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Adrenal hormones

Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Alexandra Ahmet, Eric I Benchimol, Ellen B Goldbloom, Janice L Barkey
BACKGROUND: Adrenal suppression (AS), a glucocorticoid (GC) side effect associated with significant morbidity, is well described related to inhaled corticosteroid therapy for asthma. Swallowed topical glucocorticoid therapy is the main pharmacotherapy treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and therefore children with EoE are potentially at increased risk of AS. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we included children and youth <18 years diagnosed with EoE and treated with swallowed fluticasone or oral viscous budesonide for more than 1 month...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Xiaojing Wang, Fan Ping, Cuijuan Qi, Xinhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. METHODS: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years' history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Martin Wolley, Ashraf Ahmed, Richard Gordon, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is vital for determining treatment options for primary aldosteronism (PA), but is a difficult procedure. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion or bolus has been reported to improve AVS success rates by increasing cortisol secretion, but effects on aldosterone and thus lateralisation are controversial. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of ACTH on AVS in regard to success rates and lateralization. DESIGN AND METHOD: AVS was performed in the morning after overnight recumbency in patients with PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kaoru Yamashita, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Kentaro Ito, Naohiro Yoshida, Fumiko Mitani, Jin Endo, Motoaki Sano, Keiichi Fukuda, Satoshi Morimoto
OBJECTIVE: Numerous clinical trials demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced heart failure. While RAS is a major machinery required for aldosterone production, multiple minor systems, including catecholamine, could give rise to the aberrant aldosterone production beyond the RAS activation. We investigated the mechanism underlying the RAS-independent aldosterone production in heart failure. DESIGN AND METHOD: Dahl-salt sensitive rats fed high salt diet developed malignant hypertension, resulting in heart failure with inappropriately increased plasma aldosterone level...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eva Soto-Tinoco, Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Ruud M Buijs
The brain is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the organism, constantly adjusting its output via hormones and the autonomic nervous system to reach an optimal setting in every compartment of the body. Also the immune system is under strong control of the brain. Beyond the conventional systemic responses evoked by the brain during inflammation, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and the induction of sickness behavior, the autonomic nervous system is now recognized to exert regulatory effects on the inflammatory response...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Chuan Shi, Fen Wang, Anli Tong, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Hong-Mei Song, Zheng-Yin Liu, Wei Lyu, Yue-Hua Liu, Wei-Bo Xia
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with central adrenal insufficiency is a recently defined clinical syndrome caused by mutations in the nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene. We present the first case of NFKB2 mutation in Asian population. METHODS AND RESULTS: An 18-year-old Chinese female with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency was admitted due to adrenal crisis and pneumonia. She had a history of recurrent respiratory infections since childhood and ectodermal abnormalities were noted during physical examination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Hiroyuki Hirai, Sanae Midorikawa, Shinichi Suzuki, Hironobu Sasano, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hiroaki Satoh
We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5...
2016: Internal Medicine
Takamasa Tanaka, Norihiko Terada, Yoshiki Fujikawa, Takushi Fujimoto
Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) is a rare disorder with diverse clinical presentations. A 79-year-old man was bedridden for six months due to flexion contractures of the bilateral hips and knees, along with hyponatremia. He was diagnosed with IAD based on the results of endocrine tests. After one month of corticosteroid replacement, he recovered and was able to stand up by himself. Although flexion contracture is a rare symptom of IAD, steroid replacement therapy may be effective, even for seemingly irreversibly bedridden elderly patients...
2016: Internal Medicine
V Morelli, A Scillitani, M Arosio, I Chiodini
Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) published new guidelines on the management of adrenal incidentalomas. At the same time Lopez and coworkers published on the Annals of Internal Medicine an important study showing that even patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors have an increased risk of incident diabetes. In consideration of previous data and of the results of the study of Lopez and coworkers, some points emerge from the ESE Guidelines that deserve attention. Firstly, it must be observed that the term "autonomous cortisol secretion," introduced by the ESE Panel in the place of the commonly used "subclinical hypercortisolism," seems questionable, since the guidelines do not suggest determining the adrenocorticotroph hormone levels that could give the certain proof of a truly autonomous cortisol secretion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Rachel Bello, Yael Lebenthal, Liora Lazar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ariel Tenenbaum, Moshe Phillip, Liat de Vries
AIM: This study explored whether using the suggested diagnostic serum basal level of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (6.0 nmol/l) would lead to underdiagnosis of non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 123 patients with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, defined as an adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone level of more than 45nmol/l. Of these 13 had basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels of less than 6...
October 15, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Beatriz D S F Bonamichi, Stella L M Santiago, Débora R Bertola, Chong A Kim, Nivaldo Alonso, Berenice B Mendonca, Tania A S S Bachega, Larissa G Gomes
P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karolína Drbalová, Kateřina Herdová, Petr Krejčí, Monika Nývltová, Svatopluk Solař, Lenka Vedralová, Pavel Záruba, David Netuka, Petr Bavor
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a condition in which several endocrine organs of an individual are affected by adenoma, hyperplasia and less often carcinoma, either simultaneously or at different stages of life. Two existing syndromes, MEN1 and MEN2 (2A, 2B), in literature is also mentioned MEN4, are associated also with other non-endocrine disorders. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) affects the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic area. 95 % of patients show very early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, often before 40 years of age...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Radu Campean, Matthias Hasun, Claudia Stöllberger, Johannes Bucher, Josef Finsterer, Christoph Schnack, Franz Weidinger
BACKGROUND: Reversible left ventricular dysfunction, also termed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is rarely reported in Addison's disease after initiation of hormone replacement therapy. The pathogenesis of this cardiomyopathy is unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old white woman with a history of autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed 3 years earlier and acute adrenal insufficiency diagnosed 3 weeks earlier presented with new onset of heart failure New York Heart Association class IV, which had started shortly after initiation of hormone replacement therapy with hydrocortisone 20 mg/day and fludrocortisone 0...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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