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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336739/disparities-between-research-attention-and-burden-in-liver-diseases-implications-on-uneven-advances-in-pharmacological-therapies-in-europe-and-the-usa
#1
Nambi Ndugga, Teisha G Lightbourne, Kavon Javaherian, Joaquin Cabezas, Neha Verma, A Sidney Barritt, Ramon Bataller
OBJECTIVES: Effective oral therapies for hepatitis B and C have recently been developed, while there are no approved pharmacological therapies for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD and NAFLD). We hypothesise that fewer advances in fatty liver diseases could be related to disparities in research attention. METHODS: We developed the Attention-to-Burden Index (ABI) that compares the research activities during 2010-2014, and an estimate of disease burden of these 4 major liver diseases...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323622/a-quality-of-life-assessment-and-the-correlation-between-generic-and-disease-specific-questionnaires-scores-in-outpatients-with-chronic-liver-disease-pilot-study
#2
Milica Obradovic, Zoran Gluvic, Nina Petrovic, Milan Obradovic, Ratko Tomasevic, Predrag Dugalic, Esma R Isenovic
INTRODUCTION: Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are important cause of morbidity and mortality in general population. The aim of this study was to analyze potential differences between patients with CLD and healthy control group, and to estimate the severity of CLD by using simple questionnaires: general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study was performed in Zemun Clinical Hospital during years 2014 and 2015...
March 20, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322544/graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-as-novel-nanozymes-for-alcohol-intoxication
#3
Anqi Sun, Li Mu, Xiangang Hu
Alcohol overconsumption as a worldwide issue results in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), such as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The treatment of ALD has been widely investigated but remains challenging. In this work, the protective effects of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) as novel nanozymes against alcohol overconsumption are discovered, and the specific mechanisms underlying these effects are elucidated via omics analysis. GOQDs dramatically alleviate the reduction of cell viability induced by ethanol and can act as nanozymes to accelerate ethanol metabolism and avoid the accumulation of toxic intermediates in cells...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295353/alcohol-and-calcium-make-a-potent-cocktail
#4
Yasuko Iwakiri, Michael H Nathanson
It is estimated that over 150 million people have alcoholic liver disease (ALD) worldwide (Wang et al. 2014). ALD is manifested as a spectrum of liver pathology, ranging from simple steatosis (fatty liver) to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis and then cirrhosis, with some cases resulting in liver cancer as well. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282320/alcoholic-hepatitis-current-trends-in-management
#5
Ariel W Aday, Mack C Mitchell, Lisa C Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol consumption is increasing globally, as are complications of alcohol-related liver disease, including the most severe manifestation, alcoholic hepatitis. Despite the increased prevalence, many patients hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis are either not diagnosed or inadequately treated leading to significant morbidity and high mortality rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss current challenges in the diagnosis and management of this frequently fatal condition...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274107/pathophysiology-and-management-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-update-2016
#6
REVIEW
Felix Stickel, Christian Datz, Jochen Hampe, Ramon Bataller
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute and chronic liver failure and as such causes significant morbidity and mortality. While alcohol consumption is slightly decreasing in several European countries, it is rising in others and remains high in many countries around the world. The pathophysiology of ALD is still incompletely understood but relates largely to the direct toxic effects of alcohol and its main intermediate, acetaldehyde. Recently, novel putative mechanisms have been identified in systematic scans covering the entire human genome and raise new hypotheses on previously unknown pathways...
March 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259797/infection-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-yet-another-piece-in-the%C3%A2-puzzle
#7
EDITORIAL
Ashwani K Singal, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247264/new-paradigms-in-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Simran Sidhu
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is defined by modified Maddrey discriminant function ≥32 or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) >21 and/or hepatic encephalopathy. It has a 3-month mortality rate ≥30-70 %. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis need combined, i.e., static (MELD score) and dynamic (Lille's score), prognostication. Systemic inflammation and poor regeneration are hallmarks of SAH, rather than intrahepatic inflammation. SAH is characterized by dysregulated and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response followed by weak compensatory antiinflammatory response that leads to increased susceptibility to infection and multiple organ failure...
February 28, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243035/infections-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#9
REVIEW
Eleni Karakike, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), defined by a modified discriminant function ≥32, is the most severe form of alcohol-induced liver disease and is associated with a 1-month mortality rate of around 30%. Corticosteroid treatment remains the only therapeutic option that improves short-term survival. Infectious complications, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, are the main causes of death, even in patients who benefit from corticosteroids. Liver failure, recent alcohol consumption and immunosuppressive drugs contribute to this infectious risk...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240838/liver-transplantation-for-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#10
Florent Artru, Alexandre Louvet, Philippe Mathurin
Alcoholic liver disease, considered as a self-inflected disease, is an example of how moral judgment may affect ethical exercise of medicine which requires equity and fair utilization of a scarce resource in a context of organ shortage. Some consider that selection process should prioritize access to liver transplantation (LT) for patients who develop liver failure "through no fault of their own" even if limiting care because of a patient's perceived responsibility has been considered unethical. The absence of improvement after alcohol withdrawal, the high short-term mortality risk and the poor predictability of the 6-month rule in post-LT relapse in alcohol consumption in AH patients not responding to medical therapy led to recommend an evaluation of LT...
March 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240837/liver-transplantation-for-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-the-pro-view
#11
Michael R Lucey
Although liver transplantation has become accepted as a life-saving treatment of last resort for most life-threatening liver disorders, the use of liver transplantation to rescue patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis unresponsive to medical therapy remains controversial. I propose the concepts that alcohol use disorder is an illness, that on occasion results in alcoholic liver disease and that treatment of alcoholic liver disease, including treatment of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, combines treatment of the alcohol use disorder and of alcoholic liver disease...
March 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240836/liver-transplantation-for-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-the-con-view
#12
James Y Y Fung
In patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) who have failed medical therapy, liver transplantation (LT) remains a controversial therapeutic option. This is exemplified by the fact that most of these patients will not have had a period of abstinence prior to consideration for transplantation. Both abstinence before transplantation and the duration of abstinence are important predictors of post-transplant relapse. Furthermore, relapse after transplantation has been associated with accelerated graft injury and increase mortality...
March 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226195/global-transcriptional-response-of-human-liver-cells-to-ethanol-stress-of-different-strength-reveals-hormetic-behavior
#13
Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Eva C Wönne, Thomas Hiller, Uwe Menzel, Dirk Koczan, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Fanny Knöspel, Nora Freyer, Reinhard Guthke, Steven Dooley, Katrin Zeilinger
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major site for alcohol metabolism in the body and therefore, the primary target organ for ethanol-induced toxicity. In this study, we investigated the in vitro response of human liver cells to different ethanol concentrations in a perfused bioartificial liver device that mimics the complex architecture of the natural organ. METHODS: Primary human liver cells were cultured in the bioartificial liver device and treated for 24 hours with medium containing 150 mM (low), 300 mM (medium) or 600 mM (high) ethanol, while a control culture was kept untreated...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225807/increased-liver-specific-proteins-in-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-drug-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury
#14
Young-Eun Cho, Eun-Ju Im, Pyong-Gon Moon, Esteban Mezey, Byoung-Joon Song, Moon-Chang Baek
Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP) and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208700/role-of-protein-quality-control-failure-in-alcoholic-hepatitis-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Samuel W French, Maryam Masouminia, Sara Samadzadeh, Brittany C Tillman, Alejandro Mendoza, Barbara A French
The mechanisms of protein quality control in hepatocytes in cases of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) including ufmylation, FAT10ylation, metacaspase 1 (Mca1), ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation), JUNQ (juxta nuclear quality control), IPOD (insoluble protein deposit) autophagocytosis, and ER stress are reviewed. The Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation develops in the hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis as a consequence of the failure of these protein quality control mechanisms to remove misfolded and damaged proteins and to prevent MDB aggresome formation within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes...
February 8, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207552/disease-spectrum-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-beijing-302-hospital-from-2002-to-2013-a-large-tertiary-referral-hospital-experience-from-7422-patients
#16
Ang Huang, Binxia Chang, Yin Sun, Huiming Lin, Baosen Li, Guangju Teng, Zheng-Sheng Zou
Alcohol consumption in China has substantially increased over the last 3 decades and the number of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is rising at an alarming rate. However, accurate and representative data on time trends in its hospitalization rates are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the current status and burden of ALD in China by analyzing the data from a large tertiary referral hospital, Beijing 302 Hospital.Data were retrospectively recorded from patients diagnosed as ALD in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182351/increased-red-cell-distribution-width-is-strong-inflammatory-marker-of-liver-diseases-in-a-guangxi-population
#17
Fang Lan, Huiping Wei, Xuan Zhu, Shan Li, Xue Qin
BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW), part of a routine complete blood count in a clinical laboratory, has been widely and routinely used in the diagnosis of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between increased RDW and liver diseases and whether RDW is a new inflammatory marker for liver diseases in a Guangxi population. METHODS: A total of 735 patients were enrolled in our study, including 113 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 133 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 105 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 55 alcoholic hepatitis (AH) patients, 44 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and 285 healthy persons...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161471/homozygosity-for-rs738409-g-in-pnpla3-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-following-an-episode-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#18
Stephen R Atkinson, Michael J Way, Andrew McQuillin, Marsha Y Morgan, Mark R Thursz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in PNPLA3 is associated with an increased risk of developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and has a significant negative effect on survival. Short-term mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis is high; drinking behaviour is a major determinant of outcome in survivors. The aim of this study was to determine whether carriage of rs738409:G has an additional detrimental effect on survival in this patient group. METHODS: Genotyping was undertaken in 898 cases with severe alcoholic hepatitis, recruited through the UK Steroids or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis (STOPAH) trial, and 1,188 white British/Irish alcohol dependent controls with no liver injury recruited via University College London...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161446/drunk-bugs-chronic-vapour-alcohol-exposure-induces-marked-changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#19
Veronica L Peterson, Nicholas J Jury, Raúl Cabrera-Rubio, Lorraine A Draper, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Timothy G Dinan, Andrew Holmes, John F Cryan
The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145671/evaluation-of-jaundice-in-adults
#20
Matthew V Fargo, Scott P Grogan, Aaron Saguil
Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include fractionated bilirubin, a complete blood count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, prothrombin time and/or international normalized ratio, albumin, and protein. Imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography can differentiate between extrahepatic obstructive and intrahepatic parenchymal disorders...
February 1, 2017: American Family Physician
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