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Daviel Gómez, L Ázaro Hernández, Lourdes Yabor, Gerrit T S Beemster, Christoph C Tebbe, Jutta Papenbrock, José Carlos Lorenzo
Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Darwin Ortiz, Amudhan Ponrajan, Juan Pablo Bonnet, Torbert Rocheford, Mario G Ferruzzi
Translation of the breeding efforts designed to biofortify maize (Z. mays) genotypes with higher levels of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) content for sub-Saharan Africa is dependent in part on the stability of carotenoids during post-harvest through industrial and in-home food processing operations. The purpose of this study was to simulate production of commercial milled products by determining the impact of dry-milling and extrusion processing on carotenoid stability in three higher pVAC maize genotypes (C17xDE3, Orange ISO, Hi27xCML328)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Antonella Dewell, Philip Tsao, Joseph Rigdon, Christopher D Gardner
Antioxidants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects, but there is a lack of research comparing food to supplement antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to determine if increases in intake of foods naturally rich in antioxidants would lower blood levels of inflammatory markers more than consuming antioxidant supplements among adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eighty-eight generally healthy adults with ≥1 elevated risk factor for cardiovascular disease were randomized in a single-blind (diets)/double-blind (supplements), parallel-group study for 8 weeks...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Imran Haider, Beatriz Andreo-Jimenez, Mark Bruno, Andrea Bimbo, Kristýna Floková, Haneen Abuauf, Valentine Otang Ntui, Xiujie Guo, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Salim Al-Babili, Harro J Bouwmeester, Carolien Ruyter-Spira
Both strigolactones (SLs) and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetically originate from carotenoids. Considering their common origin, the interaction of these two hormones at the biosynthetic and/or regulatory level may be anticipated. Here, we show in rice that drought simultaneously induces SL production in the root, and ABA production and the expression of SL biosynthetic genes in the shoot. Under control conditions, the ABA concentration was higher in shoots of the SL biosynthetic rice mutants dwarf10 (d10) and d17 than in wild-type plants, while a similar trend was observed for SL-perception mutant d3...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
M J Llansola-Portoles, K Redeckas, S Streckaité, C Ilioaia, A A Pascal, A Telfer, M Vengris, L Valkunas, B Robert
Transient absorption studies conducted on in vitro lycopene aggregates, as well as on lycopene crystalloids inside tomato chromoplasts, reveal the appearance of a long-lived excited state, which we unambiguously identified as lycopene triplet. These triplet states must be generated by singlet exciton fission, which occurs from the lycopene2 Ag state. This is the first time the singlet fission process has ever been shown to occur in a biological material. We propose that the formation of carotenoid assemblies in chromoplasts may constitute a photoprotective process during chromoplast maturation, in addition to their function in signaling processes...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiao-Long Dong, Cai-Xia Pan, Min-Juan Zhang
Carotenoids are the precursors of Vitamin A. They are cleaved by carotenoid oxygenase and then isomerized by retinoid isomerase. In this study, we identified a gene, Bombyx mori Carotenoid Oxygenases and Retinal Isomerase (BmCORI), which was the homolog of β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase and the retinal pigment epithelium protein of 65 kD. Further analysis indicated that the expression of BmCORI in silkworms was significantly higher in females than in males. We also found that the β-carotene content in BmCORI-expressed human embryonic kidney 293 cells was significantly lower than in the controls, while the lutein content showed a slight difference...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Zhi Ran, Cheng Chen, Fabo Chen, Ming'an Liao, Lijin Lin, Xiulan Lv, Qunxian Deng, Xun Wang, Jin Wang, Yi Tang, Huaxiong Li
Plant hormones can improve the phytoremediation capabilities of heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants. In this study, different doses of indole-3-butytric acid (IBA) were sprayed on the leaves of the lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulator plant Pseudostellaria maximowicziana, which was planted in Pb-Zn contaminated soil, and the effects of IBA on Pb and Zn accumulation levels in P. maximowicziana were studied. Spraying 25- and 50-mg/L IBA doses increased the stem, leaf and shoot biomasses of P. maximowicziana compared with the control, while 75- and 100-mg/L IBA doses decreased them...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Daniele Giuffrida, Paola Donato, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello
In the present perspective different approaches to the carotenoids analysis will be discussed providing a brief overview of the most advanced both monodimensional and bidimensional liquid chromatographic methodologies applied to the carotenoids analysis, followed by a discussion on the recents advanced supercritical fluid chromatography x liquid chromatography bidimensional approach with photo-diode-array and mass spectrometry detection. Moreover a discussion on the online supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection applied to the determination of carotenoids and apocarotenoids, will also be provided...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vineet Singh, Bhawna Pandey, Surindra Suthar
The increasing availability of antibiotics in wastewater has created a serious threat to non-target organisms in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of amoxicillin on duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza during a short-term exposure (7 d). The duckweed was exposed to a range of environmentally relevant (0.0001-0.01 mg L-1 ) and high (0.1 and 1 mg L-1 ) concentrations of amoxicillin. Subsequently, biomarkers of toxicity such as growth, pigments (Chl a, Chl b and carotenoids), antioxidative enzyme activity (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; and ascorbate peroxidases, APX), and biochemical content (protein, lipid and starch) were analysed in their fronds...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Isabelle Raymond-Bouchard, Jacqueline Goordial, Yevgen Zolotarov, Jennifer Ronholm, Martina Stromvik, Corien Bakermans, Lyle G Whyte
Permafrost accounts for 27% of all soil ecosystems and harbors diverse microbial communities. Our understanding of microorganisms in permafrost, their activities and adaptations, remains limited. Using five subzero-growing (cryophilic) permafrost bacteria, we examined features of cold adaptation through comparative genomic analyses with mesophilic relatives. The cryophiles possess genes associated with cold adaptation, including cold shock proteins, RNA helicases, and oxidative stress and carotenoid synthesis enzymes...
March 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Mohammad Akbari, Nasser Mahna, Katam Ramesh, Ali Bandehagh, Silvia Mazzuca
Pistachio, one of the important tree nuts, is cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions where salinity is the most common abiotic stress encountered by this tree. However, the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in this plant are not well understood. In the present study, five 1-year-old pistachio rootstocks (namely Akbari, Badami, Ghazvini, Kale-Ghouchi, and UCB-1) were treated with four saline water regimes (control, 8, 12, and 16 dS m-1 ) for 100 days. At high salinity level, all rootstocks showed decreased relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCHC), and carotenoids in the leaf, while ascorbic acid (AsA) and total soluble proteins (TSP) were reduced in both leaf and root organs...
March 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Regina Elizondo-González, Eduardo Quiroz-Guzmán, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Paola Magallón-Servín, Alberto Peña-Rodríguez
Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p  < 0...
2018: PeerJ
Yinhua Ni, Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Yang Xu, Tsuguhito Ota, Zhengwei Fu
Oxidative stress caused free radical and mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in the progression of aging and age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. Antioxidant supplementation has received growing attention and the effects of antioxidant on aging are increasingly assessed in both animal and human studies. However, additional and more promising treatments that contribute to the expansion of anti-aging therapies are needed. Astaxanthin, a super antioxidant carotenoid and free radical scavenger, inhibits lipid peroxidation more potently than vitamin E...
March 10, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Nakyeong Lee, So-Ra Ko, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
This study used a single strain Ettlia sp. YC001 and two stages to optimize the production of three materials: lipids, lutein, and β-carotene. In the cultivation stage for lutein production, different temperatures, light qualities, and intensities were applied. The highest biomass was obtained at 35 °C, but the maximum lutein productivity of 6.1 mg/L/d achieved at 25 °C. In the stress stage for lipids and β-carotene production, UV-A and nitrogen starvation were applied. While UV stress increased the chlorophyll-a and β-carotene content...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
M A Stout, D M Benoist, M A Drake
Concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, and major carotenoids in dairy products are often determined simultaneously by liquid chromatography. These compounds have different polarity and solubility; thus, extracting them simultaneously can be difficult and inefficient. In milks with low carotenoid concentrations, the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin may not be completely resolved using common extraction techniques. A simplified method was developed to optimize extraction efficiency and the limit of detection and limit of quantification (LoQ) of lutein and zeaxanthin in bovine milk without decreasing sensitivity to other vitamins or carotenoids...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yury B Slonimskiy, Eugene G Maksimov, Evgeny P Lukashev, Marcus Moldenhauer, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Thomas Friedrich, Nikolai N Sluchanko
Photosynthesis requires a balance between efficient light harvesting and protection against photodamage. The cyanobacterial photoprotection system uniquely relies on the functioning of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP) that under intense illumination provides fluorescence quenching of the light-harvesting antenna complexes, phycobilisomes. The recently identified fluorescence recovery protein (FRP) binds to the photoactivated OCP and accelerates its relaxation into the basal form, completing the regulatory circle...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
N N Sluchanko, Y B Slonimskiy, E G Maksimov
Photoprotective mechanisms of cyanobacteria are characterized by several features associated with the structure of their water-soluble antenna complexes - the phycobilisomes (PBs). During energy transfer from PBs to chlorophyll of photosystem reaction centers, the "energy funnel" principle is realized, which regulates energy flux due to the specialized interaction of the PBs core with a quenching molecule capable of effectively dissipating electron excitation energy into heat. The role of the quencher is performed by ketocarotenoid within the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which is also a sensor for light flux...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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