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Gonadal hormones

Putri Ayu Jayusman, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ekram Alias, Norazlina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
Male osteoporosis is associated with higher rates of disability and mortality. Hence the search for suitable intervention and treatment to prevent the degeneration of skeletal health in men is necessary. Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a traditional plant with aphrodisiac potential may be used to treat and prevent male osteoporosis. The skeletal protective effect of quassinoid-rich EL extract, which has a high content of eurycomanone, has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether EL could prevent skeletal deteriorations in gonadal hormone-deficient male rats...
June 21, 2018: Nutrients
Roumei Xing, Fang Liu, Yiqing Yang, Xueqin Cui, Tongtong Wang, Ling Xie, Yongliang Zhao, Lei Fang, Tingfang Yi, Biao Zheng, Mingyao Liu, Huaqing Chen
GPR54 is highly expressed in the central nervous system and plays a crucial role in pubertal development. However, GRP54 is also expressed in the immune system, implying possible immunoregulatory functions. Here we investigated the role of GPR54 in T cell and immune tolerance. GPR54 deficiency led to an enlarged thymus, an increased number of thymocytes, and altered thymic micro-architecture starting around puberty, indicating GPR54 function in T-cell development through its regulatory effect on the gonadal system...
June 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Shanlee M Davis, Najiba Lahlou, Matthew Cox-Martin, Karen Kowal, Philip S Zeitler, Judith L Ross
Context: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common genetic condition in which males have an extra X chromosome. KS is associated with testosterone deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and cardiometabolic disorders. There has been recent interest in prepubertal androgen treatment, however the effects on puberty and gonadal function are unknown. Objective: To compare onset of puberty and testicular function in pre-pubertal boys treated with two years of oxandrolone versus placebo...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Iyad Khourdaji, Jacqueline Zillioux, Kevin Eisenfrats, Daniel Foley, Ryan Smith
The continued and rapid expansion of the Earth's population mandates the need for safe and effective measures of contraception. While a plethora of options exist for women, methods of contraception for the male partner are limited to condoms and vasectomy. The sequela of this discrepancy has led to the family planning burden falling disproportionately on the female partner. For the past several decades, extensive research has been undertaken exploring the feasibility of hormonal male contraception. This proposed method of contraception has focused on suppressing spermatogenesis by exploiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Moona M Myllyaho, Johanna K Ihalainen, Anthony C Hackney, Maarit Valtonen, Ari Nummela, Elina Vaara, Keijo Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Ritva S Taipale
Myllyaho, MM, Ihalainen, JK, Hackney, AC, Valtonen, M, Nummela, A, Vaara, E, Häkkinen, K, Kyröläinen, H, and Taipale, RS. Hormonal contraceptive use does not affect strength, endurance, or body composition adaptations to combined strength and endurance training in women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the effects of a 10-week period of high-intensity combined strength and endurance training on strength, endurance, body composition, and serum hormone concentrations in physically active women using hormonal contraceptives (HCs, n = 9) compared with those who had never used hormonal contraceptives (NHCs, n = 9)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Dale R Sengelaub, Xiao-Ming Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in lesions that destroy tissue and disrupt spinal tracts, producing deficits in locomotor and autonomic function. The majority of treatment strategies after SCI have concentrated on the damaged spinal cord, for example working to reduce lesion size or spread, or encouraging regrowth of severed descending axonal projections through the lesion, hoping to re-establish synaptic connectivity with caudal targets. In our work, we have focused on a novel target for treatment after SCI, surviving spinal motoneurons and their target musculature, with the hope of developing effective treatments to preserve or restore lost function following SCI...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Sellamani Muthulakshmi, Pourmohammadi Fallah Hamideh, Hamid R Habibi, Kannan Maharajan, Krishna Kadirvelu, Venkataramana Mudili
In the present study, we aimed to assess the adverse effects of zearalenone (ZEA) at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μg l-1 ) on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis associated reproductive function using zebrafish model. ZEA was exposed to female zebrafish for 21 days to assess growth indices such as condition factor, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index and caspase 3 activity. Further, expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and CYP19a1b genes in the brain, ERα and vitellogenin (Vtg) genes in the liver and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, ERα, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17-βHSD and CYP19a1 genes in the ovary were also investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Romina P Grinspon, Silvia Gottlieb, Patricia Bedecarrás, Rodolfo A Rey
Introduction: The functional capacity of the testes in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism before treatment has received very little attention. The assessment of testicular function at diagnosis could be helpful in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cryptorchidism and in the evaluation of the effect of treatment. Anti-Müllerian hormone is a well-accepted Sertoli cell biomarker to evaluate testicular function during childhood without the need for stimulation tests. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess testicular function in prepubertal children with cryptorchidism before orchiopexy, by determining serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jun Zhao, Bo Wang, Haiyang Yu, Yujue Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Quanqi Zhang
Tudor domain containing protein 1 (tdrd1) is a member of the Tudor family and has shown essential functions during embryogenesis and gametogenesis. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of Paralichthys olivaceus tdrd1 (Potdrd1). PoTDRD1 is a multidomain protein with an N-terminal MYND zinc finger domain, followed by four tandem extended Tudor domains. Sequence comparison, genomic structure, phylogenetic analyses and synteny analyses showed that Potdrd1 was homologous to those of other teleosts. In adult individuals, the expression of Potdrd1 was higher in testis than in ovary, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression pattern...
June 16, 2018: Gene
Abul-Fotouh Ahmed, Mahmoud Shaban, Abdullah Daoud, Nagah Mohamed, Ahmed Solyman, Ahmed Fahim
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between haemodialysis (HD) duration and erectile function status and gonadal hormones serum levels in adult men with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A total of 118 men with ESRD on chronic HD were eligible for analysis. The erectile dysfunction (ED) was defined and graded according to the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone (TST), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were measured using the standard laboratory technique...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
T H Johannsen, K M Main, M L Ljubicic, T K Jensen, H R Andersen, M S Andersen, J H Petersen, A-M Andersson, A Juul
CONTEXT: The early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during infancy can be used in the evaluation of infants suspected of disorders of sex development (DSD). However, few data exists on sex-specific reference ranges for these hormones during early life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex-differences in reproductive hormone concentrations in serum from healthy infants in order to define sex-specific cut-off values and to apply these in infants with DSD...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Leila Amini, Marjan Hematian, Ali Montazeri, Korosh Gharegozli
Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders; the impact of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs influences the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and dysfunction of the endocrine system and reproductive hormones in women with epilepsy. This study was carried out with an aim of determining and comparing the frequency and intensity of the complications of the hirsutism in women with and without epilepsy in Tehran in 2016-2017. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional-comparative study which was carried out on 338 women of 18-35-year-old women with and without epilepsy who were selected by continuous sampling method...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
María P Di Yorio, Daniela I Pérez Sirkin, José A Muñoz-Cueto, Tomás H Delgadin, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Gustavo M Somoza, Paula G Vissio
Reproduction is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The first neuropeptide identified that regulates this function was the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Nowadays, in gnatostomates, a number of GnRH variants have been identified and classified into three different types: GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3. Almost 30 years later, a new peptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was discovered and thus named as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In avians and mammals, the interaction and regulation between GnRH and GnIH neurons has been widely studied; however, in other vertebrate groups there is little information about the relationship between these neurons...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Cheng Peng, Ling Xiao, Huimin Chen, Yulong Han, Minwei Huang, Mi Zhao, Shuisheng Li, Yun Liu, Yuqing Yang, Haifa Zhang, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a critical role in reproduction by mediating LH signaling in the gonad. In this study, we cloned a novel lhr gene from the orange-spotted grouper, named glhr2. The cloned complete open reading frame sequence of glhr2 was 2082 bp in length, encoding a protein of 693 amino acids, sharing approximately 50% amino acid identity with glhr1. glhr1 and glhr2 were primarily expressed in gonad, brain and hypothalamus with lowe expression in other tissues such as gill, spleen, etc...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
N Bourcigaux, C Rubino, I Berthaud, M E Toubert, B Donadille, L Leenhardt, I Petrot-Keller, S Brailly-Tabard, J Fromigué, F de Vathaire, T Simon, J P Siffroi, M Schlumberger, P Bouchard, S Christin-Maitre
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: A single activity of 3.7 GBq RAI for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) treatment in young men transiently altered Sertoli cell function and induced sperm chromosomal abnormalities. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Few studies, mainly retrospective, have reported the potential impacts of RAI on endocrine and exocrine testicular function...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
F Dardmeh, H Alipour, H I Nielsen, S Rasmussen, J T Yousefi, N E Ditlevsen, H A A K T Yassin, E Morina, R K Duus, P Gazerani
Aims Sex hormones play an important role in pain in many chronic pain conditions. Relationship between chronic pain and sperm quality has not been investigated thoroughly and may provide an insight to better understanding, management and treatment of cases where chronic pain and male sub-fertility co-exist. Methods Neat (fresh semen) and processed sperm from 15 males with orthopedic chronic pain (CP) were assessed and compared with 15 healthy age matched controls. Sperm analysis was performed using the SCA computer-aided sperm analyzer...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Viviana Mucci, Josephine M Canceri, Rachael Brown, Mingjia Dai, Sergei B Yakushin, Shaun Watson, Angelique Van Ombergen, Yves Jacquemyn, Paul Fahey, Paul H Van de Heyning, Floris Wuyts, Cherylea J Browne
Introduction: Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a condition characterized by a persistent perception of self-motion, in most cases triggered from exposure to passive motion (e.g., boat travel, a car ride, flights). Patients whose onset was triggered in this way are categorized as Motion-Triggered (MT) subtype or onset group. However, the same syndrome can occur spontaneously or after non-motion events, such as childbirth, high stress, surgery, etc. Patients who were triggered in this way are categorized as being of the Spontaneous/Other (SO) subtype or onset group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
M Bourdon, L Torres-Rovira, D Monniaux, C Faure, R Levy, A Tarrade, D Rousseau-Ralliard, P Chavatte-Palmer, G Jolivet
The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a rabbit model. Rabbits were exposed daily to diluted diesel exhaust gas or filtered air from the 3rd until the 27th day of gestation, during which time germ cells migrate in genital ridges and divide, and fetal sex is determined. Offspring gonads were collected shortly before birth (28th day of gestation) or after puberty (7...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Ila Mishra, Neha Agarwal, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
Circannual rhythm regulates annual timing of reproduction in spotted munia, with sex-differences in its relationship with the external photoperiod environment. Interestingly, munia show an atypical photosensitivity and exhibit gonadal maturation when acutely exposed to an unnatural short photoperiod (e.g. 3 h light per day; i.e. a long scotoperiod). The proximate mechanisms regulating scotoperiod-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activation are unclear. Since thyroid hormone signalling plays a central role in photoperiodic induction, we hypothesized the involvement of similar mechanism, i...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Livio Casarini, Daniele Santi, Giulia Brigante, Manuela Simoni
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) are glycoproteins fundamental for sexual development and reproduction. Since they act on the same receptor (LHCGR), there is a general consensus that LH and hCG are equivalent. However, separate evolution of LHβ and hCGβ subunits occurred in primates, resulting in two molecules sharing ∼85% identity and regulating different physiological events. Pituitary, pulsatile LH production results in a ∼90 min half-life molecule targeting the gonads, to regulate gametogenesis and androgen synthesis...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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