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"Alcoholic hepatitis"

Xiaojuan Chao, Shaogui Wang, Katrina Zhao, Yuan Li, Jessica A Williams, Tiangang Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, Partha Krishnamurthy, Xi C He, Linheng Li, Andrea Ballabio, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS: We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Ashwani K Singal, Alexandre Louvet, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath
Alcoholic hepatitis presents with acute on chronic liver failure among patients with chronic and active heavy use of alcohol, with high short-term mortality. These patients suffer from two problems, namely hepatic dysfunction and alcohol use disorder. Short-term outcome is impacted by liver failure and the long-term outcome by alcoholism and relapse to alcohol use. Clearly, these patients need integrated and coordinated management from the beginning by multi-disciplinary team. Herein, we describe a clinical vignette on a 33 year old male patient who survived the first episode of alcoholic hepatitis with this integrated management approach...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Swastik Agrawal, Baldev S Rana, Suvradeep Mitra, Ajay Duseja, Ashim Das, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is an acute worsening of patients with chronic liver disease resulting in liver failure. Usually these patients have cirrhosis as the underlying liver disease with alcohol being the most common etiology. Common hepatitic illnesses causing acute worsening in Indian patients of ACLF include alcoholic hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis E virus and acute flare in chronic hepatitis B. We report an adult case of ACLF due acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis A virus infection superimposed on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without cirrhosis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Junfa Yang, Changyao Li, Lei Zhang, Xiao Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous vesicles secreted from normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo . EVs have been found to play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication by transferring non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and so on. Emerging evidence shows that transferring biological information through EVs to neighboring cells in intercellular communication not only keep physiological functions, but also participate in the pathogenesis of liver diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alexandre Louvet, Mark R Thursz, Dong Joon Kim, Julien Labreuche, Stephen Atkinson, Sandeep Singh Sidhu, John G O'Grady, Evangelos Akriviadis, Emmanouil Sinakos, Robert L Carithers, Marie-José Ramond, Willis C Maddrey, Timothy R Morgan, Alain Duhamel, Philippe Mathurin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 11 randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, or their combination in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. We compared the effects of the treatments on survival for 28 days or 6 months, and response to treatment based on the Lille model. METHODS: We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis...
May 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
Laurent Spahr, Nicolas Goossens, Flavie Furrer, Melissa Dupuis, Sandrine Vijgen, Laure Elkrief, Emiliano Giostra, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Jean-Louis Frossard
BACKGROUND: Increased hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) plays a role in the clinical manifestations of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The evolution of HVPG and the influence of alcohol use in the intermediate term are unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore HVPG modifications following AH taking into consideration alcohol use and clinical manifestations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with AH (n=37; age 52 years; model for end-stage liver disease: 18...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rolf Teschke
Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity...
April 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Yonglin Chen, Xinshou Ouyang, Rafaz Hoque, Irma Garcia-Martinez, Muhammad Nadeem Yousaf, Sarah Tonack, Stefan Offermanns, Laurent Dubuquoy, Alexandre Louvet, Philippe Mathurin, Veronica Massey, Bernd Schnabl, Ramon A Bataller, Wajahat Zafar Mehal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sterile inflammation resulting in alcohol hepatitis (AH) occurs unpredictably after many years of excess alcohol intake. The factors responsible for the development of AH are not known but mitochondrial damage with loss of mitochondrial function are common features. Hcar2 is a G-protein coupled receptor which is activated by β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and the relevance of the BHB-Hcar2 pathway in alcoholic liver disease is not known. METHODS: We tested if loss of BHB production can result in increased liver inflammation...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Ravi Daswani, Ashish Kumar, Shrihari Anil Anikhindi, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Naresh Bansal, Anil Arora
BACKGROUND: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is not an uncommon indication for hospital admission in India. However, there is limited data from India on predictors of mortality in patients of severe AH. We analyzed the data on patients with severe AH admitted to our institute and compared various parameters and severity scores in predicting 90-day mortality. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed patients with severe AH (defined as discriminant function ≥ 32) admitted from January 2015 to February 2017 to our institute...
April 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Masayuki Hashiguchi, Jun Hakamata, Mikiko Shimizu, Junya Maruyama, Tsuyoshi Shiga, Mayumi Mochizuki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitatively the risk factors for rhabdomyolysis or related symptoms associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), we used the lipid-lowering drug database (32,157 patients) developed by the RAD-AR Council, Japan, based on the postmarketing surveillance (PMS) data of pharmaceutical companies to perform a nested case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 26,849 patients taking statins, the case group was composed of 51 patients who experienced rhabdomyolysis or related symptoms while taking statins, and the control group was 1,020 patients randomly selected from patients who did not experience rhabdomyolysis or related symptoms while taking statins...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jonathan R Potts, Neda Farahi, Mark R Howard, Mark R Taylor, Sarah Heard, Arun N Shankar, Graeme J Alexander, Edwin R Chilvers, Sumita Verma, A Michael Peters
The study aim was to image severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) using 111 In-labelled leucocytes with two objectives in mind: firstly for non-invasive diagnosis and secondly to provide a platform for experimental therapies aiming to inhibit intrahepatic neutrophil migration. 111 In-leucocyte scintigraphy was performed 30 min and 24 h post-injection in 19 patients with SAH, 14 abstinent patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and 11 normal controls. Eleven with SAH and 7 with cirrhosis also had 99m Tc-nanocolloid scintigraphy...
April 26, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Kyong Joo Lee, Yoon Ok Jang, Seung-Kuy Cha, Moon Young Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Young Woo Eom, Soon Koo Baik
Background/Aims: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, little is known regarding the effects of inflammation and fibrosis on the β-Klotho and FGF21 pathway in the liver. Methods: Enrolled patients had biopsy-confirmed viral or alcoholic hepatitis. FGF19, FGF21 and β-Klotho levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms for this process by evaluating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway involvement in Huh-7 cells...
April 27, 2018: Gut and Liver
Min Sun Park, Soonchang Hong, Yoo Li Lim, Seong Hee Kang, Soon Koo Baik, Moon Young Kim
Background/Aims: Acute hepatic dysfunction combined with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in alcoholic cirrhosis is related to hepatic hypo-perfusion secondary to intrahepatic necroinflammation, neoangiogenesis, and shunt. The hepatic vein arrival time (HVAT) assessed by microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is closely correlated with the severity of intrahepatic changes. We investigated the usefulness of HVAT to predict short-term mortality of AH in cirrhosis. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (27 males) and AH were prospectively enrolled...
April 27, 2018: Gut and Liver
Mark Thursz, Michael Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jun-Da Liu, Xin-Yi Lu, Xing Yan, Cheng Huang, Xiao-Ming Meng, Jun Li
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a global liver disease which characterized by liver inflammation, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis. Alcohol abuse is one of the main reasons for liver disease. Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) disease is the early stage of ALD and associated with the excessive lipids accumulation in hepatocytes as well as oxidative stress. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) is known to suppress the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease is not clear and is warranted for further investigation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Perttu Sahlman, Markku Nissinen, Piia Simonen, Martti Färkkilä
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition lacking good serologic markers to tailor treatment and predict recovery. We examined the cholesterol metabolism in severe AH to explore prognostic markers and evaluate the profile of cholesterol precursors, cholestanol and phytosterols, in this context. We assessed serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, phytosterols, and biochemical markers in 24 patients with severe AH treated with prednisolone and randomized to ciprofloxacin in the ratio 1:1...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
Brian P Lee, Neil Mehta, Laura Platt, Ahmet Gurakar, John P Rice, Michael R Lucey, Gene Y Im, George Therapondos, Hyosun Han, David W Victor, Oren K Fix, Lisanne Dinges, Deepti Dronamraju, Christine Hsu, Michael D Voigt, Mary E Rinella, Haripriya Maddur, Sheila Eswaran, Jessica Hause, David Foley, R Mark Ghobrial, Jennifer L Dodge, Zhiping Li, Norah A Terrault
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The American Consortium of Early Liver Transplantation (LT) for Alcoholic Hepatitis comprises 12 centers from 8 United Network for Organ Sharing regions studying early LT (without mandated period of sobriety) for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). We analyzed outcomes of these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of severe AH and no prior diagnosis of liver disease or episodes of AH, who underwent LT before 6 months of abstinence from 2006 through 2017 at 12 centers...
April 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Xinling Song, Qiang Shen, Min Liu, Chen Zhang, Lan Zhang, Zhenzhen Ren, Wenshuai Wang, Yuhan Dong, Xiuxiu Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Le Jia
In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of intracellular mycelium polysaccharides from Pleurotus geesteranus (IMPP) to address acute alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Animal studies have demonstrated that the hepatic parameters of CYP2E1, MPO, TC, ALT, AST and ALP, HDLC, LDL-C and VLDL-C were improved; the inflammatory factor levels, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased; the hepatic ADH and ALDH activities were inhibited; the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC were enhanced; and the MDA and LPO contents were reduced by IMPP treatment...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chia-Yang Hsu, Po-Hong Liu, Shu-Yein Ho, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Yun-Hsuan Lee, Rheun-Chuan Lee, Teddy S Nagaria, Ming-Chih Hou, Teh-Ia Huo
BACKGROUND & AIM: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastasis are classified as advanced or terminal stage by the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system. This study investigates the prevalence, determinants, and prognostic effect of metastasis, and its ability to improve the BCLC system. METHODS: A total of 3,414 patients were enrolled. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to determine survival predictors. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare the prognostic performance of staging systems...
April 2, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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