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biofilm and efflux pump

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095142/high-mortality-of-bloodstream-infection-outbreak-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-p-aeruginosa-producing-spm-1-in-a-bone-marrow-transplant-unit
#1
Lucas Chaves, Lísia Moura Tomich, Matias Salomão, Gleice Cristina Leite, Jessica Ramos, Roberta Ruedas Martins, Camila Rizek, Patricia Neves, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Ulysses Amigo, Thais Guimaraes, Anna Sara Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
PURPOSE: Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa is increasing worldwide. In Brazil, SPM-1 is the main P. aeruginosa carbapenemase identified. Little is known about the virulence factor in SPM-1 clones.Methodolgy. We describe a carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (CRPa-BSI) outbreak in a bone marrow transplant Unit (BMT). Twenty-nine CRPa-BSI cases were compared to 58 controls. Microbiological characteristics of isolates, such as sensitivity, carbapenemase gene PCR for P...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046665/boeravinone-b-a-novel-dual-inhibitor-of-nora-bacterial-efflux-pump-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-human-p-glycoprotein-reduces-the-biofilm-formation-and-intracellular-invasion-of-bacteria
#2
Samsher Singh, Nitin P Kalia, Prashant Joshi, Ajay Kumar, Parduman R Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Sandip B Bharate, Inshad A Khan
This study elucidated the role of boeravinone B, a NorA multidrug efflux pump inhibitor, in biofilm inhibition. The effects of boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, a NorA substrate, were evaluated in NorA-overexpressing, wild-type, and knocked-out Staphylococcus aureus (SA-1199B, SA-1199, and SA-K1758, respectively). The mechanism of action was confirmed using the ethidium bromide accumulation and efflux assay. The role of boeravinone B as a human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor was examined in the LS-180 (colon cancer) cell line...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970736/comment-on-effect-of-biofilm-formation-by-clinical-isolates-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-the-efflux-mediated-resistance-to-commonly-used-antibiotics
#3
COMMENT
Evangelos I Kazakos, Nick Dorrell, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi, Jannis Kountouras
Attaran et al([1]) have recently shown that decreased susceptibility of established Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) biofilms to specific antibiotics, was associated with the overtly enhanced transcription of two efflux pump genes, hp1165 and hefA, involved in specific resistance to tetracycline and multiple antibiotics, respectively. Apart from antibiotic exposure, secretion of multiple antimicrobial peptides, such as human β-defensins (hβDs), by the gastric epithelium upon Hp challenge, may act as early triggering events that positively impact biofilm formation and thus, antibiotic resistance...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959742/the-biofilm-inhibitor-carolacton-enters-gram-negative-cells-studies-using-a-tolc-deficient-strain-of-escherichia-coli
#4
Jannik Donner, Michael Reck, Boyke Bunk, Michael Jarek, Constantin Benjamin App, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Jörg Overmann, Rolf Müller, Andreas Kirschning, Irene Wagner-Döbler
The myxobacterial secondary metabolite carolacton inhibits growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and kills biofilm cells of the caries- and endocarditis-associated pathogen Streptococcus mutans at nanomolar concentrations. Here, we studied the response to carolacton of an Escherichia coli strain that lacked the outer membrane protein TolC. Whole-genome sequencing of the laboratory E. coli strain TolC revealed the integration of an insertion element, IS5, at the tolC locus and a close phylogenetic relationship to the ancient E...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951477/a-novel-calcium-uptake-transporter-of-uncharacterized-p-type-atpase-family-supplies-calcium-for-cell-surface-integrity-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#5
Hemant Kumar Gupta, Shruti Shrivastava, Rakesh Sharma
Ca(2+) plays an important role in the physiology of bacteria. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are tightly maintained in the nanomolar range. Molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) uptake in bacteria remain elusive. Here we show that CtpE is responsible for Ca(2+) uptake in Mycobacterium smegmatis It represents a previously uncharacterized P-type ATPase family in bacteria. Disruption of ctpE in M. smegmatis resulted in a mutant with impaired growth under Ca(2+)-deficient conditions. The growth defect of the mutant could be rescued by Ca(2+) or by ectopic expression of ctpE from M...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943366/gentamicin-synergizes-with-azoles-against-resistant-candida-albicans
#6
Mengjiao Lu, Cuixiang Yu, Xueyan Cui, Jinyi Shi, Lei Yuan, Shujuan Sun
Candida species are the primary opportunistic pathogens of nosocomial fungal infections, causing both superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. Combination therapy for fungal infections has attracted considerable attention, especially for those caused by drug-resistant fungi. Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a weak antifungal activity against Fusarium. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions of gentamicin with azoles against the Candida species and the underlying mechanism...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939900/fluoxetine-and-thioridazine-inhibit-efflux-and-attenuate-crystalline-biofilm-formation-by-proteus-mirabilis
#7
Jonathan Nzakizwanayo, Paola Scavone, Shirin Jamshidi, Joseph A Hawthorne, Harriet Pelling, Cinzia Dedi, Jonathan P Salvage, Charlotte K Hind, Fergus M Guppy, Lara M Barnes, Bhavik A Patel, Khondaker M Rahman, Mark J Sutton, Brian V Jones
Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on indwelling urethral catheters that block urine flow and lead to serious clinical complications. The Bcr/CflA efflux system has previously been identified as important for development of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms, highlighting the potential for efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) to control catheter blockage. Here we evaluate the potential for drugs already used in human medicine (fluoxetine and thioridazine) to act as EPIs in P. mirabilis, and control crystalline biofilm formation...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916560/cmeabc-multidrug-efflux-pump-contributes-to-antibiotic-resistance-and-promotes-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-and-multiplication-in-acanthamoeba-polyphaga
#8
Ana Vieira, Amritha Ramesh, Alan M Seddon, Andrey V Karlyshev
Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893777/modulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-response-to-antimicrobials-by-the-candida-albicans-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol
#9
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
In microbial biofilms, microorganisms utilize secreted signaling chemical molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by the fungal species Candida albicans, shown to play a central physiological role during fungal biofilm growth. Our pervious in vitro and in vivo studies characterized an intricate interaction between C. albicans and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as these species co-exist in biofilm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of farnesol on S...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890187/kinetic-analysis-of-the-inhibition-of-the-drug-efflux-protein-acrb-using-surface-plasmon-resonance
#10
Rumana Mowla, Yinhu Wang, Shutao Ma, Henrietta Venter
Multidrug efflux protein complexes such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli are paramount in multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and are also implicated in other processes such as virulence and biofilm formation. Hence efflux pump inhibition, as a means to reverse antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant pathogens, has gained increased momentum over the past two decades. Significant advances in the structural and functional analysis of AcrB have informed the selection of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs)...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885721/targeting-intracellular-staphylococcus-aureus-to-lower-recurrence-of-orthopaedic-infection
#11
Devendra H Dusane, Douglas Kyrouac, Iris Petersen, Luke Bushrow, Jason H Calhoun, Jeffrey F Granger, Laura S Phieffer, Paul Stoodley
Staphylococcus aureus is often found in orthopaedic infections and may be protected from commonly prescribed antibiotics by forming biofilms or growing intracellularly within osteoblasts. To investigate the effect of non-antibiotic compounds in conjunction with antibiotics to clear intracellular and biofilm forming S. aureus causing osteomyelitis. SAOS-2 osteoblast-like cell lines were infected with S. aureus BB1279. Antibiotics (vancomycin, VAN; and dicloxacillin, DICLOX), bacterial efflux pump inhibitors (piperine, PIP; carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, CCCP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) were evaluated individually and in combination to kill intracellular bacteria...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870262/virulence-factors-antifungal-susceptibility-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-azole-resistance-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-recovered-from-clinical-specimens
#12
Sourour Neji, Ines Hadrich, Houaida Trabelsi, Salma Abbes, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm formation, the extracellular enzymatic activities of 182 clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex. METHODS: Molecular identification of the C. parapsilosis species complex was performed using PCR RFLP of SADH gene and PCR sequencing of ITS region. The susceptibility of ours isolates to antifungal agents and molecular mechanisms underlying azole resistance were evaluated. RESULTS: 63...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866739/effect-of-sodium-chloride-on-surface-associated-motility-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-the-role-of-aders-two-component-system
#13
P Malaka De Silva, Ayush Kumar
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterial pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern worldwide. Among a wide array of resistance mechanisms displayed by A. baumannii, energy-dependent efflux of antibiotics by proteins belonging the resistance-nodulation-division family serves as an important one. AdeABC pump has been shown to be active in various clinical isolates. Regulation of this pump is controlled by the AdeRS two-component system. In this study, we show that the AdeRS system, in addition to modulating A...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854668/current-and-future-therapies-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Wynne D Smith, Emmanuelle Bardin, Loren Cameron, Claire L Edmondson, Katie V Farrant, Isaac Martin, Ronan A Murphy, Odel Soren, Andrew R Turnbull, Natasha Wierre-Gore, Eric W Alton, Jacob G Bundy, Andrew Bush, Gary J Connett, Saul N Faust, Alain Filloux, Paul S Freemont, Andrew L Jones, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy S Webb, Huw D Williams, Jane C Davies
Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistically infects the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Initial infection can often be eradicated though requires prompt detection and adequate treatment. Intermittent and then chronic infection occurs in the majority of patients. Better detection of P. aeruginosa infection using biomarkers may enable more successful eradication before chronic infection is established. In chronic infection P. aeruginosa adapts to avoid immune clearance and resist antibiotics via efflux pumps, β-lactamase expression, reduced porins and switching to a biofilm lifestyle...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852815/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-major-facilitator-superfamily-transporters
#15
REVIEW
Ping Li, Yinzhong Gu, Jiang Li, Longxiang Xie, Xue Li, Jianping Xie
The cell membrane or biofilm serve as permeable barrier for xenobiotics to maintain the homeostasis of cells or bacterial community. Transport systems are essential for the uptake of nutrients and substances necessary for biofilm formation, efflux of deleterious compounds, as well as communication between cells and environment. Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) represents the largest secondary transporter family and is responsible for the transport of a broad spectrum of substrates with diverse physiochemical properties by utilizing the energy stored in electrochemical gradient across the membrane...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770446/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-dispersed-cells-versus-planktonic-cells-from-clinical-industry-and-environmental-origins
#16
Mercedes Berlanga, Laura Gomez-Perez, Ricardo Guerrero
We examined the cell-surface physicochemical properties, the biofilm formation capability and the antibiotic susceptibility in dispersed cells (from an artificial biofilm of alginate beads) and compared with their planktonic (free-swimming) counterparts. The strains used were from different origins, such as clinical (Acinetobacter baumannii AB4), cosmetic industry (Klebsiella oxytoca EU213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EU190), and environmental (Halomonas venusta MAT28). In general, dispersed cells adhered better to surfaces (measured as the "biofilm index") and had a greater hydrophobicity [measured as the microbial affinity to solvents (MATS)] than planktonic cells...
August 2, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#17
C Vuotto, F Longo, C Pascolini, G Donelli, M P Balice, M F Libori, V Tiracchia, A Salvia, P E Varaldo
AIMS: Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Nonenzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to nonexpression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) overexpression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710521/efflux-drug-transporters-at-the-forefront-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Tahmina Rahman, Benjamin Yarnall, Declan A Doyle
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is rapidly becoming a major world health consideration. To combat antibiotics, microorganisms employ their pre-existing defence mechanisms that existed long before man's discovery of antibiotics. Bacteria utilise levels of protection that range from gene upregulation, mutations, adaptive resistance, and production of resistant phenotypes (persisters) to communal behaviour, as in swarming and the ultimate defence of a biofilm. A major part of all of these responses involves the use of antibiotic efflux transporters...
October 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709374/nanoparticles-as-efflux-pump-and-biofilm-inhibitor-to-rejuvenate-bactericidal-effect-of-conventional-antibiotics
#19
REVIEW
Divya Gupta, Ajeet Singh, Asad U Khan
The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705674/molecular-bases-of-antifungal-resistance-in-filamentous-fungi
#20
Cheshta Sharma, Anuradha Chowdhary
Invasive mould infections due to Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and other filamentous fungi remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapy is required for successful patient management; however, limited antifungal drugs as well as the emergence of drug resistance pose a challenge to clinicians for effective management of these diseases. The evolution of multidrug-resistant strains owing to selective pressure as well as intrinsically-resistant pathogenic species are a major concern...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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