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Adrenal hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923182/sociodemographic-lifestyle-and-psychosocial-determinants-of-hair-cortisol-in-a-south-london-community-sample
#1
Susanne Fischer, Roman Duncko, Stephani L Hatch, Andrew Papadopoulos, Laura Goodwin, Souci Frissa, Matthew Hotopf, Anthony J Cleare
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) measures are crucial for research into stress and stress-related disorders. Most HPA measures fluctuate depending on diurnal rhythms and state confounders. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are less susceptible to such fluctuations, but less is known about trait-like confounders. Using a community sample, we tested the relationship between HCC and a range of variables including demographic variables, hair treatment, and medication, as well as psychosocial variables, namely childhood trauma, critical life events, and depressive symptoms...
November 17, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919363/the-effects-of-statin-treatment-on-adrenal-and-sexual-function-and-nitric-oxide-levels-in-hypercholesterolemic-male-patients-treated-with-a-statin
#2
Osman Baspınar, Fahri Bayram, Selda Korkmaz, Murat Aksu, Derya Kocer, Oğuzhan Sıtkı Dizdar, Yasin Simsek, Peter P Toth
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction complaints among men treated with a statin are not uncommon. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to target levels using varying doses of atorvastatin therapy in hypercholesterolemic male patients on adrenocortical hormones, sexual functions, and serum nitric oxide (NO) levels. METHODS: Eleven hypercholesterolemic male patients who had LDL-C levels greater than 160 mg/dL were included in the study and 11 healthy male individuals served as controls...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919009/successful-percutaneous-ct-guided-microwave-ablation-of-adrenal-gland-for-ectopic-cushing-syndrome
#3
Rebecca Zener, Andrew Zaleski, Stan H Van Uum, Daryl K Gray, Amol Mujoomdar
Adrenocorticotropic hormone production by pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) is rare and results in hyperstimulation of the adrenal gland to produce ectopic Cushing syndrome. Our case showcases the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of the adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female with PNET and hepatic metastases who presented with ectopic Cushing syndrome despite surgical resection of the primary pancreatic tumor and left adrenal gland. Prior to ablation, the right adrenal gland measured 4...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916140/moderate-alcohol-consumption-after-a-mental-stressor-attenuates-the-endocrine-stress-response
#4
I C Schrieks, M M Joosten, W A A Klöpping-Ketelaars, R F Witkamp, H F J Hendriks
Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m(2)) participated in a placebo-controlled trial...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#5
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908768/acute-stress-diminishes-m-current-contributing-to-elevated-activity-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#6
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Therese A Kosten, Zongmao Zhao, De-Pei Li
Acute stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is an essential component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The M-channel is a voltage-dependent K(+) channel involved in stabilizing the neuronal membrane potential and regulating neuronal excitability. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that acute stress suppresses expression of Kv7 channels to stimulate PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis...
November 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908659/public-exposure-and-number-of-conspecifics-have-no-influence-on-ovarian-and-adrenal-activity-in-the-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus
#7
Diana C Koester, David E Wildt, Janine L Brown, Karen Meeks, Adrienne E Crosier
Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n = 5 in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation...
November 28, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905124/assessment-of-early-atherosclerosis-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-children-with-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#8
Rahmi Özdemir, Hüseyin Anil Korkmaz, Mehmet Küçük, Cem Karadeniz, Timur Meşe, Behzat Özkan
AIM: We analysed 25 children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency who received glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid treatment for at least 12 months to determine the effects of the disease and its treatment on vascular structures and ventricular function. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with 21-hydroxylase-deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 25 control subjects were enrolled into this observational, cross-sectional study. The patients were investigated in terms of fasting blood glucose and insulin; fasting serum lipid profile; serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone; dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate; androstenedione; and adrenocorticotropic hormone...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903577/adrenal-cushing-syndrome-with-detectable-acth-from-an-unexpected-source
#9
Thinzar M Lwin, Nehal Galal, Shweta Gera, Jennifer L Marti
Mixed corticomedullary adrenal tumours (MCMT) are rare. We describe the second reported case of a male patient presenting with hypertension and Cushing syndrome with MCMT. A man aged 48 years presented with hypertension and signs of Cushing syndrome. 24-hour urine cortisol was elevated, with detectable adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A high-dose dexamethasone suppression test indicated an adrenal or ectopic Cushing syndrome. Plasma metanephrines were normal. A 3 cm left adrenal mass was identified without potential ectopic sources of ACTH on imaging...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903023/-adrenal-insufficiency
#10
Stephanie Burger-Stritt, Stefanie Hahner
Even under established replacement therapy, chronic adrenal insufficiency is associated with an impairment in daily life activities and a higher number of sick-days. In patients with individually adjusted glucocorticoid doses (avoiding over-replacement) the frequency of glucocorticoid side effects is low. Besides the standard treatment with conventional hydrocortisone, new formulas aiming at more adjusted physiological circadian cortisol profiles or improved individual dosing have been evaluated in recent clinical trials...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901643/bilateral-testicular-tumors-resulting-in-recurrent-cushing-s-syndrome-after-bilateral-adrenalectomy
#11
Troy Puar, Manon Engels, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Fred C G J Sweep, Christina Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Karin Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Vasileios Chortis, Wiebke Arlt, Nike Stikkelbroeck, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Ad R M M Hermus
CONTEXT: Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease is extremely rare. PATIENT: We present a rare case of a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, along with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing's. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900213/adrenal-masses-a-urological-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Amr F Fergany
Adrenal masses have become increasingly common due to widespread use of sectional imaging. Urologists are commonly faced with management decisions in patients with adrenal masses. Systemic review of available literature related to surgical adrenal disease was performed to summarise the most pertinent information related to adrenal masses, diagnostic evaluation and surgical treatment. Detailed hormonal evaluation of adrenal disease was not included, being part of endocrinological rather than urological practice...
December 2016: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894193/currently-used-and-investigational-drugs-for-cushing%C3%A2-s-disease
#13
Denis Ciato, Aizhar G Mumbach, Marcelo Paez-Pereda, Günter K Stalla
Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by a corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary gland that secretes excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing increased morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but is not always successful. Alternatives include radiotherapy, adrenal surgery, and pharmaceutical therapy. The latter is increasingly gaining momentum due to the recent development of compounds that reduce hypercortisolaemia or its symptoms, acting through different mechanisms. Areas covered: In this article, the authors provide a complete overview of the treatment options for Cushing´s disease, including adrenal-directed, tumor-targeted, and peripheral therapies that are currently used or in development, and discuss their potential advantages and limitations...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893293/prevelence-of-primary-aldosteronism-in-an-urban-hypertensive-population
#14
Sandi-Jo Galati, Khadeen C Cheesman, Ryan Springer-Miller, Sarah M Hopkins, Lawrence Krakoff, Emilia Bagiella, Rachel A Zhuk, Tiffany K Ying, Chelsey Amer, Michael K Boyajian, W B Inabnet, Alice C Levine
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in hypertensive patients presenting to the primary care clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital, regardless of the degree of hypertension and to identify clinical criteria that should prompt screening for PA. METHODS: An aldosterone:renin ratio (ARR, cutoff ≥20, with plasma aldosterone concentration [PAC] ≥10 and suppressed renin) was used to prospectively screen 296 hypertensive patients (blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90) over the age of 18 from August 2012 through May 2013...
November 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891401/premature-ovarian-failure-an-association-with-autoimmune-diseases
#15
Ayesha, Vandana Jha, Deepti Goswami
INTRODUCTION: Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. POF is reported to be associated with autoimmune diseases in 20-30% of cases. AIM: Patients presenting with idiopathic POF were screened for the presence of autoimmune disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with idiopathic POF were included in the study. Baseline investigation in all subjects included fasting serum FSH, LH, E2, progesterone, free T3, free T4, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Anti-Thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, testosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) levels...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886020/cranial-electrotherapy-stimulation-affects-mood-state-but-not-levels-of-peripheral-neurotrophic-factors-or-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation
#16
Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to aid in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety, though the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and levels of neurotrophic factors, as well as changes in mood state, in patients undergoing CES therapy. Fifty healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to either a Sham CES group (n = 25) or an Active CES group (n = 25)...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882133/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-thyroid-function-pituitary-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-and-hypothalamus-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-in-adrenalectomy-wistar-rats
#17
Qiuyan Sun, Aihua Liu, Yanan Ma, Anyi Wang, Xinhong Guo, Weiping Teng, Yaqiu Jiang
In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880816/paradoxical-sleep-deprivation-causes-cardiac-dysfunction-and-the-impairment-is-attenuated-by-resistance-training
#18
Sara Quaglia de Campos Giampá, Marcos Mônico-Neto, Marco Tulio de Mello, Helton de Sá Souza, Sergio Tufik, Kil Sun Lee, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, Alexandra Alberta Dos Santos, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Andrey Jorge Serra, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879325/cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-due-to-pro-opiomelanocortin-pomc-secretion-from-a-yolk-sac-tumor
#19
Evelien Gevers, Suzanne Meredith, Pratik Shah, John Torpiano, Catherine Peters, Neil Sebire, Olga Slater, Anne White, Mehul Datani
CONTEXT: Pituitary microadenomas and adrenal tumours are the most common causes for endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) in children. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a two-year old girl with Cushing syndrome due to ectopic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) production from an abdominal yolk sac tumor. Cortisol concentrations were elevated but adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were equivocal. The use of antibodies specifically detecting ACTH precursors revealed that plasma ACTH precursors were elevated...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876824/non-stimulated-adrenal-venous-sampling-using-dyna-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#20
Chin-Chen Chang, Bo-Ching Lee, Kao-Lang Liu, Yeun-Chung Chang, Vin-Cent Wu, Kuo-How Huang
In this retrospective study, we aimed to examine the effect of applying Dyna computed tomography (CT) on the success rate of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) without adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. A total of 100 consecutive patients with primary aldosteronism who underwent AVS between May 2012 and July 2015 were enrolled. In all the cases, Dyna CT was used in AVS to validate catheter position in the right adrenal vein. A selectivity index (cortisoladrenal vein /cortisolinferior vena cava) of ≥2.0 of both adrenal veins were required for successful AVS...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
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