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Evolutionary anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162941/aerobic-performance-in-tinamous-is-limited-by-their-small-heart-a-novel-hypothesis-in-the-evolution-of-avian-flight
#1
Jordi Altimiras, Isa Lindgren, Lina María Giraldo-Deck, Alberto Matthei, Álvaro Garitano-Zavala
Some biomechanical studies from fossil specimens suggest that sustained flapping flight of birds could have appeared in their Mesozoic ancestors. We challenge this idea because a suitable musculoskeletal anatomy is not the only requirement for sustained flapping flight. We propose the "heart to fly" hypothesis that states that sustained flapping flight in modern birds required an enlargement of the heart for the aerobic performance of the flight muscles and test it experimentally by studying tinamous, the living birds with the smallest hearts...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#2
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148042/comparative-anatomy-of-zebrafish-paired-and-median-fin-muscles-basis-for-functional-developmental-and-macroevolutionary-studies
#3
Natalia Siomava, Rui Diogo
In the last decades, Danio rerio became one of the most used model organisms in various evo-devo studies devoted to the fin skeletal anatomy and fin-limb transition. Surprisingly, there is not even a single paper about the detailed anatomy of the adult muscles of the five fin types of this species. To facilitate more integrative developmental, functional, genetic, and evolutionary studies of the appendicular musculoskeletal system of the zebrafish and to provide a basis for further comparisons with other fishes and tetrapods, we describe here the identity, overall configuration, and attachments of appendicular muscles in a way that can be easily understood and implemented by non-anatomist researchers...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125205/reconstructing-pectoral-appendicular-muscle-anatomy-in-fossil-fish-and-tetrapods-over-the-fins-to-limbs-transition
#4
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121048/anatomical-variations-of-the-deep-head-of-cruveilhier-of-the-flexor-pollicis-brevis-and-its-significance-for-the-evolution-of-the-precision-grip
#5
Samuel S Dunlap, M Ashraf Aziz, Janine M Ziermann
Cruveilhier described in 1834 the human flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), a muscle of the thenar compartment, as having a superficial and a deep head, respectively, inserted onto the radial and ulnar sesamoids of the thumb. Since then, Cruveilhier's deep head has been controversially discussed. Often this deep head is confused with Henle's "interosseous palmaris volaris" or said to be a slip of the oblique adductor pollicis. In the 1960s, Day and Napier described anatomical variations of the insertions of Cruveilhier's deep head, including its absence, and hypothesized, that the shift of the deep head's insertion from ulnar to radial facilitated "true opposability" in anthropoids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115678/moderate-climate-signature-in-cranial-anatomy-of-late-holocene-human-populations-from-southern-south-america
#6
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102895/insights-into-visual-pigment-adaptation-and-diversity-from-model-ecological-and-evolutionary-systems
#7
REVIEW
Frances E Hauser, Belinda Sw Chang
Sensory systems provide valuable insight into the evolution of molecular mechanisms underlying organismal anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Visual pigments, which mediate the first step in visual transduction, offer a unique window into the relationship between molecular variation and visual performance, and enhance our understanding of how ecology, life history, and physiology may shape genetic variation across a variety of organisms. Here we review recent work investigating vertebrate visual pigments from a number of perspectives...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056456/re-creation-of-a-key-step-in-the-evolutionary-switch-from-c3-to-c4-leaf-anatomy
#8
Peng Wang, Roxana Khoshravesh, Shanta Karki, Ronald Tapia, C Paolo Balahadia, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, W Paul Quick, Robert Furbank, Tammy L Sage, Jane A Langdale
The C4 photosynthetic pathway accounts for ∼25% of primary productivity on the planet despite being used by only 3% of species. Because C4 plants are higher yielding than C3 plants, efforts are underway to introduce the C4 pathway into the C3 crop rice. This is an ambitious endeavor; however, the C4 pathway evolved from C3 on multiple independent occasions over the last 30 million years, and steps along the trajectory are evident in extant species. One approach toward engineering C4 rice is to recapitulate this trajectory, one of the first steps of which was a change in leaf anatomy...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045384/disorder-in-convergent-floral-nanostructures-enhances-signalling-to-bees
#9
Edwige Moyroud, Tobias Wenzel, Rox Middleton, Paula J Rudall, Hannah Banks, Alison Reed, Greg Mellers, Patrick Killoran, M Murphy Westwood, Ullrich Steiner, Silvia Vignolini, Beverley J Glover
Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees...
October 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038750/is-geography-an-accurate-predictor-of-evolutionary-history-in-the-millipede-family-xystodesmidae
#10
Jackson C Means, Paul E Marek
For the past several centuries, millipede taxonomists have used the morphology of male copulatory structures (modified legs called gonopods), which are strongly variable and suggestive of species-level differences, as a source to understand taxon relationships. Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae are blind, dispersal-limited and have narrow habitat requirements. Therefore, geographical proximity may instead be a better predictor of evolutionary relationship than morphology, especially since gonopodal anatomy is extremely divergent and similarities may be masked by evolutionary convergence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023691/anatomy-and-development-of-the-extrahepatic-biliary-system-in-mouse-and-rat-a-perspective-on-the-evolutionary-loss-of-the-gallbladder
#11
Hiroki Higashiyama, Mami Uemura, Hitomi Igarashi, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Yoshiakira Kanai
The gallbladder is the hepatobiliary organ for storing and secreting bile fluid, and is a synapomorphy of extant vertebrates. However, this organ has been frequently lost in several lineages of birds and mammals, including rodents. Although it is known as the traditional problem, the differences in development between animals with and without gallbladders are not well understood. To address this research gap, we compared the anatomy and development of the hepatobiliary systems in mice (gallbladder is present) and rats (gallbladder is absent)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021672/the-size-and-shape-of-the-foramen-magnum-in-man
#12
Matthew J Zdilla, Michelle L Russell, Kaitlyn N Bliss, Kelsey R Mangus, Aaron W Koons
BACKGROUND: The foramen magnum (FM) has garnered broad interest across the disciplines of anthropology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and clinical sciences. Most studies regarding the structure of the FM in humans have been intrapopulation morphometric studies rather than interpopulation morphologic studies. The few studies assessing the morphology of the foramen have utilized ambiguous and subjective descriptors to describe foraminal shape and are, consequently, difficult to reproduce...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018606/exceptional-soft-tissues-preservation-in-a-mummified-frog-eating-eocene-salamander
#13
Jérémy Tissier, Jean-Claude Rage, Michel Laurin
Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986929/evolution-of-brain-region-volumes-during-artificial-selection-for-relative-brain-size
#14
Alexander Kotrschal, Hong-Li Zeng, Wouter van der Bijl, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Kurt Kotrschal, Kristiaan Pelckmans, Niclas Kolm
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size...
October 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981775/an-rbcl-mrna-binding-protein-is-associated-with-c3-to-c4-evolution-and-light-induced-production-of-rubisco-in-flaveria
#15
Pradeep Yerramsetty, Erin M Agar, Won C Yim, John C Cushman, James O Berry, Robert Sharwood
Nuclear-encoded RLSB protein binds chloroplastic rbcL mRNA encoding the Rubisco large subunit. RLSB is highly conserved across all groups of land plants and is associated with positive post-transcriptional regulation of rbcL expression. In C3 leaves, RLSB and Rubisco occur in all chlorenchyma cell chloroplasts, while in C4 leaves these accumulate only within bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts. RLSB's role in rbcL expression makes modification of its localization a likely prerequisite for the evolutionary restriction of Rubisco to BS cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961025/generation-and-evolution-of-neural-cell-types-and-circuits-insights-from-the-drosophila-visual-system
#16
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957526/a-hypothesis-for-the-composition-of-the-tardigrade-brain-and-its-implications-for-panarthropod-brain-evolution
#17
Frank W Smith, Paul J Bartels, Bob Goldstein
Incredibly disparate brain types are found in Metazoa, which raises the question of how this disparity evolved. Ecdysozoa includes representatives that exhibit ring-like brains-the Cycloneuralia-and representatives that exhibit ganglionic brains-the Panarthropoda (Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada). The evolutionary steps leading to these distinct brain types are unclear. Phylogenomic analyses suggest that the enigmatic Tardigrada is a closely related outgroup of a Euarthropoda + Onychophora clade; as such, the brains of tardigrades may provide insight into the evolution of ecdysozoan brains...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#18
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884962/delphi-consensus-on-bile-duct-injuries-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-an-evolutionary-cul-de-sac-or-the-birth-pangs-of-a-new-technical-framework
#19
LETTER
Yukio Iwashita, Taizo Hibi, Tetsuji Ohyama, Akiko Umezawa, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M Strasberg, Horacio J Asbun, Henry A Pitt, Ho-Seong Han, Tsann-Long Hwang, Kenji Suzuki, Yoo-Seok Yoon, In-Seok Choi, Dong-Sup Yoon, Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Masahiro Yoshida, Go Wakabayashi, Fumihiko Miura, Kohji Okamoto, Itaru Endo, Eduardo de Santibañes, Mariano Eduardo Giménez, John A Windsor, O James Garden, Dirk J Gouma, Daniel Cherqui, Giulio Belli, Christos Dervenis, Daniel J Deziel, Eduard Jonas, Palepu Jagannath, Avinash Nivritti Supe, Harjit Singh, Kui-Hin Liau, Xiao-Ping Chen, Angus C W Chan, Wan Yee Lau, Sheung Tat Fan, Miin-Fu Chen, Myung-Hwan Kim, Goro Honda, Atsushi Sugioka, Koji Asai, Keita Wada, Yasuhisa Mori, Ryota Higuchi, Takeyuki Misawa, Manabu Watanabe, Naoki Matsumura, Toshiki Rikiyama, Naohiro Sata, Nobuyasu Kano, Hiromi Tokumura, Taizo Kimura, Seigo Kitano, Masafumi Inomata, Koichi Hirata, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Kazuo Inui, Masakazu Yamamoto
Bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a serious iatrogenic surgical complication. BDI most often occurs as a result of misidentification of the anatomy; however, clinical evidence on its precise mechanism and surgeons' perceptions is scarce. Surgeons from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the USA, etc. (n = 614) participated in a questionnaire regarding their BDI experience and near-misses; and perceptions on landmarks, intraoperative findings, and surgical techniques. Respondents voted for a Delphi process and graded each item on a five-point scale...
November 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866680/on-the-value-of-reptilian-brains-to-map-the-evolution-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#20
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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