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"Alcoholic hepatitis"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#1
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051160/lipopolysaccharide-induced-neutrophil-dysfunction-following-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-stent-shunt-tipss-insertion-is-associated-with-organ-failure-and-mortality
#2
Jane Macnaughtan, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in increasing mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterised. The objective of this study was to characterise neutrophil function, LPS and cytokine concentrations within the splanchnic circulation of alcoholic cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPSS insertion for variceal haemorrhage and correlate this with outcome. 26 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage were studied prior to and 1-hour after TIPSS insertion...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050823/transjugular-liver-biopsy-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#3
Shiran Shetty, L Venkatakrishnan, J Krishanveni, Shantha Kumari
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis although part of spectrum of alcoholic liver disease can have overlapping features, and differentiating them using clinical, biochemical, and imaging features is not always possible. Standard therapy for each differs, and steroid therapy while beneficial in alcoholic hepatitis may be detrimental in cirrhosis due to high infectious complications. We analyzed our experience with liver biopsy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Male patients in the age group of 25-65 years who were clinically diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (DF > 32) were retrospectively analyzed and included in this study...
January 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043903/patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-given-prednisolone-therapy-who-have-high-circulating-levels-of-bacterial-dna-are-at-increased-risk-for-developing-infections
#4
Nikhil Vergis, Stephen R Atkinson, Suzanne Knapp, James Maurice, Michael Allison, Andrew Austin, Ewan H Forrest, Steven Masson, Anne McCune, David Patch, Stephen Ryder, Mark Wright, Mark R Thursz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infections are common in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), but little information is available on how to predict their development or their effects on patients. Prednisolone is advocated for treatment of SAH, but may increase susceptibility to infection. We compared the effects of infection on clinical outcomes of patients treated with and without prednisolone, and identified risk factors for development of infection in SAH. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1092 patients enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with prednisolone (40 mg daily) or pentoxifylline (400 mg 3 times each day) in patients with SAH...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007738/malondialdehyde-as-a-prognostic-factor-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#5
Onán Pérez-Hernández, Emilio González-Reimers, Geraldine Quintero-Platt, Pedro Abreu-González, María José de la Vega-Prieto, María José Sánchez-Pérez, Candelaria Martín-González, Antonio Martínez-Riera, Francisco Santolaria-Fernández
AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe complication of alcoholism, associated with high short-term mortality. Although pathogenesis remains obscure, it is generally accepted that lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion with further generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play outstanding roles. Prognosis is uncertain, and the usually employed prognostic scores do not include variables related to ROS generation.Therefore, this study was performed to assess short-term prognostic value of cytokines, nutritional status, different scores [Maddrey, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), albumin, bilirubin, INR, creatinine index (ABIC), Lille, Glasgow, MELD-Na, Child-Pugh] and malondialdehyde (MDA, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation) at admission and after 1 week, among patients affected by severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey index >32)...
December 21, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003716/pharmacologic-treatment-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-examining-outcomes-based-on-disease-severity-stratification
#6
Ryan E Owens, Heather S Snyder, Jennifer D Twilla, Sanjaya K Satapathy
OBJECTIVES: Maddrey discriminant function (MDF) score is a measure of disease prognosis in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) used to identify patients at highest risk of mortality and determine the need for initiation of pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmacologic therapy for hospitalized AH patients as stratified by MDF score. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with an AH diagnosis admitted to a Methodist LeBonheur Healthcare adult hospital between 06/2009 and 06/2014 was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#7
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956672/rotation-thromboelastometry-velocity-curve-predicts-blood-loss-during-liver-transplantation
#8
L A Tafur, P Taura, A Blasi, J Beltran, G Martinez-Palli, J Balust, J C Garcia-Valdecasas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) have a high risk of bleeding. The goal of this study was to assess whether the first derivative of the velocity waveform (V-curve) generated by whole blood rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) can predict blood loss during LT. METHODS: Preoperative V-curve parameters were retrospectively evaluated in 198 patients. Patients were divided into quartiles based on blood loss: low (LBL) in the first quartile and high (HBL) in the higher quartiles...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922027/a-day-4-lille-model-predicts-response-to-corticosteroids-and-mortality-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#10
Mauricio Garcia-Saenz-de-Sicilia, Chitharanjan Duvoor, Jose Altamirano, Roberta Chavez-Araujo, Veronica Prado, Ana de Lourdes Candolo-Martinelli, Patricia Holanda-Almeida, Bernardo Becerra-Martins-de-Oliveira, Simony Fernandez-de-Almeida, Ramón Bataller, Juan Caballeria, Andres Duarte-Rojo
OBJECTIVES: Prednisolone therapy increases the risk of infections in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). We evaluated whether the use of the Lille Model at day 4 (LM4) is useful to predict response to prednisolone compared with the classic day 7 (LM7) in order to limit a futile exposure to corticosteroids. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a large multinational cohort of patients with SAH with Maddrey's discriminant function (DF) ≥32...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917083/practical-concerns-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis
#11
Gene Y Im, Michael R Lucey
Recent advances in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) have reinforced the utility of glucocorticoids, a treatment that has been in use for nearly 4 decades, to enhance short-term survival. As multi-institutional consortia research new therapeutic advances, this orphan disease, which afflicts younger patients and has poor outcomes, continues to be difficult to manage. AH has a protean clinical presentation and course, with various prediction models and treatment approaches that can challenge even experienced providers...
August 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900326/case-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-treated-with-granulocytapheresis
#12
Yukari Watanabe, Kenya Kamimura, Tomohiro Iwasaki, Hiroyuki Abe, Shunsaku Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Manabu Takeuchi, Atsushi Eino, Ichiei Narita, Shuji Terai
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has a high mortality, and it is associated with encephalopathy, acute renal failure, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and endotoxemia. The 28-d mortality remains poor (34%-40%), because no effective treatment has been established. Recently, corticosteroids (CS) have been considered effective for significantly improving the prognosis of those with AH, as it prevents the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, CS are not always appropriate as an initial therapeutic option, such as in cases with an infection or resistance to CS...
November 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895407/assessment-of-scoring-systems-for-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-at-predicting-short-term-mortality-in-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#13
Hee Yeon Kim, Chang Wook Kim, Tae Yeob Kim, Do Seon Song, Dong Hyun Sinn, Eileen L Yoon, Young Kul Jung, Ki Tae Suk, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Hyeong Lee, Tae Hun Kim, Jeong Han Kim, Hyung Joon Yim, Sung Eun Kim, Soon Koo Baik, Byung Seok Lee, Jae Young Jang, Young Seok Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Jin Mo Yang, Joo Hyun Sohn, Heon Ju Lee, Seung Ha Park, Eun Hee Choi, Dong Joon Kim
AIM: To assess the performance of proposed scores specific for acute-on-chronic liver failure in predicting short-term mortality among patients with alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 264 patients with clinically diagnosed alcoholic hepatitis from January to December 2013 at 21 academic hospitals in Korea. The performance for predicting short-term mortality was calculated for Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA), CLIF Consortium Organ Failure score (CLIF-C OFs), Maddrey's discriminant function (DF), age, bilirubin, international normalized ratio and creatinine score (ABIC), Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and MELD-Na...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890791/fecal-microbiota-manipulation-prevents-dysbiosis-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#14
Gladys Ferrere, Laura Wrzosek, Frédéric Cailleux, Williams Turpin, Virginie Puchois, Madeleine Spatz, Dragos Ciocan, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Cindy Hugot, Françoise Gaudin, Marie-Louise Noordine, Véronique Robert, Dominique Berrebi, Muriel Thomas, Sylvie Naveau, Gabriel Perlemuter, Anne-Marie Cassard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver failure and mortality. In humans, severe alcoholic hepatitis is associated with key changes of intestinal microbiota (IM), which influences individual sensitivity to develop advanced ALD. We used the different susceptibility to ALD observed in two distinct animal facilities to test the efficiency of two complementary strategies (fecal microbiota transplantation and prebiotic treatment) to reverse dysbiosis and prevent ALD...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861575/correction-spontaneous-evolution-in-bilirubin-levels-predicts-liver-related-mortality-in-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#15
Minjong Lee, Won Kim, Yunhee Choi, Sunhee Kim, Donghee Kim, Su Jong Yu, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hwi Young Kim, Yong Jin Jung, Byeong Gwan Kim, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Kook Lae Lee, Hyo-Suk Lee
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100870.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858246/sequential-therapy-consisting-of-glucocorticoid-infusions-followed-by-granulocyte-monocyte-absorptive-apheresis-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#16
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Yoshihito Uchida, Kayoko Sugawara, Kayoko Naiki, Mie Inao, Nobuaki Nakayama, Satoshi Mochida
BACKGROUND: Activated leukocytes infiltrating the liver contribute to the provocation of alcoholic hepatitis. Glucocorticoid induces the demargination of leukocytes from the hepatic sinusoids, whereas granulocyte-monocyte absorptive apheresis (GMA) removes leukocytes from the circulation. Thus, the usefulness of a sequential therapy consisting of glucocorticoid infusions followed by GMA was evaluated in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis received intravenous injections of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 3 or 4 days, and then GMA was performed every day for 3 days...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816755/healthy-donor-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-steroid-ineligible-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-pilot-study
#17
Cyriac Abby Philips, Apurva Pande, S Murali Shasthry, Kapil Dev Jamwal, Vikas Khillan, Shivendra Singh Chandel, Guresh Kumar, Manoj K Sharma, Rakhi Maiwall, Ankur Jindal, Ashok Choudhary, Md Shabbir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, Shiv K Sarin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782895/effect-of-sirs-and-sepsis-on-mortality-in-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Anawin Sanguankeo, Sikarin Upala
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is frequently observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and is an important mortality predictor. Several studies have also identified systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a significant prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in patients with AH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from its inception till January 2016...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777888/ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-treatment-of-non-cholestatic-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#19
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775820/hyperoxidized-albumin-modulates-neutrophils-to-induce-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#20
Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Md Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, Paul David, Sukriti Sukriti, Saggere Muralikrishna Shasthry, Rakhi Maiwall, Nirupama Trehanpati, Tej P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
: Albumin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, modifications in albumin structure may reduce its antioxidant properties and modulate its immune-regulatory functions. We examined alterations in circulating albumin in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) patients and their contribution to neutrophil activation, intracellular stress, and alteration in associated molecular pathways. Albumin modifications and plasma oxidative stress were assessed in SAH patients (n = 90), alcoholic cirrhosis patients (n = 60), and healthy controls (n = 30) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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