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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342855/regulation-of-reproduction-via-tight-control-of-gonadotropin-hormone-levels
#1
Djurdjica Coss
Mammalian reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH from the hypothalamus regulates synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins, LH and FSH, which then control steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. In females, serum LH and FSH levels exhibit rhythmic changes throughout the menstrual or estrous cycle that are correlated with pulse frequency of GnRH. Lack of gonadotropins leads to infertility or amenorrhea. Dysfunctions in the tightly controlled ratio due to levels slightly outside the normal range occur in a larger number of women and are correlated with polycystic ovaries and premature ovarian failure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341582/sex-differences-in-microglial-phagocytosis-in-the-neonatal-hippocampus
#2
Lars H Nelson, Spencer Warden, Kathryn M Lenz
Microglia regulate brain development through many processes, such as promoting neurogenesis, supporting cell survival, and phagocytizing progenitor, newly-born, and dying cells. Many of these same developmental processes show robust sex differences, yet very few studies have assessed sex differences in microglia function during development. Hormonally-induced sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during the perinatal period, thus we examined sex differences in microglial morphology, phagocytosis, and proliferation in the hippocampus during the early postnatal period...
March 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341321/reprint-of-repeated-adolescent-activity-based-anorexia-influences-central-estrogen-signaling-and-adulthood-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rats
#3
Tien-Jui Lee, Kimberly P Kinzig
Anorexia nervosa (AN) typically presents in adolescence and is highly comorbid with anxiety and depression, which often persist after elimination of AN symptomology. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm allows for evaluation of behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of AN-like behaviors, including voluntary anorexia, hyperactivity, and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Because ABA in adolescent females results in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood and the estrogen signaling system has been shown to play a role in anxiety and food intake, we investigated the role of ovarian hormones in adolescent ABA-treated rats, and long-term effects of mid- and late adolescent ABA exposure on behavior and estrogen signaling...
March 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339754/expression-of-deep-brain-photoreceptors-in-the-pekin-drake-a-possible-role-in-the-maintenance-of-testicular-function
#4
R Haas, E Alenciks, S Meddle, G S Fraley
Several putative deep brain photoreceptors (DBPs) have been identified, such as melanopsin, opsin 5, and vertebrate ancient opsin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of DBPs in gonadal regulation in the Pekin drake. As previously reported, we observed opsin-like immunoreactivity (-ir) in the lateral septum (LS), melanopsin-ir in the premammillary nucleus (PMM), and opsin 5-ir in the periventricular organ. To determine the sensitivity of the DBPs to specific wavelengths of light, drakes were given an acute exposure to red, blue, or white light...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#5
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334719/meta-analysis-of-paediatric-patients-with-central-precocious-puberty-treated-with-intramuscular-triptorelin-11-25-mg-3-month-prolonged-release-formulation%C3%A2
#6
Adélaïde Durand, Maithé Tauber, Bharat Patel, Pascale Dutailly
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month prolonged-release formulation in central precocious puberty (CPP). METHODS: All available clinical studies with triptorelin 11.25 mg were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of children with suppressed luteinising hormone (LH) response (peak LH ≤3 IU/L) to the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test 3 months after triptorelin 11.25 mg injection...
March 23, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334158/the-impact-of-pregnancy-on-taste-function
#7
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333280/hcg-activates-the-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-transiently-increasing-the-progesterone-receptor-and-regulating-genes-associated-with-endometrial-receptivity
#8
Alejandro Tapia-Pizarro, Sebastián Archiles, Felipe Argandoña, Cecilia Valencia, Keyla Zavaleta, María Cecilia Johnson, Reinaldo González-Ramos, Luigi Devoto
STUDY QUESTION: How does hCG signal in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and what is its role in regulating ESC function? SUMMARY ANSWER: CG signaling in ESCs activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) pathway through exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and transiently increases progesterone receptor (PR) transcript and protein expression and its transcriptional function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the endometrium, which abundantly expresses LH/hCG receptors...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330882/adiponectin-and-resistin-a-role-in-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#9
Agnieszka Rak, Namya Mellouk, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue. They play a significant role in the metabolic functions that regulate insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alteration of adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissue, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329024/toward-developing-recombinant-gonadotropin-based-hormone-therapies-for-increasing-fertility-in-the-flatfish-senegalese-sole
#10
François Chauvigné, Judith Ollé, Wendy González, Neil Duncan, Ignacio Giménez, Joan Cerdà
Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326509/the-steroid-response-to-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-hcg-stimulation-in-men-with-klinefelter-syndrome-does-not-change-using-immunoassay-or-mass-spectrometry
#11
L Roli, D Santi, S Belli, S Tagliavini, S Cavalieri, M C De Santis, E Baraldi, F Fanelli, M Mezzullo, A R Granata, U Pagotto, R Pasquali, V Rochira, C Carani, M Simoni, T Trenti
PURPOSE: Liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed in parallel to Immunoassays (IAs) and today is proposed as the "gold standard" for steroid assays. Leydig cells of men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are able to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, even if testosterone (T) production was impaired. The aim was to evaluate how results obtained by IAs and LC-MS/MS can differently impact on the outcome of a clinical research on gonadal steroidogenesis after hCG stimulation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324816/sex-differences-and-hormonal-modulation-of-ethanol-enhanced-risk-taking-in-rats
#12
Kathryn G Wallin-Miller, Jordyn Chesley, Juliana Castrillon, Ruth I Wood
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) intake correlates with increased risk-taking, and sex differences exist in both EtOH use and risk-taking in humans and rats. However, the interaction of sex and gonadal hormones to affect risk-taking under the influence of EtOH has not been determined. This was the focus of the current study. METHODS: Adult Long-Evans rats (n=18 males and females) were gonadectomized and received hormone replacement at physiologic levels or blank implants (n=7-9/group)...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324107/functional-characterization-of-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-c5-in-female-murine-gonadotropes
#13
Andreas Beck, Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Marc Freichel, Ulrich Boehm
Gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland secrete gonadotropins regulating gonadal function in mammals. Recent results have implicated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels in pituitary physiology, however, if and how TRP channels contribute to gonadotrope function is not known. Here we report that 14 out of 28 TRP channels encoded in the mouse genome are expressed in murine gonadotropes with highest expression levels found for TRPC5 in juvenile females. We show that TRP channel expression in these cells exhibits considerable plasticity and that it depends on gender as well as on the developmental and hormonal status of the animal...
January 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323146/hypogonadal-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-have-smaller-bone-size-and-lower-bone-turnover
#14
Georgia Colleluori, Lina Aguirre, Richard Dorin, David Robbins, Dean Blevins, Yoann Barnouin, Rui Chen, Clifford Qualls, Dennis T Villareal, Reina Armamento-Villareal
INTRODUCTION: Both hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are associated with increased fracture risk. Emerging data support the negative effect of low testosterone on glucose metabolism, however, there is little information on the bone health of hypogonadal men with diabetes. We evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry and bone turnover of hypogonadal men with T2D compared to hypogonadal men without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, men 40-74years old, with average morning testosterone (done twice) of<300ng/dl...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322767/cloning-localization-and-differential-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-during-early-brain-development-and-gonadal-recrudescence-in-the-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#15
Cheni-Chery Sudhakumari, Arumugam Anitha, Raju Murugananthkumar, Dinesh Kumar Tiwari, Dharavath Bhasker, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Aparna Dutta Gupta
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has diverse physiological functions which are extensively studied in vertebrates. However, regulatory role of NPY in relation to brain ontogeny and recrudescence with reference to reproduction is less understood in fish. Present report for the first time evaluated the significance of NPY by transient esiRNA silencing and also analyzed its expression during brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. As a first step, full-length cDNA of NPY was cloned from adult catfish brain, which shared high homology with its counterparts from other teleosts upon phylogenetic analysis...
March 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322761/pre-gnrh-and-gnrh-induced-testosterone-levels-do-not-vary-across-behavioral-contexts-a-role-for-individual-variation
#16
Medhavi Ambardar, Jennifer L Grindstaff
Hormones can facilitate the expression of behavior, but relatively few studies have considered individual variation and repeatability in hormone-behavior relationships. Repeated measures of hormones are valuable because repeatability in hormone levels might be a mechanism that drives repeatability in behavior ("personality"). Testosterone is predicted to promote territorial aggression and suppress parental behaviors. In our population of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), parental care and nest defense aggression toward a heterospecific are repeatable...
March 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321875/zygoparity-and-sex-steroid-hormone-profiles-in-bluemouth-helicolenus-dactylopterus
#17
V Sequeira, E Couto, A Neves, A R Vieira, R B Paiva, A V M Canario, L S Gordo
Two hundred and seven individuals (103 females and 104 males) of bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus (Scorpaeniformes, Sebastidae), a commercially important deep-water species with an unusual reproductive strategy, from the eastern Atlantic Ocean ranging from 13·9 to 37·5 cm total length (LT ) were analysed from September 2011 to October 2012. The analysis included gonad maturity phases and blood-plasma levels of oestradiol-17β (E2 ), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20β-P)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318602/metals-hormones-and-sexual-maturation-in-flemish-adolescents-in-three-cross-sectional-studies-2002-2015
#18
Sam De Craemer, Kim Croes, Nicolas van Larebeke, Stefaan De Henauw, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Ilse Loots, Tim Nawrot, Vera Nelen, Elly Den Hond, Liesbeth Bruckers, Yue Gao, Willy Baeyens
Sex hormone levels and timing of sexual maturation are considered important markers for health status of adolescents in puberty, and previous research suggests they might be influenced by metal exposure. In three campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS I 2002-2006; FLEHS II 2007-2011 and FLEHS III 2012-2015), data were collected on internal exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Tl, Ni, Sb, Hg, As and As species) and sexual maturation in 2671 14-15years old adolescents. All metals were measured in blood and/or urine, except total- and methylmercury which were measured in hair samples...
March 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317066/er%C3%AE-and-gnrh-co-localize-in-the-hypothalamic-neurons-of-the-south-american-plains-vizcacha-lagostomus-maximus-rodentia-caviomorpha
#19
Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Santiago Elías Charif, Noelia Paula Di Giorgio, Lucía Saucedo, Alejandro Raúl Schmidt, Nicolas Fraunhoffer, Julia Halperin, María Constanza Gariboldi, Noelia Paola Leopardo, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Candela Rocío Gonzalez, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo, Verónica Berta Dorfman
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Estradiol (E2) affects GnRH synthesis and delivery. Hypothalamic estrogen receptors (ER) modulate GnRH expression acting as transcription factors. The South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is able to ovulate up to 800 oocytes per reproductive cycle, and shows continuous folliculogenesis with pre-ovulatory follicle formation and an ovulatory event at mid-gestation. The aim of this work was to analyze the hypothalamic expression of ER in the vizcacha at different gestational time-points, and its relationship with GnRH expression, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315977/seasonal-expression-of-arginine-vasotocin-mrna-and-its-correlations-to-gonadal-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-sexually-dimorphic-coloration-during-sex-reversal-in-the-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata
#20
José J Reyes-Tomassini, Ten-Tsao Wong, Yonathan Zohar
Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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