2s from these venoms are generally divided into two classes: (i) catalytic PLA2s (or Asp49-PLA2s) and (ii) non-catalytic PLA2-like toxins (or Lys49-PLA2s)...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999471/use-of-simulated-patient-approach-to-assess-the-community-pharmacists-knowledge-of-appropriate-use-of-metered-dose-inhaler
#17
Sunday O Nduka, Maureen U Anetoh, Kosisochi C Amorha, Okechukwu O Henry, Mathew J Okonta
RATIONALE: The pharmacist charged with the responsibility of drug administration and counseling should have the basic knowledge and skills necessary to demonstrate the use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) to asthma patients for the maximization of treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the community pharmacists' knowledge of the appropriate use of MDIs in Anambra State, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was carried out in two major cities in Anambra State, Nigeria, using 41 registered community pharmacists...
September 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999149/time-required-to-rectify-inhaler-errors-among-experienced-subjects-with-a-faulty-technique
#18
Andrea S Melani, Marco Bonavia, Eliuccia Mastropasqua, Alessandro Zanforlin, Marco Lodi, Paola Martucci, Nicola Scichilone, Maria Aliani, Margherita Neri, Piersante Sestini
BACKGROUND: Regardless of the device used, many patients have difficulty maintaining proper inhaler technique over time. Repeated education from caregivers is required to ensure persistence of correct inhaler technique, but no information is available to evaluate the time required to rectify inhaler errors in experienced users with a baseline faulty technique and whether this time of re-education to restore inhaler mastery can differ between devices. METHODS: This was a multi-center, single-visit, open-label, cross-sectional study in a large group of 981 experienced adult subjects (mean ± SD age 64 ± 15 y), mainly suffering from COPD and asthma, who showed faulty inhaler technique at a follow-up visit in chest clinics...
December 20, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916620/efficacy-and-safety-of-glycopyrrolate-formoterol-metered-dose-inhaler-formulated-using-co-suspension-delivery-technology-in-patients-with-copd
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Fernando J Martinez, Klaus F Rabe, Gary T Ferguson, Leonardo M Fabbri, Stephen Rennard, Gregory J Feldman, Sanjay Sethi, Selwyn Spangenthal, Gregory M Gottschlich, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Samir Arora, Thomas M Siler, Shahid Siddiqui, Patrick Darken, Tracy Fischer, Andrea Maes, Michael Golden, Chad Orevillo, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) combinations are a treatment option for patients with COPD who continue to have symptoms despite treatment with a LAMA or a LABA alone. The Efficacy and Safety of PT003, PT005, and PT001 in Subjects with Moderate-to-Very Severe COPD (PINNACLE-1) (NCT01854645) and the Multi-Center Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of PT003, PT005, and PT001 in Subjects with Moderate-to-Very Severe COPD (PINNACLE-2) (NCT01854658) trials investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel glycopyrrolate [GP]/formoterol [FF] 18/9...
February 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748638/the-history-of-therapeutic-aerosols-a-chronological-review
#20
Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
February 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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