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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324842/phenotypical-physiological-and-biochemical-analyses-provide-insight-into-selenium-induced-phytotoxicity-in-rice-plants
#1
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The present study investigated the phenotypical, physiological and biochemical changes of rice plants exposed to high selenium (Se) concentrations to gain an insight into Se-induced phytotoxicity. Results showed that exposure of rice plants to excessive Se resulted in growth retardation and biomass reduction in connection with the decreased levels of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The reduced water status and an associated increase in sugar and proline levels indicated Se-induced osmotic stress in rice plants...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324762/chrysanthemum-morphology-photosynthetic-efficiency-and-antioxidant-capacity-are-differentially-modified-by-light-quality
#2
Liang Zheng, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
The effect of light quality on leaf morphology, photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity of leaves that fully developed under a specific spectrum was investigated in Chrysanthemum cv. Four light treatments were applied at 100μmolm(-2)s(-1) and a photoperiod of 14h using light-emitting diodes, which were 100% red (R), 100% blue (B), 75% red with 25% blue (RB) and white (W), respectively. Intraspecific variation was investigated by studying the response of eight cultivars. Overall, red light significantly decreased the leaf area while the thinnest leaves were observed for W...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324165/lipid-phenol-and-carotenoid-changes-in-bianca-grapevine-leaves-after-mechanical-wounding-a-case-study
#3
Giulia Chitarrini, Luca Zulini, Domenico Masuero, Urska Vrhovsek
Metabolic changes can occur in plants in response to abiotic stress. Extensive use of leaf discs (mechanical wounding) in studies regarding the effect on the biochemical response of the grapevine to different types of biotic stress makes it necessary to understand metabolic perturbation after injury. In this study, we investigate how mechanical wounding can affect the metabolism of grapevine leaf tissue using Bianca variety as case study. Two sizes of leaf discs (1.1 and 2.8 cm in diameter) were excised from leaves, and phenol, lipid and carotenoid perturbation were investigated 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 120 h post cutting...
March 21, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323947/effects-of-mixed-carotenoids-on-adipokines-and-abdominal-adiposity-in-children-a-pilot-study
#4
J Atilio Canas, Amanda Lochrie, Amy Galena McGowan, Jobayer Hossain, Christopher Schettino, P Babu Balagopal
Context: Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. Objective: To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) vs. placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Design and Setting: Randomized (1:1) double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Participants: Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity (BMI > 90%); age: 10...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323451/phytostabilization-of-heavy-metals-by-the-emergent-macrophyte-vossia-cuspidata-roxb-griff-a-phytoremediation-approach
#5
Tarek M Galal, Fatma A Gharib, Safia M Ghazi, Khalid H Mansour
The present study was conducted to investigate the potential of Vossia cuspidata as a phytoremediator to accumulate heavy metals from polluted water bodies. Thirty-two quadrats, distributed equally in eight sites (six polluted sites along Ismailia canal and two unpolluted sites along the Nile River) were selected seasonally for plant, water and sediment investigations. Winter plants recorded the highest values of shoot height, diameter, and leaf width, but the lowest shoot density. Plants collected in autumn had the lowest values of leaf length, width and area, while those in spring had the highest shoot density, with the lowest shoot height...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319796/effects-of-stepwise-nitrogen-depletion-on-carotenoid-content-fluorescence-parameters-and-the-cellular-stoichiometry-of-chlorella-vulgaris
#6
Ping Zhang, Zhe Li, Lunhui Lu, Yan Xiao, Jing Liu, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
Stressful conditions can stimulate the accumulation of carotenoids in some microalgae. To obtain more knowledge of the stress response, we studied the effects of different N concentrations on unicellular content of carotenoids using Raman spectroscopic technique; cellular stoichiometric changes and the fluorescence parameters of Chlorella vulgaris were concomitantly studied. Initially, we optimized the Raman scattering conditions and demonstrated the feasibility of unicellular carotenoid analysis by Raman spectroscopic technique...
March 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319163/hopanoid-free-methylobacterium-extorquens-dm4-overproduces-carotenoids-and-has-widespread-growth-impairment
#7
Alexander S Bradley, Paige K Swanson, Emilie E L Muller, Françoise Bringel, Sean M Caroll, Ann Pearson, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Christopher J Marx
Hopanoids are sterol-like membrane lipids widely used as geochemical proxies for bacteria. Currently, the physiological role of hopanoids is not well understood, and this represents one of the major limitations in interpreting the significance of their presence in ancient or contemporary sediments. Previous analyses of mutants lacking hopanoids in a range of bacteria have revealed a range of phenotypes under normal growth conditions, but with most having at least an increased sensitivity to toxins and osmotic stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318254/phosphate-fertilizer-and-growing-environment-changes-the-phytochemicals-oil-quality-and-nutritional-composition-of-roundup-ready-gm-and-conventional-soybean
#8
Tatiane Scilewski da Costa Zanatta, Roberta Manica-Berto, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Michele Maciel Crizel Cardozo, Cesar Valmor Rombaldi, Rui Carlos Zambiazi, Álvaro Renato Guerra Dias
The phosphorus intake (P), genotype, and growth environment in soybean cultivation can affect the composition of the bean. This experiment was conducted in two locations (microregion I and microregion II) by using a randomized complete block design, including conventional soybean cultivars (BRS Sambaíba), genetically modified cultivars (Msoy 9144 Roundup Ready-RR), and varying doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg/ ha P2O5). Soybeans were evaluated for chemical composition, total phenols, phytic acid, individual isoflavones, antioxidant activity, oil quality, fatty acid profile, total carotenoids, and individual tocopherols...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317756/blue-light-dosage-affects-carotenoids-and-tocopherols-in-microgreens
#9
Giedrė Samuolienė, Akvilė Viršilė, Aušra Brazaitytė, Julė Jankauskienė, Sandra Sakalauskienė, Viktorija Vaštakaitė, Algirdas Novičkovas, Alina Viškelienė, Audrius Sasnauskas, Pavelas Duchovskis
Mustard, beet and parsley were grown to harvest time under selected LEDs: 638+660+731+0% 445nm; 638+660+731+8% 445nm; 638+660+731+16% 445nm; 638+660+731+25% 445nm; 638+660+731+33% 445nm. From 1.2 to 4.3 times higher concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin was found under blue 33% treatment in comparison to lower blue light dosages. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metabolites, which were not directly connected with light reactions, such as tocopherols, was more influenced by lower (16%) blue light dosage, increasing about 1...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317724/a-metabolomic-evaluation-of-the-phytochemical-composition-of-tomato-juices-being-used-in-human-clinical-trials
#10
Morgan J Cichon, Ken M Riedl, Steven J Schwartz
Juices from the traditional red tomato and a unique tangerine tomato variety are being investigated as health promoting foods in human clinical trials. However, it is unknown how the tangerine and red tomato juices differ in biologically relevant phytochemicals beyond carotenoids. Here liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to evaluate broadly the similarities and differences in carotenoids and other phytochemicals between red and tangerine tomato juices intended for clinical interventions...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315661/nutrient-biomarker-patterns-and-long-term-risk-of-dementia-in-older-adults
#11
Camille Amadieu, Sophie Lefèvre-Arbogast, Cécile Delcourt, Jean-François Dartigues, Catherine Helmer, Catherine Féart, Cécilia Samieri
INTRODUCTION: Several nutrients may predict dementia risk. We characterized nutrient biomarker patterns, which integrate the complexity of nutrient exposure and biodisponibility associated with long-term risk of dementia in a large cohort of older persons, the Three-City study. METHODS: We included 666 nondemented participants with plasma measurements of 22 fat-soluble nutrients at baseline, who were followed up for 12 years for dementia. RESULTS: A "deleterious" pattern combining lower blood status in vitamin D, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fats and higher saturated fats was strongly associated with a higher risk of dementia...
March 15, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315450/phospholipid-oxidation-and-carotenoid-supplementation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#12
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, I Milic, A Devitt, R Moran, R Mulcahy, A N Howard, J M Nolan, H R Griffiths
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease, characterised by decline of memory, cognitive function and changes in behaviour. Generic markers of lipid peroxidation are increased in AD, therefore reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of cognitive decline. Carotenoids are depleted in AD serum, therefore we have compared serum lipid oxidation between AD and age-matched control subjects before and after carotenoid supplementation. The novel oxidised phospholipid biomarker 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) was analysed using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), 8-isoprostane (IsoP) was measured by ELISA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) was measured by a colorimetric assay...
March 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314904/the-arabidopsis-orange-ator-gene-promotes-carotenoid-accumulation-in-transgenic-corn-hybrids-derived-from-parental-lines-with-limited-carotenoid-pools
#13
Judit Berman, Uxue Zorrilla-López, Vicente Medina, Gemma Farré, Gerhard Sandmann, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
The AtOR gene enhances carotenoid levels in corn by promoting the formation of plastoglobuli when the carotenoid pool is limited, but has no further effect when carotenoids are already abundant. The cauliflower orange (or) gene mutation influences carotenoid accumulation in plants by promoting the transition of proplastids into chromoplasts, thus creating intracellular storage compartments that act as metabolic sink. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis OR gene under the control of the endosperm-specific wheat LMW glutenin promoter in a white corn variety that normally accumulates only trace amounts of carotenoids...
March 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301727/carotenoid-profile-antioxidant-capacity-and-chromoplasts-of-pink-guava-psidium-guajava-l-cv-%C3%A2-criolla%C3%A2-during-fruit-ripening
#14
Carolina Rojas-Garbanzo, Maike Gleichenhagen, Annerose Heller, Patricia Esquivel, Nadine Schulze-Kaysers, Andreas Schieber
Pigments of pericarp and pulp of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. ´Criolla´) were investigated to elucidate the profile and the accumulation of main carotenoids during four stages of fruit ripening by using HPLC-DAD and APCI-MS/MS analysis. Seventeen carotenoids were identified and changes in their profile during fruit ripening were observed. The carotenoids all-trans-β-carotene, 15-cis-lycopene, and all-trans-lycopene were present in all ripening stages, but all-trans-lycopene was found to be predominant (from 63 % to 92 % of total carotenoids) and responsible for the high lipophilic antioxidant capacity determined by spectrophotometric assays...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300638/astaxanthin-attenuated-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-fibrosis-partially-by-activating-sirt1
#15
Jun Zhang, Quan-Zhen Wang, Shao-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ji, Jie Qiu, Jian Wang, Yi Zhou, Qian Cai, Jie Zhang, Hai-Qing Gao
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Astaxanthin (AST), a member of the carotenoid family, is a well-known antioxidant, but its effect on and underlying mechanisms in myocardial fibrosis are poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction were induced using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AST was administered to mice for 12weeks post-surgery. In vitro, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used to stimulate human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs)...
March 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299905/variation-in-phenolic-profile-%C3%AE-carotene-and-flavonoid-contents-biological-activities-of-two-tagetes-species-from-pakistani-flora
#16
Muhammad Adnan Ayub, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Asif Hanif, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Muhammad Shahid, Omar Janneh
The objective of present study was to evaluate the variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene, flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Tagetes eracta and Tagetes patula (T. erecta and T. patula) through different in vitro assays.,Antioxidant activity was determined through 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays and antibacterial and antifungal activities studied using the disc diffusion and resazurin microtiter-plate assays against bacterial and fungal strains...
March 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299644/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-astaxanthin-a-potential-therapeutic-role-in-preserving-cognitive-function-in-age-and-neurodegeneration
#17
REVIEW
Bethany Grimmig, Seol-Hee Kim, Kevin Nash, Paula C Bickford, R Douglas Shytle
Astaxanthin (AXT) is a carotenoid with multiple health benefits. It is currently marketed as a health supplement and is well known for its antioxidant capacity. Recent evidence has emerged to suggest a broad range of biological activities. The interest in this compound has increased dramatically over the last few years and many studies are now applying this molecule across many disease models. Results from the current research are beginning to come together to suggest neuroprotective properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects, as well as the potential to promote or maintain neural plasticity...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299465/extraction-of-microalgae-derived-lipids-with-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-in-an-industrial-relevant-pilot-plant
#18
Jan Lorenzen, Nadine Igl, Marlene Tippelt, Andrea Stege, Farah Qoura, Ulrich Sohling, Thomas Brück
Microalgae are capable of producing up to 70% w/w triglycerides with respect to their dry cell weight. Since microalgae utilize the greenhouse gas CO2, they can be cultivated on marginal lands and grow up to ten times faster than terrestrial plants, the generation of algae oils is a promising option for the development of sustainable bioprocesses, that are of interest for the chemical lubricant, cosmetic and food industry. For the first time we have carried out the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) mediated lipid extraction from biomass of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus obtusiusculus under industrrially relevant conditions...
March 15, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298676/dehulling-and-microwave-pretreatment-effects-on-the-physicochemical-composition-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-virgin-rapeseed-oil
#19
Agnieszka Rękas, Aleksander Siger, Małgorzata Wroniak, Iwona Ścibisz, Dorota Derewiaka, Andrzej Anders
The effect of microwave heating (800 W) of whole and dehulled rapeseeds for 2 to 8 min was investigated in order to evaluate the impact of dehulling in conjunction with microwaving on the nutritional value, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of virgin rapeseed oil. Control oil produced from dehulled seeds (DRO) had higher amounts of bioactive compounds, such as tocochromanols and phytosterols, lower content of pigments, and higher content of primary and secondary oxidation products compared to oil pressed from whole seeds (WRO)...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298266/metabolic-effects-of-inflammation-on-vitamin-a-and-carotenoids-in-humans-and-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Lewis P Rubin, A Catharine Ross, Charles B Stephensen, Torsten Bohn, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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