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"Alcoholic hepatitis"

Julie Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Rogelio Pinon-Gutierrez, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Charles H Halsted, Valentina Medici
AIM: To study differences of presentation, management, and prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis in Latinos compared to Caucasians. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 876 charts of Caucasian and Latino patients who were evaluated at University of California Davis Medical Center between 1/1/2002-12/31/2014 with the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. We identified and collected data on 137 Caucasians and 64 Latinos who met criteria for alcoholic hepatitis, including chronic history of heavy alcohol use, at least one episode of jaundice with bilirubin ≥ 3...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Paramananda Saikia, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Damien Bellos, Katherine A Pollard, Megan R McMullen, Rebecca L McCullough, Arthur J McCullough, Pierre Gholam, Carol de la Motte, Laura E Nagy
TLR4 signaling in hepatic macrophages is increased after chronic ethanol feeding. Treatment of hepatic macrophages after chronic ethanol feeding with small-specific sized hyaluronic acid 35 (HA35) normalizes TLR4 signaling; however, the mechanisms for HA35 action are not completely understood. Here we used Next Generation Sequencing of microRNAs to identify negative regulators of TLR4 signaling reciprocally modulated by ethanol and HA35 in hepatic macrophages. Eleven microRNAs were up-regulated by ethanol; only 4 microRNAs, including miR291b, were decreased by HA35...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Richard Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Cyriac Abby Philips, Nikhil Phadke, Karthik Ganesan, Philip Augustine
Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) have high mortality in the presence of steroid unresponsiveness in the absence of clear treatment recommendations. Liver transplantation is the curative option in such cases but is controversial in the wake of severe infections, post-transplant recidivism and long waiting on deceased donor listing. Animal and human studies have shed light on the beneficial effects of gut microbiota modulation in alcoholic liver disease. We present the first report of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a steroid non-responder in whom, clinical, biochemical and liver disease severity scores improved post-FMT and demonstrate distinct bacterial population changes pre-FMT and post-FMT...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Gianni Testino, Silvia Leone
Severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) can lead to a clinical picture with a sixmonth mortality rate in more than 70% of cases. This clinical picture is characterized by: jaundice with a duration of less than three months, jaundice at the first failure event, serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg / dL, ratio AST / ALT> 2: 1, AST less than 500 IU / L, ALT <300 IU / L, neutrophil leukocytosis and a GGT increase. In addition, encephalopathy, fever, asthenia and coagulopathy may be present. Its onset may also be characterized by portalhypertensionrelated complications, particularly bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome...
November 7, 2017: Minerva Medica
Emilie Glavind, Niels Kristian Aagaard, Henning Gronbaek, Nikolaj Worm Orntoft, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen Louise Thomsen
OBJECTIVES: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. We aimed to investigate the time course of this compromised essential liver function in patients with AH and its relation to treatment and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with AH were included in a prospective cohort study. We measured the substrate-independent urea synthesis capacity, i.e., the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC), in the patients at study entry and again at three months (survivors/available: n = 17)...
November 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Elena Khanova, Raymond Wu, Wen Wang, Rui Yan, Yibu Chen, Samuel W French, Cristina Llorente, Stephanie Q Pan, Qihong Yang, Yuchang Li, Raul Lazaro, Charles Ansong, Richard D Smith, Ramon Bataller, Timothy Morgan, Bernd Schnabl, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) continues to be a disease with high mortality and no efficacious medical treatment. Although severe AH is presented as acute on chronic liver failure, what underlies this transition from chronic alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) to AH, is largely unknown. To address this question, unbiased RNA-seq and proteomic analyses were performed on livers of the recently developed AH mouse model which exhibits the shift to AH from chronic ASH upon weekly alcohol binge, and these results are compared with gene expression profiling data from AH patients...
November 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
Chavdar S Pavlov, Daria L Varganova, Giovanni Casazza, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a form of alcoholic liver disease, characterised by steatosis, necroinflammation, fibrosis, and potential complications to the liver disease. Typically, alcoholic hepatitis presents in people between 40 and 50 years of age. Alcoholic hepatitis can be resolved if people abstain from drinking, but the risk of death will depend on the severity of the liver damage and abstinence from alcohol. Glucocorticosteroids are used as anti-inflammatory drugs for people with alcoholic hepatitis...
November 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yongjun Lee, Dong-Joo Kwon, Young Han Kim, Moonjin Ra, Seong Il Heo, Won Gyeong Ahn, Jeong-Ran Park, Seoung Rak Lee, Ki Hyun Kim, Sun Young Kim
Chronic alcohol consumption causes alcohol-induced lipogenesis and promotes hepatic injury by preventing the oxidation of hepatocellular fatty acids through the suppression of the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HIMH0021, an active flavonoid compound, which is a component of the Acer tegmentosum extract, has been shown to protect against liver damage caused by alcohol consumption. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine whether HIMH0021 could regulate alcoholic fatty liver and liver injury in mice...
2017: PloS One
Puneet Puri, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Jeffrey E Christensen, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath, Gregory J Gores, Susan Walker, Megan Comerford, Barry Katz, Andrew Borst, Qigui Yu, Divya P Kumar, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Svetlana Radaeva, Naga P Chalasani, David W Crabb, Arun J Sanyal
Intestinal dysbiosis is implicated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). However, changes in the circulating microbiome, its association with the presence and severity of AH and its functional relevance in AH is unknown. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome were performed by sequencing bacterial DNA in subjects with moderate (n=18) or severe AH (n=19). These data were compared to heavy drinking controls (HDC) without obvious liver disease (n=19) and non-alcohol consuming controls (NAC, n=20)...
October 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fengjie Hao, Francisco Javier Cubero, Pierluigi Ramadori, Lijun Liao, Ute Haas, Daniela Lambertz, Roland Sonntag, Jörg-Martin Bangen, Nikolaus Gassler, Mareike Hoss, Konrad L Streetz, Johanna Reissing, Henning W Zimmermann, Christian Trautwein, Christian Liedtke, Yulia A Nevzorova
Hepatic apoptosis is involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Caspase-8, the apical initiator in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, has been implicated in acute liver injury and in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, the relevance of Caspase-8 in the pathogenesis of ALD remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of Caspase-8 in human and murine alcohol-induced apoptosis and in ALD. We investigated human samples from ALD patients, primary mouse hepatocytes, and hepatocyte-specific Caspase-8 knockout (Casp8(Δhepa)) mice in acute and chronic models of ethanol (EtOH) administration...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Ge-Yang Dai, Zhi Liu, Fan Zeng, Dan Zhou, Lin Dai
OBJECTIVE: To explore the noninvasive indicators for predicting the occurrence of esophageal varices (EV) in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: A total of 202 patients with liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C or alcoholic hepatic disease were enrolled in this study. EV and high risk esophageal varices (HREV) were confirmed in these patients by gastroscopy. The hematological, serum biochemical and ultrasonic parameters of the patients were analyzed, and a model for predicting EV was established by stepwise logistic regression analysis...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Priscila Silva Figueiredo, Aline Carla Inada, Gabriela Marcelino, Carla Maiara Lopes Cardozo, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Alinne Pereira de Castro, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Priscila Aiko Hiane
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters...
October 22, 2017: Nutrients
Yuichi Miyashima, Michihiko Shibata, Yuichi Honma, Hidehiko Matsuoka, Masaaki Hiura, Shintaro Abe, Masaru Harada
A 49-year-old woman with a history of heavy alcohol drinking was admitted to our hospital due to jaundice and abdominal distention. A blood test showed leukophilia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatobiliary injury and coagulopathy. Image studies showed an extremely enlarged fatty liver and splenomegaly. The Japan alcoholic hepatitis score and Maddrey's discriminant function were 10 and 54 points, respectively. We diagnosed her with severe alcoholic hepatitis and treated her with corticosteroids, but her liver function did not improve...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
Jiaming Zhu, Ping-Yu Chen, Marla Frankel, Robert R Selby, Tse-Ling Fong
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease is a common indication for liver transplantation (OLT). Although OLT has been shown to confer survival benefit to patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), historically most programs require a 6-month abstinence period prior to OLT which excludes patients with AAH. Marijuana has become legal in more than half the states in the United States. This survey of liver transplant programs was conducted to evaluate current policies regarding alcohol, marijuana and methadone use...
October 10, 2017: Transplantation
Megan Comerford, Spencer Lourens, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Naga P Chalasani, Arun J Sanyal, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath, Puneet Puri, Barry P Katz, Svetlana Radaeva, David W Crabb
The TREAT Consortium has carried out clinical studies on alcoholic hepatitis (AH) for over 4 years. We encountered problems with participant recruitment, retention, and eligibility for specific protocols. To improve our ability to carry out such trials, we reviewed recruitment screening logs, end of study logs, and surveyed study coordinators to learn the reasons for missing patients, why patients declined enrollment, and the number of patients eligible for treatment trials. Associations of the recruited subjects' demographics with their adherence to follow-up appointments were examined...
October 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xi Jin, Mo-Sang Yu, Yue Huang, Zun Xiang, Yi-Peng Chen
To investigate the expression of miR-30e-UCP2 pathway in different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and its capacity and mechanism in regulating alcoholic hepatitis (AH) progress. C57BL/6 mice were fed with Lieber-DeCaril (LD) diet for 4 and 12 weeks to establish models of alcoholic fat infiltration (AFI) and AH. Based on AFI feeding, the alcoholic hepatic fibrosis (AHF) was set up with additional 4 weeks 5% carbon tetrachloride intra-abdominal injection twice per week. Serum lipid and inflammation related makers were detected while H-E staining for hepatic steatosis/ inflammation and Sirius staining for hepatic fibrosis were conducted...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Sarah R Lieber, John P Rice, Michael R Lucey, Ramon Bataller
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is the most severe form of alcoholic liver disease, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Yet, the only available therapies that improve survival are corticosteroids and liver transplantation with no new drugs successfully developed for decades. This article describes briefly the current state of affairs in AH therapy and examines the practical and ethical challenges to conducting controlled trials in patients with severe AH. While prednisolone is considered to be standard of care in severe AH, this recommendation remains controversial given the marginal benefits and questionable longterm safety of steroids...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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