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Adrenal hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721131/adrenopause-does-it-really-exist
#1
REVIEW
Lucyna Papierska
In ageing human adrenal glands there occur some morphological changes which result in alterations of their cortex endocrine function. Glucocorticoid-excreting cells in the zona glomerulosa live longer than androgen-producing cells in the zona reticularis, which undergo significant apoptosis. Therefore, in elderly humans cortisol levels are normal (significantly higher than at young age), while adrenal androgen concentrations decline with ageing. Function of the zona glomerulosa is affected by the adrenal status, circulatory system condition, efficiency of the kidneys and liver and medication...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720593/vitamin-a-endocrine-tissues-and-hormones-interplay-and-interactions
#2
Julie Brossaud, Veronique Pallet, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids targets the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas...
July 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720298/steroids-steroid-precursors-and-neuroactive-steroids-in-critically-ill-equine-neonates
#3
K A Dembek, K J Timko, L M Johnson, K A Hart, B S Barr, B David, T A Burns, R E Toribio
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) dysfunction has been associated with sepsis and mortality in foals. Most studies have focused on cortisol, while other steroids have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterise the adrenal steroid and steroid precursor response to disease and to determine their association with the HPAA response to illness, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals. All foals (n=326) were classified by two scoring systems into three categories: based on the sepsis score (septic, sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy) and the foal survival score (Group 1: 3-18%; Group 2: 38-62%; Group 3: 82-97% likelihood of survival)...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718999/resilience-is-decreased-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-associated-with-symptoms-and-cortisol-response
#4
S H Park, B D Naliboff, W Shih, A P Presson, E J Videlock, T Ju, L Kilpatrick, A Gupta, E A Mayer, L Chang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs...
July 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716938/dynamic-responses-of-the-adrenal-steroidogenic-regulatory-network
#5
Francesca Spiga, Eder Zavala, Jamie J Walker, Zidong Zhao, John R Terry, Stafford L Lightman
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a dynamic system regulating glucocorticoid hormone synthesis in the adrenal glands. Many key factors within the adrenal steroidogenic pathway have been identified and studied, but little is known about how these factors function collectively as a dynamic network of interacting components. To investigate this, we developed a mathematical model of the adrenal steroidogenic regulatory network that accounts for key regulatory processes occurring at different timescales...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713963/sexual-dimorphism-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-potential-underlying-mechanisms-review
#6
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'onofrio, Tao Wu, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo, Zhuowei Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess systematically gender differences in susceptibility to frailty and cognitive performance decline, and the underlying mechanisms. A systematic assessment was performed of the identified reviews of cohort, mechanistic and epidemiological studies. The selection criteria of the present study included: i) Sexual dimorphism of frailty, ii) sexual dimorphism of subjective memory decline (impairment) and atrophy of hippocampus during early life, iii) sexual dimorphism of late‑onset Alzheimer's disease and iv) sexual dimorphism mechanisms underlying frailty and cognitive impairment...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713603/adrenal-ganglioneuroblastoma-in-adults-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Stefano Benedini, Giorgia Grassi, Carmen Aresta, Antonietta Tufano, Luca Fabio Carmignani, Barbara Rubino, Livio Luzi, Sabrina Corbetta
Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are very common given the increased number of imaging studies performed in recent years. We here report a clinical case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with left flank pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a contralateral adrenal mass, which was confirmed at computed tomography (CT) scan. Hormonal hypersecretion was excluded. Given the size (11 × 10 × 7 cm) and the uncertain nature of the mass, it was surgically removed and sent for pathological analyses. Conclusive diagnosis was ganglioneuroblastoma...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713097/-drug-induced-changes-in-adrenal-cortex-function
#8
Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Bogusław Okopień
Glucocorticoids, commonly used in the treatment of various disorders, particularly if administered at high doses, may lead to the development of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, being by far the most common iatrogenic disorder of the adrenal gland. In some cases, however, adrenal cortex function may be affected by other drugs and risk of the development of various clinical entities is dependent on the drug, its dose, as well as on the duration of the treatment. This risk is also related to the baseline function of this gland...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710078/endocrinology-and-the-brain-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-signaling
#9
Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A Dos Santos Claro, Susana Silberstein
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key player of basal and stress activated responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and in extrahypothalamic circuits, where it functions as a neuromodulator to orchestrate humoral and behavioral adaptive responses to stress. This review describes molecular components and cellular mechanisms involved in CRH signaling downstream of its G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CRHR1 and CRHR2, and summarizes recent findings that challenge the classical view of GPCR signaling, and impact on our understanding of CRHRs function...
July 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708736/mifepristone-plasma-level-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-associated-with-response-in-patients-with-psychotic-depression
#10
Thaddeus Block, Georgios Petrides, Harvey Kushner, Ned Kalin, Joseph Belanoff, Alan Schatzberg
BACKGROUND: Psychotic depression has no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Patients demonstrate significant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis providing a biologically targeted treatment opportunity. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical and biological effects of short-duration (7-day) glucocorticoid receptor antagonism with mifepristone and the role of mifepristone plasma levels in patients with psychotic depression. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized study took place at 34 US clinical research centers and included patients with a diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, major depressive disorder, severe, with psychotic features...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708076/dendritic-architecture-of-principal-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-changes-congruently-with-endocrine-response-to-stress
#11
Akshaya Hegde, Poh Soh Yee, Rupshi Mitra
Animals cope with changing environments through changes in behavior. Such plasticity is, however, marked by substantial inter-individual variability. Neuroendocrine reactivity to challenging environments can be an important predictor of resilience. Both basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons and adrenal glucocorticoid signaling are integral parts of the stress neuroendocrine response. In this report, we test if individual variation in hormonal response to stress is associated with individual variation in the dendritic complexity of BLA neurons...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707538/adrenal-cortical-hyperplasia-diagnostic-workup-subtypes-imaging-features-and-mimics
#12
Michelle Agrons, Corey T Jensen, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Christine O Menias, Akram M Shaaban, Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Alicia M Roman-Colon, Khaled M Elsayes
Adrenal cortical hyperplasia manifests radiologically as the nonmalignant growth, or enlargement of the adrenal glands, specifically the cortex, although the cortex cannot be definitively identified by conventional imaging. Controlled by the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex drives critical processes, such as cortisol, mineralocorticoid, and sex hormone production. Any disruption in the multiple enzymes and hormones involved in these pathways may cause serious or life-threatening symptoms, often associated with anatomical changes of the adrenal glands...
July 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702774/do-fsh-lh-ratio-and-gonadal-hormone-levels-predict-clinical-improvement-in-postmenopausal-schizophrenia-women
#13
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Miquel Bernardo, Rafael Penadés, Bárbara Arias, Victoria Ruiz Cortés, Mary V Seeman, Rosa Catalán
Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700991/strain-differences-and-effects-of-environmental-manipulation-on-astrocytes-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-microglia-iba1-immunoreactivity-between-wistar-kyoto-and-wistar-females
#14
Guergana R Mileva, Carinna Moyes, Shaezeen Syed, Catherine Bielajew
BACKGROUND: Depression is often associated with an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and immune response. To investigate this relationship, we examined the consequences of environmental manipulation on the neural correlates of the HPA axis and immune response in an animal model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, female animals are often overlooked in preclinical research because of the hormone fluctuations inherent in the estrous cycle...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694701/high-levels-of-nesfatin-1-in-relation-to-the-dysfunction-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axes-in-depressed-patients-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#15
Ya-Yun Xu, Jun Liang, Yin Cao, Feng Shan, Yang Liu, Qing-Rong Xia
Despite the increasing amount of evidence suggesting a relationship between depression and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), the exact mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of plasma Nesfatin-1 levels and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes in the comorbidity of depression and SCH. Dysfunctions of the HPA and HPT axes were detected by measuring plasma corticosterone and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#16
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691730/effects-of-colocynth-alkaloids-and-glycosides-on-wistar-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-a-biochemical-and-morphological-study
#17
Zahia Birem, Khadidja Tabani, Farid Lahfa, Rabah Djaziri, Fatima Hadjbekkouche, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir, Naima Omari
INTRODUCTION: . In traditional medicine, Citrullus colocynthis is used to treat diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which can appear when a diet rich in vegetable fats, such as palm oil, is continuously consumed. Such high-fat diets are chronic stressors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of our study was to analyze and evaluate the effects of colocynth total alkaloids and glycosides on metabolic, hormonal, and structural disorders of the adrenal medulla in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet...
July 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690989/the-association-between-skeletal-maturation-and-adrenal-androgen-levels-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#18
Sung Eun Kim, Joon Weon Jang, Moon Bae Ahn, Shin-Hee Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Min Ho Jung, Byoung Kyu Suh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between skeletal maturation and adrenal androgen levels in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-three children and adolescents (aged 7-15 years) diagnosed as obese or overweight were investigated. Anthropometric measurements, bone age (BA) determination, serum biochemical analyses, and hormonal measurements were performed. The difference between BA and chronological age (BA-CA, dBACA) was calculated and used to represent the degree of advanced skeletal maturation...
June 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689597/other-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-pulmonary-idiopathic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-nondiabetes-endocrine-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Segna, Jean-François Dufour
Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are a rare but serious condition. This article summarizes the current literature on the association between HCV and endocrine and pulmonary manifestations, as well as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). HCV may directly infect extrahepatic tissues and interact with the immune system predisposing for obstructive and interstitial lung disease, ITP, autoimmune thyroiditis, infertility, growth hormone and adrenal deficiencies, osteoporosis, and potentially lung and thyroid cancers...
August 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689073/endocrine-related-adverse-events-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-expert-insights-on-their-management
#20
REVIEW
Mario Sznol, Michael A Postow, Marianne J Davies, Anna C Pavlick, Elizabeth R Plimack, Montaser Shaheen, Colleen Veloski, Caroline Robert
Agents that modulate immune checkpoint proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), have become a mainstay in cancer treatment. The clinical benefit afforded by immune checkpoint inhibitors can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAE) that affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and endocrine system. The types of irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are generally consistent across tumor types. Immune-related endocrine events can affect the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as other downstream target organs...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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