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Spine and baseball and injury

Joseph G Wasser, Jason L Zaremski, Daniel C Herman, Heather K Vincent
Repetitive throwing and hitting motions in baseball place mechanical stresses to the lumbar spine which may cause low back pain (LBP). Pain may be due to vertebral stress reactions or insufficiency fractures, intervertebral disc degeneration or intervertebral disc herniation. Untreated chronic conditions have high potential to lead to a more significant injury such as spondylolysis. Chronic LBP increases the risk for missed playing time, early career termination and lower quality of life after retirement. Proper clinical assessment and prevention/rehabilitation of LBP in this population is thus important for performance, play time and overall long-term quality of life...
January 27, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro
Cervical spine injuries are extremely common and range from relatively minor injuries, such as cervical muscle strains, to severe, life-threatening cervical fractures with spinal cord injuries. Although cervical spine injuries are most common in athletes who participate in contact and collision sports, such as American football and rugby, they also have been reported in athletes who participate in noncontact sports, such as baseball, gymnastics, and diving. Cervical spine injuries in athletes are not necessarily the result of substantial spine trauma; some athletes have chronic conditions, such as congenital stenosis, that increase their risk for a serious cervical spine injury after even minor trauma...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Christopher L Camp, Matthew S Conti, Terrance Sgroi, Frank P Cammisa, Joshua S Dines
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
J L Young, S A Herring, J M Press, B A Casazza
Analysis of shoulder dysfunction in throwing and overhead athletes can no longer be restricted to evaluation of the glenohumeral joint alone. The isolated shoulder is incapable of generating the force necessary to hurl a baseball at velocities of 90-100 miles per hour or serve a tennis ball in excess of 120 miles per hour. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature based theoretical framework for the role of the spine during these activities. The spine is a pivotal component of the kinematic chain which functions as a transfer link between the lower and upper limbs, a force generator capable of accelerating the arm, and a force attenuator which dampens shear forces at the glenohumeral joint during the deceleration phase of the pitching motion...
January 1, 1996: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Hannah N Ladenhauf, Peter D Fabricant, Eric Grossman, Roger F Widmann, Daniel W Green
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess athletic activities associated with spondylolysis in children and adolescents in a New York metropolitan tertiary referral center. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 137 consecutive cases of symptomatic spondylolysis presenting to one of two pediatric orthopedic spine surgeons. Ten patients who did not participate in any organized athletics were excluded, leaving 127 children for analysis. Data regarding spondylolysis and athletic participation were gathered for analysis...
October 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew M Grinsell, Kirsten Butz, Matthew J Gurka, Kelly K Gurka, Victoria Norwood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a "qualified yes" for participation by athletes with single kidneys in contact/collision sports. Despite this recommendation, most physicians continue to discourage participation in contact/collision sports for patients with single kidneys. A major concern is the lack of prospective data quantifying the incidence of sport-related kidney injury. The objective was to quantify the incidence of sport-related kidney injury among high school varsity athletes and compare it with sport-related injuries of other organ systems...
July 2012: Pediatrics
Robert Donatelli, Donn Dimond, Matt Holland
Athletes consistently recruit or transfer high levels of repetitive force through the spine. Proper force transmission from the legs to the hips and pelvis and through the trunk is vital. Hip and pelvis joint restrictions and muscle strength deficits coupled with poor endurance of the trunk muscle will lead to spinal instability, which is habitually described in symptomatic athletes. A rehabilitation program that targets the unstable base first, and then progresses to strengthening of the pelvis and hips and targets control of movement in a sport-specific approach, should result in pain reduction, skill enhancement, and a safe return to play...
July 2012: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Matthew Posner, Kenneth L Cameron, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Philip J Belmont, Brett D Owens
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) players, as a formal injury surveillance system does not exist. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of MLB injuries over a 7-year period. HYPOTHESIS: Injuries in MLB would be common. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study. METHODS: The authors analyzed the MLB disabled list data from 2002 through 2008. Injuries were analyzed for differences between seasons, as well as during seasons on a monthly basis...
August 2011: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Wellington K Hsu, Kathryn J McCarthy, Jason W Savage, David W Roberts, Gilbert C Roc, Alan J Micev, Michael A Terry, Stephen M Gryzlo, Michael F Schafer
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Although clinical outcomes after lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) in the general population have been well studied, those in elite professional athletes have not. Because these athletes have different measures of success, studies on long-term outcomes in this patient population are necessary. PURPOSE: This study seeks to define the outcomes after an LDH in a large cohort of professional athletes of American football, baseball, hockey, and basketball...
March 2011: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Xinning Li, Michael J Heffernan, Errol S Mortimer
Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2...
June 2010: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Joshua S Dines, Joshua B Frank, Meredith Akerman, Lewis A Yocum
BACKGROUND: The kinetic chain of the throwing motion functions to optimize efficiency of proximal segments to decrease force loads seen at smaller, distal segments such as the ulnar collateral ligament. Several studies have shown that shoulder internal rotation forms the physiologic counter to the valgus torque generated during the late cocking phase of throwing. Previous studies have implicated decreased glenohumeral internal rotation as a cause of shoulder internal impingement. To date, an association between pathologic glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and elbow injury has not been exhibited...
March 2009: American Journal of Sports Medicine
James MacDonald, Pierre D'Hemecourt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2007: Pediatric Annals
Barry P Boden, Chris Prior
Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports.
February 2005: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Kevin M Cross, Catherine Serenelli
Due to the potential for catastrophic neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sport, the sports health care professional must take proper measures to prevent such injuries. Strength training of the cervical spine, teaching of proper sporting techniques, and use of protective sports equipment are three primary means of attempting to prevent neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sports. There are other avenues to assist in preventing these injuries, such as flexibility programs. The sports health care professional, therefore, must be knowledgeable of the needs of each individual athlete when developing prevention plans...
July 2003: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Steven M Kane, Hugh O House, Kristi A Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Two basic baseball sliding techniques, feet-first and head-first, are taught at all levels of play. Because of the risk for injury to the upper extremities and the cervical spine during head-first sliding, it is potentially more dangerous than feet-first sliding. There is an assumption among coaches that head-first sliding is more aggressive and faster, but there has been no scientific study to prove this claim. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine which technique provides a faster slide into the base...
November 2002: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Marirose A Radelet, Scott M Lephart, Elaine N Rubinstein, Joseph B Myers
OBJECTIVE: To determine the baseline injury rate for children ages 7 to 13 participating in community organized baseball, softball, soccer, and football. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, 1659 children were observed during 2 seasons of sports participation in an urban area. Data were collected by coaches using an injury survey tool designed for the study. A reportable injury was defined as one requiring on-field evaluation by coaching staff, or causing a player to stop participation for any period of time, or requiring first aid during an event...
September 2002: Pediatrics
Klane K White, Seth K Williams, Scott J Mubarak
Fractures of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) in adolescents are usually due to avulsion of the sartorius origin from the ASIS; however, the authors here report a second type due to avulsion of the tensor fascia lata origin. Eight patients were identified with ASIS avulsion fractures. Type II sartorius avulsion fracture was due to sprinting in various sports (n = 6). The fragment was smaller and displaced anteriorly. Type II tensor fascia lata avulsion fractures were due to swinging a baseball bat. The two muscular males were both injured during the initial phase of batting...
September 2002: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Peter L Gregory, Anita C Biswas, Mark E Batt
Chest pain in the athlete has a wide differential diagnosis. Pain may originate from structures within the thorax, such as the heart, lungs or oesophagus. However, musculoskeletal causes of chest pain must be considered. The aim of this review is to help the clinician to diagnose chest wall pain in athletes by identifying the possible causes, as reported in the literature. Musculoskeletal problems of the chest wall can occur in the ribs, sternum, articulations or myofascial structures. The cause is usually evident in the case of direct trauma...
2002: Sports Medicine
J A Boockvar, S R Durham, P P Sun
STUDY DESIGN: Congenital spinal stenosis has been demonstrated to contribute to cervical cord neurapraxia after cervical spinal cord injury in adult athletes. A sagittal canal diameter <14 mm and/or a Torg ratio (sagittal diameter of the spinal canal: midcervical sagittal vertebral body diameter) of <0.8 are indicative of significant cervical spinal stenosis. Although sports-related cervical spine injuries are common in children, the role of congenital cervical stenosis in the etiology of these injuries remains unclear...
December 15, 2001: Spine
M J Sandow, J Ilic
Selective denervation of the infraspinatus muscle producing weakness and wasting has been reported in certain sports (eg, volleyball and baseball). Nerve kinking or friction caused by excessive infraspinatus motion and compression by superior or inferior transverse scapular ligament or ganglions have been proposed as possible causes. However, in extreme abduction with full external rotation of the shoulder, the medial tendinous margin between the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles impinges strongly against the lateral edge of scapular spine, compressing the intervening infraspinatus branch of the suprascapular nerve...
September 1998: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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