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Gonadal hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048721/the-immune-profile-induced-is-crucial-to-determine-the-effects-of-immunocastration-over-gonadal-function-fertility-and-gnrh-i-expression
#1
Daniela Siel, Alexandra Loaiza, Sonia Vidal, Mario Caruffo, Rodolfo Paredes, Galia Ramirez, Lisette Lapierre, Cristóbal Briceño, Oliver Pérez, Leonardo Sáenz
PROBLEM: Immunocastration or vaccination against the GnRH-I hormone is a promising alternative to reproductive control in different animal species. Given the low immunogenicity of this hormone, the use of adjuvants becomes necessary. METHOD OF STUDY: This study evaluated the effects of three adjuvants that induce different immune response profiles over gonadal function, fertility, and expression of GnRH-I. Female mice (n = 6) were vaccinated at days 1 and 30 with a recombinant antigen for immunocastration and different adjuvants that induced preferentially Th1/Th2, Th2, and Th1 immune profiles...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044434/glp-1-increases-kiss-1-mrna-expression-in-kisspeptin-expressing-neuronal-cells
#2
Aki Oride, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044430/molecular-regulation-of-sex-change-induced-by-methyltestosterone-feeding-and-methyltestosterone-feeding-withdrawal-in-the-protogynous-orange-spotted-grouper
#3
Qing Wang, Yun Liu, Cheng Peng, Xiang Wang, Ling Xiao, Dengdong Wang, Jiaxing Chen, Haifa Zhang, Huihong Zhao, Shuisheng Li, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
The sex identity of fish can be easily manipulated by exogenous hormones. Treatment with 17-methyltestosterone (MT) has been widely used to induce a male fate, but the molecular and cellular processes underlying sex changes induced by MT treatments and the withdrawal of MT are not well studied. In this study, we systematically investigated gonadal histology, gene expression profiles, sex steroid hormone levels, and cellular changes during sex changes induced by MT-feeding and MT-feeding withdrawal in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044424/new-hope-for-symptom-management-during-natural-and-iatrogenic-menopause-transitions
#4
Teresa K Woodruff, Sundeep Khosla
Bone loss is associated with aging and is exacerbated by female transition to menopause. Estrogen has long been associated with bone loss, and replacement therapy is effective at restoring bone health. In the last 10 years, pituitary and gonadal peptide hormones have been implicated in bone biology, and here we update the story on FSH and its potential role as a direct regulator of bone and adipose. If translated to humans, new approaches to ameliorate age related bone demise could be developed. Moreover, young women with hormone responsive cancers who are unable to maintain bone may have new routes to avoid debilitating bone loss...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043108/mysterious-inhibitory-cell-regulator-investigated-and-found-likely-to-be-secretogranin-ii-related
#5
John E Hart, Iain J Clarke, Gail P Risbridger, Ben Ferneyhough, Mónica Vega-Hernández
In the context of a hunt for a postulated hormone that is tissue-mass inhibiting and reproductively associated, there is described probable relatedness to a granin protein. A 7-8 kDa polypeptide candidate (gels/MS) appeared in a bioassay-guided fractionation campaign involving sheep plasma. An N-terminal sequence of 14 amino acids was obtained for the polypeptide by Edman degradation. Bioinformatics and molecular biology failed to illuminate any ovine or non-ovine protein which might relate to this sequence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040512/fertility-related-knowledge-and-reproductive-goals-in-childhood-cancer-survivors-short-communication
#6
V Lehmann, M C Keim, L Nahata, E L Shultz, J L Klosky, M A Tuinman, C A Gerhardt
STUDY QUESTION: Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? SUMMARY ANSWER: While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039178/-potential-clinical-application-of-kisspeptin-in-reproductive-endocrinology
#7
Yanling Fu, Yimin Zhu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the process of reproduction. Studies have shown that a family of peptides Kisspeptin can act on GnRH-related neurons, stimulating the secretion of GnRH, and activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that exogenous administration of Kisspeptin is able to induce physiological GnRH release in healthy individuals and those with endocrine-disorders, which brings great hope for treatment of reproductive endocrine diseases...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038356/local-production-of-neurostradiol-affects-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-secretion-at-mid-gestation-in-lagostomus-maximus-rodentia-caviomorpha
#8
Santiago E Charif, Pablo I F Inserra, Alejandro R Schmidt, Noelia P Di Giorgio, Santiago A Cortasa, Candela R Gonzalez, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Julia Halperin, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo, Verónica B Dorfman
Females of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, show peculiar reproductive features such as massive polyovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle and an ovulatory process around mid-gestation arising from the reactivation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovary (H.H.O.) axis. Estradiol (E2) regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression. Biosynthesis of estrogens results from the aromatization of androgens by aromatase, which mainly occurs in the gonads, but has also been described in the hypothalamus...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#9
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036567/extra-pituitary-expressed-fsh-is-it-physiologically-important
#10
Anushka Jayaraman, T Rajendra Kumar
Pituitary gonadotropes synthesize and secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is a heterodimer that consists of an α-and a β-subunit. The α - subunit is common to other pituitary and placental glycoprotein hormones and the β-subunit is the hormone/receptor specific subunit. Although the pituitary is the main tissue that accounts for circulating hormone, previous and recent reports indicate extra-pituitary sources of FSH production including mouse gonads, human stomach, prostate, umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, uterine myometrium, placenta and chicken abdominal adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033885/emotions-and-steroid-secretion-in-aging-men-a-multi-study-report
#11
Andreas Walther, Patricia Waldvogel, Emilou Noser, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert
Although aging increases the risk of cognitive and socioemotional deterioration, it has also been shown to be accompanied by an increase in experienced positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions. Steroid hormones and age-related alterations in secretion patterns have been suggested to play a crucial role in these age-related changes in emotional experience. Importantly, previous studies identified effects of neuroactive hormones on age-related alterations in emotional experience, which vary by sex and depression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032323/neural-activity-during-traumatic-film-viewing-is-linked-to-endogenous-estradiol-and-hormonal-contraception
#12
Stephan F Miedl, Melanie Wegerer, Hubert Kerschbaum, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Women are at higher risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recent research has highlighted a modulating role of female sex hormones for cognitive and emotional processes potentially underlying PTSD symptoms. However, studies combining fMRI recordings of brain activity during trauma film viewing with assessment of female sex hormones are missing. The trauma film paradigm - a widely used experimental analogue for trauma exposure - confronts healthy participants with traumatic film clips and thus allows studying peritraumatic processing under laboratory conditions...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032082/effects-of-triclosan-on-hormones-and-reproductive-axis-in-female-yellow-river-carp-cyprinus-carpio-potential-mechanisms-underlying-estrogen-effect
#13
Fan Wang, Xiangmeng Guo, Wanguang Chen, Yaowen Sun, Chaojie Fan
Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC50 TCS (96h LC50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030490/early-sex-dependent-differences-in-response-to-environmental-stress
#14
Serafin Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Dimitrios Rizos, Pat Lonergan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029883/brain-sexual-differentiation-and-effects-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-in-transpeople-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study
#15
Nienke M Nota, Sarah M Burke, Martin den Heijer, Remi S Soleman, Cornelis B Lambalk, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Dick J Veltman, Baudewijntje P Kreukels
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that transpeople show sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Various structural neuroimaging studies provide support for this notion, but little is known about the sexual differentiation of functional resting-state networks in transpeople. In this study we therefore aimed to determine whether brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns in transpeople are sex-typical or sex-atypical, before and after the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT). METHODS: We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance data in 36 transpeople (22 with female sex assigned at birth), first during gonadal suppression, and again four months after start of CHT, and in 37 cisgender people (20 females), both sessions without any hormonal intervention...
October 10, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027840/male-factor-infertility-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-register-based-cohort-study
#16
Clara Helene Glazer, Sandra Søgaard Tøttenborg, Aleksander Giwercman, Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner, Michael L Eisenberg, Ditte Vassard, Melinda Magyari, Anja Pinborg, Lone Schmidt, Jens Peter Bonde
BACKGROUND: Gender, possibly due to the influence of gonadal hormones, is presumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have evaluated whether male infertility is associated with MS. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between male factor infertility and prevalent as well as incident MS. METHOD: Our cohort was established by linkage of the Danish National in vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and consisted of 51,063 men whose partners had undergone fertility treatment in all public and private fertility clinics in Denmark between 1994 and 2015...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024968/iron-suppresses-ovarian-granulosa-cell-proliferation-and-arrests-cell-cycle-through-regulating-p38-mapk-p53-p21-pathway
#17
Mei-Jou Chen, Chia-Hong Chou, Chia-Tung Shun, Tsui-Lien Mao, Wen-Fen Wen, Chin-Der Chen, Shee-Uan Chen, Yu-Shih Yang, Hong-Nerng Ho
Iron is an essential nutrient that may exert toxic effects when it accumulates in tissues. Little is known regarding its effects on gonadal function. Both Fe2+ and Fe3+ could be released from iron deposition. We employed mouse non-luteinized granulosa cell for in vitro studies and human ovarian tissues for Prussian blue and immunohistochemical staining to identify the iron deposition and effect in vivo. After treatment with FeSO4-7H2O or FeCl3 in granulosa cell cultured with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) for 48 hours, we found that Fe2+ significantly suppressed FSH-induced granulosa cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase by cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022126/a-systematic-review-of-cortisol-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-and-prolactin-in-peripartum-women-with-major-depression
#18
REVIEW
Mercedes J Szpunar, Barbara L Parry
Pregnancy and postpartum are periods of high susceptibility to major depression (MD) and other mood disorders. The peripartum period is also a time of considerable changes in the levels of hormones, including cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and gonadal steroids. To investigate the relationship between mood and hormonal changes during and after pregnancy, we reviewed published reports of hormonal measures during this time frame, searched via PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if women in the antepartum or postpartum periods were clinically diagnosed with MD, and if there were repeated measures of cortisol, TSH, or prolactin...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#19
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016690/expression-profile-of-amh-amh-during-bi-directional-sex-change-in-the-protogynous-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#20
Guan-Chung Wu, Hau-Wen Li, Wei-Guan Tey, Chien-Ju Lin, Ching-Fong Chang
Gonadal differentiation is tightly regulated by the initial sex determining gene and the downstream sex-related genes in vertebrates. However, sex change in fish can alter the sexual fate from one sex to the other. Chemical-induced maleness in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper is transient, and a reversible sex change occurs after the chemical treatment is withdrawn. We used these characteristics to study Amh signaling during bi-directional sex change in the grouper. We successfully induced the female-to-male sex change by chemical (aromatase inhibitor, AI, or methyltestosterone, MT) treatment...
2017: PloS One
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