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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350297/microbial-communities-and-their-predicted-metabolic-functions-in-a-desiccating-acid-salt-lake
#1
Elena Zaikova, Kathleen C Benison, Melanie R Mormile, Sarah Stewart Johnson
The waters of Lake Magic in Western Australia are among the most geochemically extreme on Earth. This ephemeral saline lake is characterized by pH as low as 1.6 salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, and unusually complex geochemistry, including extremely high concentrations of aluminum, silica, and iron. We examined the microbial composition and putative function in this extreme acid brine environment by analyzing lake water, groundwater, and sediment samples collected during the austral summer near peak evapoconcentration...
January 19, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349456/effects-of-carotenoids-on-lipid-bilayers
#2
Quentin R Johnson, Barmak Mostofian, Gabriel Fuente Gomez, Jeremy C Smith, Xiaolin Cheng
Carotenoids have been found to be important in improving the integrity of biomembranes in eukaryotes. However, the molecular details of how carotenoids modulate the physical properties of biomembranes are unknown. To this end, we have conducted a series of molecular dynamics simulations of different biologically-relevant membranes in the presence of carotenoids. The carotenoid effect on the membrane was found to be specific to the identity of the carotenoid and the composition of the membrane itself. Therefore, different classes of carotenoids produce a different effect on the membrane, and different membrane phases are affected differently by carotenoids...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347821/fluorescence-and-excited-state-conformational-dynamics-of-the-orange-carotenoid-protein
#3
Jason K Gurchiek, Han Bao, Maria Agustina Domínguez-Martín, Sarah E McGovern, Claire E Marquardt, Jerome D Roscioli, Soumen Ghosh, Cheryl A Kerfeld, Warren F Beck
The Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) mediates nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanisms in cyanobacteria. A bound ketocarotenoid serves as a sensor of mid-visible light intensity and as a quencher of phycocyanobilin excitons in the phycobilisome. The photochemical mechanism that triggers conversion of the protein from a resting, orange state (OCPO) to an active, red state (OCPR) after optical preparation of the S2 state of the carotenoid remains an open question. We report here that the fluorescence spectrum and quantum yield of the bound carotenoids in OCPO report important details of the motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 state...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346532/what-color-should-glacier-algae-be
#4
Roman J Dial, Gerard Q Ganey, S McKenzie Skiles
Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344416/lycium-barbarum-a-traditional-chinese-herb-and-a-promising-anti-aging-agent
#5
REVIEW
Yanjie Gao, Yifo Wei, Yuqing Wang, Fang Gao, Zhigang Chen
Lycium barbarum has been used in China for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. Lycium barbarum contains abundant Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), betaine, phenolics, carotenoids (zeaxanthin and β-carotene), cerebroside, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), β-sitosterol, flavonoids and vitamins (in particular, riboflavin, thiamine, and ascorbic acid). LBPs are the primary active components of Lycium barbarum. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological activities of LBPs and other major components...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341173/strigolactones-positively-regulate-chilling-tolerance-in-pea-and-in-arabidopsis
#6
James W Cooper, Yan Hu, Leila Beyyoudh, H Yildiz Dasgan, Karl Kunert, Christine A Beveridge, Christine H Foyer
Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines...
January 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340843/phytoene-production-utilizing-the-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-capacity-of-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#7
Tsubasa Fuke, Takaaki Sato, Savyasachee Jha, Myra L Tansengco, Haruyuki Atomi
Phytoene (C40H64) is an isoprenoid and a precursor of various carotenoids which are of industrial value. Archaea can be considered to exhibit a relatively large capacity to produce isoprenoids, as they are components of their membrane lipids. Here, we aimed to produce isoprenoids such as phytoene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. T. kodakarensis harbors a prenyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are precursors of squalene and phytoene, respectively...
January 16, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340606/leaves-not-roots-or-floral-tissue-are-the-main-site-of-rapid-external-pressure-induced-aba-biosynthesis-in-angiosperms
#8
Feng-Ping Zhang, Frances Sussmilch, David S Nichols, Amanda A Cardoso, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
Rapid biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaf, triggered by a decrease in cell volume, is essential for a functional stomatal response to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in angiosperms. However, it is not known whether rapid biosynthesis of ABA is triggered in other plant tissues as well. Through the application of external pressure to flower, root and leaf tissues, we test whether a reduction in cell volume can trigger rapid increases in ABA levels across plant body in two species Solanum lycopersicum and Passiflora tarminiana...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338336/changes-in-microbial-growth-carotenoids-and-water-soluble-tannin-content-of-ripe-persimmon-beverage-after-ultra-high-pressure-treatment
#9
Gi-Chang Kim, Sang-Bum Kim, Jin-Sook Kim, Kyung-Mi Kim, Song-Yi Choi
To avoid the loss of carotenoids and increasing the tannin content associated with pasteurization, we tested ultra-high pressure treatment of ripe persimmon beverage. We compared microbial counts (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and mould), carotenoid contents, and water-soluble tannin contents between heat- and ultra-high pressure-treated beverages. No microbial contamination was detected after pasteurization or ultra-high pressure treatment at 400 MPa for more than 5 min. Ultra-high pressure treatment significantly prevented the reduction in carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lycopene), with losses of 3...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337864/effects-of-chitosan-pva-and-cu-nanoparticles-on-the-growth-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-tomato-under-saline-stress
#10
Hipólito Hernández-Hernández, Susana González-Morales, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado
Chitosan is a natural polymer, which has been used in agriculture to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, it has been used for the encapsulation of nanoparticles in order to obtain controlled release. In this work, the effect of chitosan-PVA and Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs) absorbed on chitosan-PVA on growth, antioxidant capacity, mineral content, and saline stress in tomato plants was evaluated. The results show that treatments with chitosan-PVA increased tomato growth. Furthermore, chitosan-PVA increased the content of chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, and superoxide dismutase...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336630/ameliorating-role-of-lycopene-tomato-puree-and-spirulina-tomato-puree-on-the-hematology-of-fluoride-exposed-swiss-albino-mice
#11
Shweta Sharma, Puneet Parashar, Subhasini Sharma, Kanta Prasad Sharma
Plant species rich in antioxidants (vitamins, flavonoids, lignans, and carotenoids) have been explored for complementary therapy of chronic diseases (cancers, coronary heart disease) and mitigation of pollutant toxicity. This article investigates their ameliorative role on selective hematological and serum biochemical parameters in fluoride-exposed (190 mg/kg body weight) Swiss albino mice pretreated with the antioxidant-rich diet supplements tomato puree (with and without peels), spirulina (cyanobacteria), and lycopene (present in tomato) for 45 days prior to entry into experimental protocol...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335805/effects-of-nicotine-on-the-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-halophilic-archaea-class-halobacteria-an-hplc-and-raman-spectroscopy-study
#12
Aharon Oren, Joseph Hirschberg, Varda Mann, Jan Jehlička
Nicotine has a profound influence on the carotenoid metabolism in halophilic Archaea of the class Halobacteria. In a study of Halobacterium salinarum, Haloarcula marismortui and Halorubrum sodomense, using different analytical techniques to monitor the production of different carotenoids as a function of the presence of nicotine, we showed that the formation of α-bacterioruberin was inhibited in all. In Hbt. salinarum, addition of nicotine led to a significant change in the color of the culture due to the accumulation of lycopene, in addition to the formation of bisanhydrobacterioruberin which does not differ in color from α-bacterioruberin...
January 15, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335756/lead-induced-physiological-biochemical-and-enzymatic-changes-in-asplenium-scolopendrium-l
#13
Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu, Liliana Cristina Soare, Irina Fierăscu, Radu-Claudiu Fierăscu, Monica Popescu
The paper aims to determine the lead-induced physiological, biochemical and enzymatic changes in Asplenium scolopendrium, which could represent biomarkers used in environmental assessment. Of all the physiological processes, photosynthesis and respiration were analyzed and the enzymatic and biochemical determinations focused on catalase activity, assimilatory pigment concentration, polyphenol content and lead presence in tissues.The stress induced by the exposure to Pb of the species Asplenium scolopendrium determined an increase in the carotenoid content, the catalase activity, the total polyphenol content and also enhanced the respiration potential...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333389/influence-of-cooking-methods-on-bioactive-compound-content-and-antioxidant-activity-of-brussels-sprouts
#14
Eun-Sun Hwang
The effects of different cooking methods on total bioactive compound content were determined, and in vitro antioxidant activity in 80% ethanolic extracts of Brussels sprouts was evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. Compared to uncooked, steamed, and microwaved Brussels sprouts extracted with 80% ethanol contained higher amounts of total polyphenols. Uncooked Brussels sprouts contained the highest amounts of total flavonoids. Microwaved Brussels sprouts contained the highest amounts of total carotenoids (0...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333048/astaxanthin-ameliorates-hepatic-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-carbon-tetrachloride-administered-rats
#15
Md Ariful Islam, Md Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Faruk, Md Tauhid Ul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, A F M Towheedur Rahman, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Ashraful Alam
Background: Astaxanthin is of carotenoids group which possess strong antioxidant properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of astaxanthin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: Female Long-Evans rats were administered with CCl4 orally (1 ml/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were treated with astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) every day for 2 weeks. Blood plasma samples were isolated from each group and were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329851/chemical-characterization-of-myrciaria-floribunda-h-west-ex-willd-fruit
#17
Luciana Mouta de Oliveira, Alexandre Porte, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy, Marcelo da Costa Souza, Sidney Pacheco, Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araujo Santiago, Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa, Luzimar da Silva de Mattos do Nascimento, Renata Galhardo Borguini
M. floribunda fruit was studied to characterize its chemical composition. The chemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and volatiles of the fruit were determined. The chemical composition was determined according to AOAC and AOCS, the bioactive compounds by HPLC, the volatiles by GCMS and the antioxidant activity by ABTS+ and DPPH methods. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried fruit was 1.89 g·100 g-1, 2.43 g·100 g-1, 4.78 g·100 g-1 and 90.89 g·100 g-1 of ashes, lipids, proteins and total carbohydrates on a dry base, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329235/a-review-of-the-biological-activities-of-microalgal-carotenoids-and-their-potential-use-in-healthcare-and-cosmetic-industries
#18
REVIEW
Ramaraj Sathasivam, Jang-Seu Ki
Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits...
January 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328999/discovery-of-novel-piperonyl-derivatives-as-diapophytoene-desaturase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#19
Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Shuaishuai Ni, Feifei Chen, Baoli Li, Xiaoxia Qiu, Linghao Hu, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Inhibition of S. aureus diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) could serve as an alternative approach for addressing the tricky antibiotic resistance by blocking the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment which shields the bacterium from host oxidant killing. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 derivatives with piperonyl scaffold targeting CrtN and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were examined extensively to bring out the discovery of 21b with potent efficacy and better hERG safety profile compared to the first class CrtN inhibitor benzocycloalkane derivative 2...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325120/strigolactone-biosynthesis-genes-of-rice-is-required-for-the-punctual-entry-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-into-the-roots
#20
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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