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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815561/early-segregation-of-the-adrenal-cortex-and-gonad-in-chicken-embryos
#1
Daisuke Saito, Koji Tamura, Yoshiko Takahashi
The adrenal gland is an endocrine organ that plays essential roles in stress responses. This organ consists of two types of tissues, adrenomedulla and adrenocortex, deriving from different embryonic origins. Whereas it is well accepted that the adrenomedulla derives from neural crest cells, the origin of the adrenocortex remains elusive. In addition, the adrenocortex and gonads, two major steroid hormone-producing tissues, have been thought to share the same origin, although the experimental evidence is lacking...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811696/relationship-between-fetal-loss-and-serum-gonadal-hormones-level-in-experimental-antiphospholipid-syndrome-mouse
#2
Shanmugam Velayuthaprabhu, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Govindaraju Archunan
To investigate the effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on establishment of pregnancy and changes in hormones such as estradiol-17ß (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in circulation. Hence, mice were immunized with human β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and the effect of these antibodies on fetuses weight, placental obsrvation, Serum levels of P and E2 in pregnant mice, hematological were observed. Immunization of mice with human β2-GPI resulted in elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies. The experimentally induced antiphospholipid syndrome mouse showed higher rate of fetal resorption, low number of viable fetuses, and "placental abnormalities"...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803937/annual-variation-in-the-reproductive-hormone-and-behavior-rhythm-in-a-population-of-the-asian-short-toed-lark-can-spring-temperature-influence-activation-of-the-hpg-axis-of-wild-birds
#3
Shuping Zhang, Xianglong Xu, Weiwei Wang, Lidan Zhao, Lijun Gao, Wenyu Yang
Although a number of studies have demonstrated a correlation between ambient temperature and the timing of reproductive behavior in many bird species, the relationships between temperature, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, laying, and hatching in free-living birds, remain unclear. We investigated the relationships between spring temperature, reproductive hormones, and behavior, in a population of the Asian short-toed lark (Calandrella cheleensis) on the Inner Mongolian Grasslands in 2014, 2015 and 2016...
August 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794341/protective-effects-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-on-male-sexual-dysfunction-and-fertility-impairments-by-activating-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetic-male-mice
#4
Guang-Jiang Shi, Jie Zheng, Jing Wu, Hai-Qi Qiao, Qing Chang, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yu-Xiang Li, Jian-Qiang Yu
Diabetes-associated male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments are both common clinical complications with limited therapeutic options; hence it seriously affects the quality of life of the patients, in particular, the patients of reproductive age. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) has long being believed to maintain and to promote reproductive functions in the traditional medical practice in China. The current study was to investigate if LBP may contribute to recovery of male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments in diabetic individuals...
August 9, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790978/progress-and-challenges-in-the-search-for-the-mechanisms-of-pulsatile-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secretion
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie Constantin
Fertility relies on the proper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The hormonal cascade begins with hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal portal system. In turn, the GnRH-activated gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary release gonadotropins, which then act on the gonads to regulate gametogenesis and sex steroidogenesis. Finally, sex steroids close this axis by feeding back to the hypothalamus. Despite this seeming straightforwardness, the axis is orchestrated by a complex neuronal network in the central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783504/puberty-arises-with-testicular-alterations-and-defective-amh-expression-in-rams-prenatally-exposed-to-testosterone
#6
S E Recabarren, M Recabarren, D Sandoval, A Carrasco, V Padmanabhan, R Rey, H G Richter, C C Perez-Marin, T Sir-Petermann, P P Rojas-Garcia
The male gonadal tissue can be a sensitive target to the reprogramming effects of testosterone (T) during prenatal development. We have demonstrated that male lambs born to dams receiving T during pregnancy-a model system to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-show a decreased number of germ cells early in life, and when adult, a reduced amount of sperm and ejaculate volume. These findings are a key to put attention to the male offspring of women bearing PCOS, as they are exposed to increased levels of androgen during pregnancy which can reprogram their reproductive outcome...
June 23, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780570/sex-steroids-differentially-regulate-fshb-lhb-and-gnrhr-expression-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#7
Kristine von Krogh, Gunnveig Toft Bjørndal, Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Kjetil Hodne, Erik Ropstad, Trude Marie Haug, Finn-Arne Weltzien
Depending on the stage of gonad maturation, as well as other factors, gonadal steroids can exert either a positive or negative feedback at the brain and pituitary level. While this has been demonstrated in many teleost species, little is known about the nature of steroid feedback in Gadiform fish. Using an optimized in vitro model system of the Atlantic cod pituitary, the present study investigated potential effects of two physiologically relevant doses of estradiol, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on cell viability and gene expression of gonadotropin subunits (fshb/lhb) and two suggested reproduction relevant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (gnrhr1b/gnrhr2a) during three stages of sexual maturity...
August 5, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772355/environmentally-relevant-levels-of-%C3%AE-cyhalothrin-fenvalerate-and-permethrin-cause-developmental-toxicity-and-disrupt-endocrine-system-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryo
#8
Quan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jie Du, Meirong Zhao
Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are one of the most widely used pesticides and frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Previous studies have shown that SPs posed high aquatic toxicity, but information on the developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption on zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations is limited. In this study, zebrafish embryos were employed to examine the adverse effects of λ-cyhalothrin (LCT), fenvalerate (FEN), and permethrin (PM) at 2.5, 10, 25, 125, 500 nM for 96 h...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762514/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-luteinising-hormone-treated-mouse-tm3-leydig-cells
#9
C Li, S Gao, S Chen, L Chen, Y Zhao, Y Jiang, X Zheng, X Zhou
Testosterone is primarily produced by Leydig cells of the mammalian male gonads. The cellular functions of Leydig cells are regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, whereas the microRNA (miRNA) changes of LH-treated Leydig cells are unknown. Mouse TM3 Leydig cells were treated with LH, and deep sequencing showed that 29 miRNAs were significantly different between two groups (fold change of >1.5 or <0.5, p < .05), of which 27 were upregulated and two were downregulated. The differential expression of miR-29b-3p, miR-378b, miR-193b and miR-3695 was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
August 1, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757672/aggressive-behaviours-track-transitions-in-seasonal-phenotypes-of-female-siberian-hamsters
#10
Nikki M Rendon, Andrea C Amez, Melissa R Proffitt, Elizabeth R Bauserman, Gregory E Demas
Seasonally breeding animals exhibit profound physiological and behavioural responses to changes in ambient day length (photoperiod), including changes in reproductive function and territorial aggression.Species where aggression persists when gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal hormones are low, such as Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), challenge the well-established framework that gonadal hormones are important mediators of aggression.A solution to this apparent paradox is that a season-specific increase in sensitivity to hormones in brain areas associated with aggression offsets low levels of gonadal hormones during periods of reproductive quiescence...
May 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757304/social-control-of-hypothalamus-mediated-male-aggression
#11
Taehong Yang, Cindy F Yang, M Delara Chizari, Niru Maheswaranathan, Kenneth J Burke, Maxim Borius, Sayaka Inoue, Michael C Chiang, Kevin J Bender, Surya Ganguli, Nirao M Shah
How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757099/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-and-rf9-stimulate-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-adult-male-rhesus-monkeys
#12
Rahim Ullah, Aalia Batool, Madiha Wazir, Rabia Naz, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Junfen Fu
Stress activates gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and represses hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis) but RF9 administration relieves stress-induced repression of the HPG-axis. Importantly, it was not known whether GnIH signaling and RF9 synthetic peptide modulate the HPA axis. To assess this, mammalian orthologs of GnIH (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) and RF9 were administered to intact adult male rhesus monkeys. RFRP-1 (125μg/animal), RFRP-3 (250μg/animal) and RF9 (0...
July 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#13
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743513/chronic-exposure-to-the-fungicide-propiconazole-behavioral-and-reproductive-evaluation-of-f1-and-f2-generations-of-male-rats
#14
Milene Leivas Vieira, Nathália Orlandini Costa, Marina Rangel F Pereira, Suzana de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto Gerardin
Several studies have suggested that propiconazole (PROP) may be an endocrine disruptor; possibly altering the activity of the CYP51 enzyme, which is part of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway required for the production of sexual steroid hormones. Another PROP effect is inhibition of the aromatase enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens, which could lead to negative effects on reproductive parameters. Therefore, the present study evaluated the reproductive and developmental toxicity of PROP by exposing two generations (F1 and F2) of male rats to this fungicide, since a previous study from our lab reported that PROP has anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities (Costa et al...
July 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742509/persistent-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-syndrome-a-novel-mutation-in-the-%C3%AE-nti-m%C3%A3-llerian-%C3%AE-ormone-gene
#15
Ayça Altincik, Fahri Karaca, Hüseyin Onay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a relatively rare form of 46,XY disorder of sex development caused by the failure of formation, release or action of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in intrauterine life. In this report we describe a case diagnosed with PMDS with a novel homozygous mutation in the AMH gene. CASE REPORT: A 4-month-old male presented with bilateral cryptorchidism and normal external genitalia. The laboratory examination revealed normal gonadotropin levels for his age (FSH: 0...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741210/effects-of-bpf-on-steroid-hormone-homeostasis-and-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-of-zebrafish
#16
Qian Yang, Xianhai Yang, Jining Liu, Wenjuan Ren, Yingwen Chen, Shubao Shen
Bisphenol F (BPF) has been frequently detected in various environmental compartments, and previous studies found that BPF exhibits similar estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects on the mammalian endocrine system to those of bisphenol A (BPA). However, the potential disrupting effects of BPF on aquatic organisms and the underling disrupting mechanisms have not been investigated. In this study, the potential disrupting mechanisms of BPF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver were probed by employing the OECD 21-day short-term fecundity assay in zebrafish...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739117/update-on-fertility-preservation-from-the-barcelona-international-society-for-fertility-preservation-eshre-asrm-2015-expert-meeting-indications-results-and-future-perspectives
#17
Francisca Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FP is a fundamental issue for both males and females whose future fertility may be compromised. Reproductive capacity may be seriously affected by age, different medical conditions and also by treatments, especially those with gonadal toxicity...
July 20, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738802/histological-and-transcriptomic-effects-of-17%C3%AE-methyltestosterone-on-zebrafish-gonad-development
#18
Stephanie Ling Jie Lee, Julia A Horsfield, Michael A Black, Kim Rutherford, Amanda Fisher, Neil J Gemmell
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones play important roles in teleost ovarian and testicular development. In zebrafish, ovarian differentiation appears to be dictated by an oocyte-derived signal via Cyp19a1a aromatase-mediated estrogen production. Androgens and aromatase inhibitors can induce female-to-male sex reversal, however, the mechanisms underlying gonadal masculinisation are poorly understood. We used histological analyses together with RNA sequencing to characterise zebrafish gonadal transcriptomes and investigate the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on gonadal differentiation...
July 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736286/lack-of-immunotoxic-effects-of-repeated-exposure-to-atrazine-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-adrenal-gland-activation
#19
Chad D Foradori, Arthur D Zimmerman, Pragati S Coder, Vanessa L Peachee, Robert J Handa, Ian Kimber, Stephen B Pruett, Charles B Breckenridge
T cell-dependent IgM antibody production and natural killer cell (NKC) activity were assessed in SD rats orally administered atrazine for 28 days to males (0, 6.5, 25, or 100 mg/kg/day) or females (0, 3, 6, or 50 mg/kg/day), or 30 or 500 ppm in diet (3 or 51 mg/kg/day). Anti-asialo GM1 antibodies (NKC) and cyclophosphamide (antibody-forming cell assay [AFC]) served as positive controls. Pituitary (ACTH, prolactin), adrenal (corticosterone, progesterone, aldosterone), and gonadal (androgens, estrogens) hormones were assessed after 1, 7, and/or 28 days of treatment...
July 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735888/differential-expression-of-subunits-of-20%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-during-gametogenesis-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhychus-mykiss
#20
Arya Vazirzadeh, Yann Guiguen
The patterns of expression of two subunits of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD), key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis and activation of steroid hormones, were examined in rainbow trout by using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization. The expression of targeted genes was examined in mRNA extracted from different tissues at different gonadal stages in male and female trout. Both subunits of 20β-HSD were found to be widely distributed in tissues. The highest expression of 20β-HSD A was found in intestine followed by skin, stomach, liver and gills, whereas, the highest expression of 20β-HSD B was observed in stomach followed by head kidney, ovary - at late vitellogenesis stage- and trunk kidney...
July 14, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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