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Evolutionary anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#1
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769587/explorations-on-the-ecological-role-of-toxin-secretion-and-delivery-in-jawless-predatory-polychaeta
#2
N Cuevas, M Martins, A P Rodrigo, C Martins, P M Costa
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758190/conserved-characteristics-of-ocular-refractive-development-did-the-eye-evolve-once
#3
REVIEW
Jacob G Sivak, Jeremy M Sivak
It has been speculated that the unitary eyes of vertebrates and molluscs, and the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans, evolved separately. On the other hand, the common use of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule, and the conservation of Pax6 as a master control gene for eye development, suggest instead that the eye evolved once. Yet, recently the molecular genetics that had seemed to suggest a definitive answer to this evolutionary point has once again become cloudy. Here we propose an alternative approach to addressing the question of eye evolution through comparative analyses of physiological optics...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#4
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749930/whole-brain-comparative-anatomy-using-connectivity-blueprints
#5
Rogier B Mars, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Richard E Passingham, Jerome Sallet, Lennart M Verhagen, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Nicola Sibson, Saad Jbabdi
Comparing the brains of related species faces the challenges of establishing homologies whilst accommodating evolutionary specializations. Here we propose a general framework for understanding similarities and differences between the brains of primates. The approach uses white matter blueprints of the whole cortex based on a set of white matter tracts that can be anatomically matched across species. The blueprints provide a common reference space that allows us to navigate between brains of different species, identify homologous cortical areas, or to transform whole cortical maps from one species to the other...
May 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726293/predicting-tendon-tissue-grafting-source-from-the-extensors-of-long-fingers-a-systematic-review-of-cadaveric-studies
#6
Kaissar Yammine
BACKGROUND: The use of tendon tissue for transfer and grafting is a common practice in hand surgery. Many local tendons are usually used, mainly that of the palmaris longus muscle. However, this tendon could be absent in up to 46%. Extra slips of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and extra tendons such as the extensor indicis (EI) and the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) could be valuable sources for tendon tissue. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to quantify the proportion of extra slips in relation to each tendon and extra tendons in relation to each long finger...
May 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706517/liverwort-mimesis-in-a-cretaceous-lacewing-larva
#7
Xingyue Liu, Gongle Shi, Fangyuan Xia, Xiumei Lu, Bo Wang, Michael S Engel
Camouflage and mimicry are staples among predator-prey interactions, and evolutionary novelties in behavior, anatomy, and physiology that permit such mimesis are rife throughout the biological world [1, 2]. These specializations allow for prey to better evade capture or permit predators to more easily approach their prey, or in some cases, the mimesis can serve both purposes. Despite the importance of mimesis and camouflage in predator-avoidance or hunting strategies, the long-term history of these traits is often obscured by an insufficient fossil record...
April 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686084/dome-headed-small-brained-island-mammal-from-the-late-cretaceous-of-romania
#8
Zoltán Csiki-Sava, Mátyás Vremir, Jin Meng, Stephen L Brusatte, Mark A Norell
The island effect is a well-known evolutionary phenomenon, in which island-dwelling species isolated in a resource-limited environment often modify their size, anatomy, and behaviors compared with mainland relatives. This has been well documented in modern and Cenozoic mammals, but it remains unclear whether older, more primitive Mesozoic mammals responded in similar ways to island habitats. We describe a reasonably complete and well-preserved skeleton of a kogaionid, an enigmatic radiation of Cretaceous island-dwelling multituberculate mammals previously represented by fragmentary fossils...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672929/functional-anatomy-of-the-hair-follicle-the-secondary-hair-germ
#9
REVIEW
Andrey A Panteleyev
The secondary hair germ (SHG) - a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF) - is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signaling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen sub-phase...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665044/comparative-anatomy-and-development-of-pectoral-and-pelvic-girdles-in-hylid-anurans
#10
Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659972/acceleration-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-loss-in-primate-evolution-possible-link-to-anatomical-change-in-sensory-systems-and-dietary-transition
#11
Yoshihito Niimura, Atsushi Matsui, Kazushige Touhara
Primates have traditionally been regarded as vision-oriented animals with low olfactory ability, though this "microsmatic primates" view has been challenged recently. To clarify when and how degeneration of the olfactory system occurred and to specify the relevant factors during primate evolution, we here examined the olfactory receptor (OR) genes from 24 phylogenetically and ecologically diverse primate species. The results revealed that strepsirrhines with curved noses had functional OR gene repertoires that were nearly twice as large as those for haplorhines with simple noses...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657811/the-evolutionary-history-of-polycotylid-plesiosaurians
#12
V Fischer, R B J Benson, P S Druckenmiller, H F Ketchum, N Bardet
Polycotylidae is a clade of plesiosaurians that appeared during the Early Cretaceous and became speciose and abundant early in the Late Cretaceous. However, this radiation is poorly understood. Thililua longicollis from the Middle Turonian of Morocco is an enigmatic taxon possessing an atypically long neck and, as originally reported, a series of unusual cranial features that cause unstable phylogenetic relationships for polycotylids. We reinterpret the holotype specimen of Thililua longicollis and clarify its cranial anatomy...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610309/hip-extensor-mechanics-and-the-evolution-of-walking-and-climbing-capabilities-in-humans-apes-and-fossil-hominins
#13
Elaine E Kozma, Nicole M Webb, William E H Harcourt-Smith, David A Raichlen, Kristiaan D'Août, Mary H Brown, Emma M Finestone, Stephen R Ross, Peter Aerts, Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this study, we integrated 3D morphometrics of hominoid pelvic shape with experimental measurements of hip kinematics and kinetics during walking and climbing, hamstring activity, and passive range of hip extension in humans, apes, and other primates to assess arboreal-terrestrial trade-offs in ischium morphology among living taxa...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607264/postcranial-skeletal-anatomy-of-the-holotype-and-referred-specimens-of-buitreraptor-gonzalezorum-makovicky-apestegu%C3%A3-a-and-agnol%C3%A3-n-2005-theropoda-dromaeosauridae-from-the-late-cretaceous-of-patagonia
#14
Federico A Gianechini, Peter J Makovicky, Sebastián Apesteguía, Ignacio Cerda
Here we provide a detailed description of the postcranial skeleton of the holotype and referred specimens of Buitreraptor gonzalezorum . This taxon was recovered as an unenlagiine dromaeosaurid in several recent phylogenetic studies and is the best represented Gondwanan dromaeosaurid discovered to date. It was preliminarily described in a brief article, but a detailed account of its osteology is emerging in recent works. The holotype is the most complete specimen yet found, so an exhaustive description of it provides much valuable anatomical information...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603529/functional-anatomy-reveals-secretory-activity-in-papillose-anthers-of-a-buzz-pollinated-solanum-species-cyphomandra-clade-solanaceae
#15
Bruno Fernandes Falcão, João Renato Stehmann
Pollination in Solanum (Solanaceae) species is commonly performed by female bees, which vibrate anthers to extract pollen. Another pollen removal type is made by male Euglossine bees milking the anthers when searching for floral scents produced by secretory tissues (osmophorous) at the swollen connective of the anthers of species belonging to Cyphomandra clade. Some species of this clade, however, are buzz-pollinated and present papillate anthers that should also have secretory activity, a hypothesis here tested...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573234/modeling-autism-in-non-human-primates-opportunities-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Hui Zhao, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yong Q Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. For more than a decade, genetically-modified, risk factor-induced, as well as naturally occurring rodent models for ASD have been used as the most predominant tools to dissect the molecular and circuitry mechanisms underlying ASD. However, the apparent evolutionary differences in terms of social behavior and brain anatomy between rodents and humans have become an issue of debate regarding the translational value of rodent models for studying ASD...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559828/-xylopsora-canopeorum-umbilicariaceae-a-new-lichen-species-from-the-canopy-of-sequoia-sempervirens
#17
Mika Bendiksby, Rikke Reese Næsborg, Einar Timdal
Xylopsora canopeorum Timdal, Reese Næsborg & Bendiksby is described as a new species occupying the crowns of large Sequoia sempervirens trees in California, USA. The new species is supported by morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. While similar in external appearance to X. friesii , it is distinguished by forming smaller, partly coralloid squamules, by the occurrence of soralia and, in some specimens, by the presence of thamnolic acid in addition to friesiic acid in the thallus...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559685/redefining-the-ancestral-origins-of-the-interleukin-1-superfamily
#18
Jack Rivers-Auty, Michael J D Daniels, Isaac Colliver, David L Robertson, David Brough
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor and ligand families are components of the immune system. Knowledge of their evolutionary history is essential to understand their function. Using chromosomal anatomy and sequence similarity, we show that IL-1 receptor family members are related and nine members are likely formed from duplication and modification of a proto-IL-1R1 receptor. The IL-1 ligands have a different evolutionary history. The first proto-IL-1β gene coincided with proto-IL-1R1 and duplication events resulted in the majority of IL-1 ligand family members...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540154/anatomy-of-a-neotropical-insect-radiation
#19
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539637/integrative-structure-and-functional-anatomy-of-a-nuclear-pore-complex
#20
Seung Joong Kim, Javier Fernandez-Martinez, Ilona Nudelman, Yi Shi, Wenzhu Zhang, Barak Raveh, Thurston Herricks, Brian D Slaughter, Joanna A Hogan, Paula Upla, Ilan E Chemmama, Riccardo Pellarin, Ignacia Echeverria, Manjunatha Shivaraju, Azraa S Chaudhury, Junjie Wang, Rosemary Williams, Jay R Unruh, Charles H Greenberg, Erica Y Jacobs, Zhiheng Yu, M Jason de la Cruz, Roxana Mironska, David L Stokes, John D Aitchison, Martin F Jarrold, Jennifer L Gerton, Steven J Ludtke, Christopher W Akey, Brian T Chait, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout
Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility...
March 14, 2018: Nature
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