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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458219/clinical-endocrine-and-imaging-characteristics-of-patients-with-primary-hypophysitis
#1
Anna Angelousi, Carolina Cohen, Soledad Sosa, Karina Danilowicz, Lina Papanastasiou, Marina Tsoli, Aparna Pal, Georgios Piaditis, Ashley Grossman, Gregory Kaltsas
Primary hypophysitis (PH) is a rare disease with a poorly-defined natural history. Our aim was to characterise patients with PH at presentation and during prolonged follow-up. Observational retrospective study of 22 patients was conducted from 3 centres. In 14 patients, PH was confirmed histologically and in the remaining 8 clinically, after excluding secondary causes of hypophysitis. All patients had hormonal and imaging investigations before any treatment. Median follow up was 48 months (25-75%: 3-60). There was a female predominance with a female/male ratio: 3...
February 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453925/impact-of-opioid-therapy-on-gonadal-hormones-focus-on-buprenorphine
#2
REVIEW
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451821/protection-from-vascular-dysfunction-in-female-rats-with-chronic-stress-and-depressive-symptoms
#3
Steven D Brooks, Stan Hileman, Paul D Chantler, Samantha Milde, Kent C Lemaster, Stephanie Frisbee, J Kevin Shoemaker, Dwayne N Jackson, Jefferson C Frisbee
The increasing prevalence and severity of clinical depression is strongly correlated with vascular disease risk, creating a comorbid condition with poor outcomes, although demonstrating a sexual disparity where females are at lower risk than males for subsequent cardiovascular events. To determine potential mechanisms responsible for this protection against stress/depression-induced vasculopathy in females, we exposed male and female ({plus minus}ovariectomy) rats to the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model for 8 weeks and determined depressive symptom severity, vascular reactivity in aortic rings (AR) and ex vivo middle cerebral arteries (MCA), and determined the profile of major metabolites regulating vascular tone...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451224/hypogonadism-in-male-thalassemia-major-patients-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Mohamed A Yassin, Salvatore Di Maio, Shahina Daar, Heba Elsedfy, Nada Soliman, Christos Kattamis
Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are frequent and well recognized disturbances among male patients with transfusion dependent (TD) thalassaemia major (β-thal). These problems are attributed mainly to the damage caused by chronic anaemia and the deposition of excess iron in the pituitary gland and testicles. This is a short review of male pubertal disorders in patients with β-thal written by pediatric endocrinologists and haematologists with an interest and active involvement, in the diagnosis and management of these complications in this group of patients...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439271/normative-basal-values-of-hormones-and-proteins-of-gonadal-and-adrenal-functions-from-birth-to-adulthood
#5
Flaminia Fanelli, Federico Baronio, Rita Ortolano, Marco Mezzullo, Alessandra Cassio, Uberto Pagotto, Antonio Balsamo
In clinical practice, it is fundamental to compare the results of hormonal examinations obtained in the laboratory with reliable reference values. This is particularly difficult when faced with rare conditions, such as disorders of sex development, where not routinely assayed peptide hormones as well as intermediate steroid metabolites are often needed and local reliable reference values are not available. There are considerable differences among techniques and assays used in clinical and research laboratories...
February 14, 2018: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438900/sperm-quality-biomarkers-complement-reproductive-and-endocrine-parameters-in-investigating-environmental-contaminants-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-from-the-lake-mead-national-recreation-area
#6
Jill A Jenkins, Michael R Rosen, Rassa O Draugelis-Dale, Kathy R Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M Wieser, Constance A Kersten, Steven L Goodbred
Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999-2006)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438534/both-in-vivo-fsh-depletion-and-follicular-exposure-to-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-analogues-in-vitro-are-not-effective-to-prevent-follicular-depletion-during-chemotherapy-in-mice
#7
F Horicks, G Van Den Steen, C Gervy, H J Clarke, I Demeestere
STUDY QUESTION: Does fertility preservation using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues during chemotherapy act through a direct effect on the ovary or through inhibition of FSH secretion? SUMMARY ANSWER: The absence of FSH in vivo and the direct exposition of ovarian follicles to GnRH analogues in vitro did not prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The potential mechanisms of action of GnRH analogues in protecting ovaries against chemotherapy damage remain poorly understood...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437880/molecular-regulation-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-secretion-and-action
#8
Nandana Das, Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSH-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common -subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotropes and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Several decades of research led to the purification, structural characterization and physiological regulation of FSH in a variety of species including humans...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434234/altered-aspects-of-anxiety-related-behavior-in-kisspeptin-receptor-deleted-male-mice
#9
Sarah Delmas, Robert Porteous, Dave H Bergin, Allan E Herbison
The roles of kisspeptin signaling outside the hypothalamus in the brain are unknown. We examined here the impact of Kiss1r-deletion on hippocampus-related behaviors of anxiety and spatial learning in adult male mice using two mouse models. In the first, global Kiss1r-null and control mice were gonadectomized (GDX KISS1R-KO). In the second, KISS1R signalling was rescued selectively in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to generate Kiss1r-null mice with normal testosterone levels (intact KISS1R-KO). Intact KISS1R-KO rescue mice were found to spend twice as much time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) compared to controls (P < 0...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430160/a-case-of-primary-amenorrhea-with-swyer-syndrome
#10
Pritti K Priya, Vineet V Mishra, Sumesh Choudhary, Jamal S Rizvi
Swyer syndrome with complete gonadal dysgenesis is associated with an absence of testicular differentiation in a phenotypic female with a 46, XY karyotype. A 14-year-old unmarried girl was referred with complaints of primary amenorrhea and nondevelopment of breast. Her built was normal. Examination of her secondary sexual characteristics revealed no breast development, absent axillary hairs, and sparse pubic hairs. External genitalia was of female type. Karyotype showed genotype of 46, XY. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypoplastic uterus with absent fallopian tubes and ovaries...
October 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422312/altered-expression-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-during-the-early-stage-of-bovine-persistent-ovarian-follicles
#11
P U Díaz, F Rey, N C Gareis, U S Notaro, V Matiller, E M Belotti, A F Stassi, N R Salvetti, H H Ortega
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a homodimeric glycoprotein expressed exclusively in the gonads. This hormone is an important regulator of the early growth of follicles through inhibitory effects on the recruitment of primordial follicles into the pool of growing follicles and on granulosa cell proliferation. Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important disorder affecting the fertility of dairy cattle. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of AMH in granulosa cells and AMH secretion into follicular fluid in pre-ovulatory follicles from control cows, animals with spontaneously arising COD and during the development of the disease, at 5, 10 and 15 days of follicular persistence...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421437/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-levels-of-serum-estradiol-and-pituitary-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-a-rat-model-of-induced-super-ovulation
#12
Haiyang Fu, Jianhua Sun, Yong Tan, Huifang Zhou, Wanli Xu, Junling Zhou, Dong Chen, Cong Zhang, Xuanxuan Zhu, Ying Zhang, Xiaoliang Wu, Zhaoqing Xi
AIMS: Acupuncture is frequently recommended as a complementary therapy for infertility. However, whether acupuncture can prevent early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome has not been examined and its potential mechanisms are not well understood. MAIN METHODS: Forty rats were randomized into four groups: Control, Ovarian Stimulation Model, Acupuncture, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG). Serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 5, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420188/human-3beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-associated-with-normal-spermatic-numeration-despite-a-severe-enzyme-deficit
#13
Bruno Donadille, Muriel Houang, Irene Netchine, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, Sophie Christin-Maitre
Human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3b-HSD) is a very rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from HSD3B2 gene mutations. Its estimated prevalence is less than 1/1,000,000 male neonates. It leads to steroidogenesis impairment in both adrenals and gonads. Few data are available on adult testicular function in such patients. Therefore, we evaluated gonadal axis and testicular function in a 46,XY adult patient, carrying a HSD3B2 mutation. The patient presented at birth with neonatal salt wasting syndrome, a micropenis, perineal hypospadias and intrascrotal testes...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414103/reproductive-role-of-mirna-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#14
REVIEW
Chunyu Cao, Yifei Ding, Xiangjun Kong, Guangde Feng, Wei Xiang, Long Chen, Fang Yang, Ke Zhang, Mingxing Chu, Pingqing Wang, Baoyun Zhang
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays a critical role in regulating reproductive function. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary gonadotrophs to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion, ultimately affecting the animal's fertility. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are widely expressed throughout the brain and can fine-tune gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recently, growing evidence has unveiled the central position of miRNAs within a key regulatory process involving GnRH secretion and subsequent activation in the pituitary...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#15
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409762/effects-of-antihistamines-on-the-h295r-steroidogenesis-autocrine-up-regulation-following-3%C3%AE-hsd-inhibition
#16
Cecilie Hurup Munkboel, Stine Bjerregaard Hasselstrøm, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Bjarne Styrishave
Millions of people of all ages suffer from allergies worldwide and as a consequence antihistamines are among the most commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals in the world. We investigated the disruptive effects of three antihistamines, promethazine (PMZ), cetirizine (CET) and fexofenadine (FEX) on the H295R steroidogenesis. A multi-steroid LC-MS/MS method was used to quantify 13 steroid hormones in the steroidogenesis. In addition, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine if exposure to antihistamines altered gene expression in the cell line...
January 30, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409045/gnrh-receptor-expression-and-reproductive-function-depend-on-jun-in-the-gnrh-receptor-expressing-cells
#17
Carrie R Jonak, Nancy M Lainez, Ulrich Boehm, Djurdjica Coss
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus regulates synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gonadotropes. LH and FSH are heterodimers, comprised of a common α-subunit and unique β-subunits, which provide biological specificity and are limiting components of the mature hormone synthesis. Gonadotrope cells respond to GnRH via specific expression of the GnRH receptor. GnRH induces the expression of gonadotropin genes and of the GnRH receptor by activation of specific transcription factors...
February 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408859/transcriptome-analysis-revealed-the-possible-regulatory-pathways-initiating-female-geese-broodiness-within-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#18
Hehe Liu, Jiwen Wang, Liang Li, Chunchun Han, Hua He, Hengyong Xu
Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408690/female-sexual-attractiveness-and-sex-recognition-in-leopard-gecko-males-are-indiscriminate-courters
#19
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necessary to elicit courtship in males. In the case of leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), it has been suggested that an individual is recognized as a male and attacked unless it produces female-specific stimuli in its skin and that females are attacked, not courted, while shedding...
February 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406096/exposure-to-difenoconazole-inhibits-reproductive-ability-in-male-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#20
Xiaocui Dong, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a triazole fungicide which has been detected in the aquatic environment, including estuaries and embayments. However, few studies addressing the reproductive toxicity and transgenerational effects of DFZ on marine fishes are available. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on male marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After exposure of the embryo to 1, 10, 100 and 1000ng/L DFZ for 180days, the gonadosomatic index was significantly decreased in the 1000ng/L treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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