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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453740/enhanced-coupling-within-gonadotropic-and-adrenocorticotropic-axes-by-moderate-exercise-in-healthy-men
#1
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Rebecca J Yang, Thomas P Olson, Michael J Joyner, Paul Y Takahashi, Johannes D Veldhuis
Context: Exercise elicits incompletely defined adaptations of metabolic and endocrine milieu, including the gonadotropic and the corticotropic axes. Objective: To quantify the impact of acute exercise on coordinate LH and testosterone and ACTH and cortisol secretion in healthy men in relation to age. Participantsand design: Prospectively randomized, within-subject cross-over, study in 23 men, aged 19-77 yr. Subjects underwent rest and 30 min of mixed exercise at 65% of maximal aerobic capacity with 10-min blood sampling between 0700 and 1300 h 2 wks apart...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453590/-understanding-cortisol-action-in-acute-inflammation-a-view-from-the-adrenal-gland-to-the-target-cell
#2
Julia Guerrero
Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are essential for numerous biological functions. Among critically ill patients, therapy with cortisol has gained strength in recent years, but clinical results have been mixed. A series of events, that may explain the diversity of clinical responses, occur from the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland to the activation of the cortisol receptor by the hormone when it enters the nucleus of the target cell. Some of these events are revised; a proposition for identifying critically ill patients who may benefit with this therapy is suggested...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447709/-atypical-cushing-s-syndrome-in-a-dog-a-case-report
#3
Stefanie Hoffrogge, Lena Fels, Marion Schmicke, Reinhard Mischke
In a 12-year-old male Labrador Retriever, presented due to other disease symptoms, clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism (polyuria, polydipsia, abdominal distention, muscle atrophy) were an incidental finding. Abnormal laboratory results and sonographic findings of the adrenal glands, but negative low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests with low basal cortisol concentrations, a negative andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test and exclusion of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism, suggested an atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC)...
April 27, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445888/differential-effects-of-inflammatory-and-psychosocial-stress-on-mood-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-inflammation-in-remitted-depression
#4
Peter Niemegeers, Peter De Boer, Glenn J H Dumont, Filip Van Den Eede, Erik Fransen, Stephan J Claes, Manuel Morrens, Bernard G C Sabbe
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly recurrent. This may be due to increased stress sensitivity after remission. Both inflammatory and psychosocial stressors are implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD, but the additive or differential effect is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of inflammatory stress (i.e., typhoid vaccination), psychosocial stress (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]), or a combination of both in women (25-45 years old) with (partially) remitted recurrent MDD (n = 21) and healthy female controls (n = 18)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444400/effects-of-insufficient-sleep-on-pituitary-adrenocortical-response-to-crh-stimulation-in-healthy-men
#5
Aurore Guyon, Lisa L Morselli, Marcella L Balbo, Esra Tasali, Rachel Leproult, Mireille L'Hermite-Baleriaux, Eve Van Cauter, Karine Spiegel
Study Objectives: Severe sleep restriction results in elevated evening cortisol levels. We examined whether this relative hypercortisolism is associated with alterations in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to evening corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation. Methods: Eleven subjects participated in 2 sessions (2 nights of 10h versus 4h in bed) in randomized order. Sleep was polygraphically recorded. After the second night of each session, blood was sampled at 20-min intervals from 09:00 to 24:00 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements, and perceived stress was assessed hourly...
April 21, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436309/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-and-stress-from-invertebrates-to-humans
#6
Kyle D Ketchesin, Gwen S Stinnett, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key regulator of the stress response. This peptide controls the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as well as a variety of behavioral and autonomic stress responses via the two CRH receptors, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. The CRH system also includes an evolutionarily conserved CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with subnanomolar affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. In this review, we discuss the current literature on CRH-BP and stress across multiple species, from insects to humans...
April 23, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435085/adolescent-changes-in-hindbrain-noradrenergic-a2-neurons-in-male-rats
#7
Laurie Pham, Madelyn R Baker, Ziasmin Shahanoor, Russell D Romeo
During adolescence, the increased susceptibility to stress-related dysfunctions (e.g., anxiety, drug use, obesity) may be influenced by changes in the hormonal stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We have previously reported that restraint stress leads to significantly prolonged HPA responses in pre-adolescent compared to adult rats. Further, pre-adolescent animals exposed to restraint show greater levels of neural activation than adults in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a key nucleus integrating information from brain regions that coordinate HPA responses...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434547/stress-dose-corticosteroid-versus-placebo-in-neonatal-cardiac-operations-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Pertti K Suominen, Juho Keski-Nisula, Tiina Ojala, Paula Rautiainen, Timo Jahnukainen, Johanna Hästbacka, Pertti J Neuvonen, Olli Pitkänen, Jussi Niemelä, Anu Kaskinen, Jukka Salminen, Risto Lapatto
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids can improve the hemodynamic status of neonates with postoperative low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac operations. This study compared a prophylactically administered stress-dose corticosteroid (SDC) regimen against placebo on inflammation, adrenocortical function, and hemodynamic outcome. METHODS: Forty neonates undergoing elective open heart operations were randomized into two groups. The SDC group received perioperatively 2 mg/kg methylprednisolone, and 6 hours after the operation, a hydrocortisone infusion (0...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433999/circadian-plasma-cortisol-measurements-reflect-severity-of-hypercortisolemia-in-children-with-different-etiologies-of-endogenous-cushing-syndrome
#9
Amit Tirosh, Maya B Lodish, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Georgios Z Papadakis, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND: The utility of circadian cortisol variation in estimating the degree of hypercortisolemia in different forms of endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) has not been evaluated in children yet. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, including children who underwent surgery due to CS (n = 115), was divided into children with a pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease) (n = 88), primary adrenal CS (n = 21), or ectopic adrenocorticotropin- or corticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH-/CRH)-secreting tumors (n = 6)...
April 21, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#10
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427378/assessment-of-cardiac-function-in-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-case-control-study-in-cameroon
#11
J Tony Nengom, S Sap Ngo Um, D Chelo, R Mbono Betoko, J Boombhi, F Mouafo Tambo, A Chiabi, S Kingue, P Koki Ndombo
BACKGROUND: High level of androgens found in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) seems to have a deleterious effect on heart function. We therefore evaluate cardiac function of children with CAH in comparison with a healthy group. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study in the single endocrinology unit of the Mother and Child Center of Chantal Biya's Foundation. Cases were matched for age and genotypic sex to 2 healthy controls. We analyzed the ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening and left ventricular mass; output and cardiac index; E and A waves velocities, E/A ratio and the mitral deceleration time and diameter of the left atrium; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and pulmonary artery systolic pressure were also measured...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427002/incidental-posterior-mediastinal-paraganglioma-the-safe-approach-to-management-case-report
#12
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Roan J Glocker, Jacob Moalem, Michael J Singh, Virginia R Litle
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells located in sympathetic paraganglia. Mediastinal paragangliomas are extremely rare and can be classified as functional or non-functional according to their ability for secreting catecholamines. Patients can be asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually incidental. Complete surgical resection remains the standard of care for paragangliomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a 44-year-old woman with a functional mediastinal paraganglioma incidentally found during the perioperative imaging workup for a diagnosed breast carcinoma...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#13
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421200/detection-of-urine-metabolites-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-before-and-after-exercise
#14
Changzhuan Shao, Yiming Ren, Zinan Wang, Chenzhe Kang, Hongke Jiang, Aiping Chi
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420172/subtype-diagnosis-of-primary-aldosteronism-is-adrenal-vein-sampling-always-necessary
#15
REVIEW
Fabrizio Buffolo, Silvia Monticone, Tracy A Williams, Denis Rossato, Jacopo Burrello, Martina Tetti, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Aldosterone producing adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the two most common subtypes of primary aldosteronism (PA) that require targeted and distinct therapeutic approaches: unilateral adrenalectomy or lifelong medical therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. According to the 2016 Endocrine Society Guideline, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard test to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone overproduction and therefore, to safely refer patients with PA to surgery...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418941/prenatal-fluoxetine-modifies-the-behavioral-and-hormonal-responses-to-stress-in-male-mice-role-for-glucocorticoid-insensitivity
#16
Ronit Avitsur
Women with major depressive disorder during pregnancy often use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants. These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. Recently, we reported that prenatal fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, altered corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mouse offspring. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal FLX on these responses in males. The results showed that prenatal FLX significantly augmented the corticosterone response to acute stress in young prepubescent mice...
April 17, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#17
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405879/histopathological-and-genetic-characterization-of-aldosterone-producing-adenomas-with-concurrent-subclinical-cortisol-hypersecretion-a-case-series
#18
Francesco Fallo, Isabella Castellano, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Yara Rhayem, Catia Pilon, Valentina Vicennati, Donatella Santini, Valeria Maffeis, Ambrogio Fassina, Paolo Mulatero, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
PURPOSE: Aldosterone-producing adenomas with concurrent subclinical cortisol hypersecretion are reported in an increasing number of patients. Five aldosterone-producing adenomas from patients with primary aldosteronism and subclinical hypercortisolism were examined. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (1) to analyze pathological features and immunohistochemical expression of CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) in these tumors; (2) to investigate somatic mutations involved in adrenal steroid hypersecretion and/or tumor growth...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401917/cooperative-roles-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-central-clock-and-the-adrenal-clock-in-controlling-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm
#19
Sooyoung Chung, Eun Jeong Lee, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Jeongah Kim, Doyeon Kim, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
The mammalian circadian timing system consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral clocks in other tissues. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones with widespread physiological effects that undergo daily oscillations. We previously demonstrated that the adrenal peripheral clock plays a pivotal role in circadian GC rhythm by driving cyclic GC biosynthesis. Here, we show that the daily rhythm in circulating GC levels is controlled by bimodal actions of central and adrenal clockwork...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400640/a-pilot-study-evaluating-therapeutic-response-of-different-dosage-of-oral-glucocorticoid-in-two-children-with-familial-glucocorticoid-deficiency-presenting-with-diffuse-mucocutaneous-hyperpigmentation
#20
Uttam Kumar Sarkar, Nilendu Sarma, Sambreeta Debbarma, Asok Kumar Mandal, Ashok Kumar Bala
INTRODUCTION: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, preserved aldosterone/renin secretion, and secondary rise in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level. This occurs due to either mutation in adrenocorticotropic receptor (25%, FGD Type-1) or in the MC2 receptor accessory protein (15%-20%). However, in about 50% patients, no identifiable mutations have been identified. Clinically, it manifests with weakness, fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
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