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Evolutionary anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#1
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884962/delphi-consensus-on-bile-duct-injuries-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-an-evolutionary-cul-de-sac-or-the-birth-pangs-of-a-new-technical-framework
#2
Yukio Iwashita, Taizo Hibi, Tetsuji Ohyama, Akiko Umezawa, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M Strasberg, Horacio J Asbun, Henry A Pitt, Ho-Seong Han, Tsann-Long Hwang, Kenji Suzuki, Yoo-Seok Yoon, In-Seok Choi, Dong-Sup Yoon, Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Masahiro Yoshida, Go Wakabayashi, Fumihiko Miura, Kohji Okamoto, Itaru Endo, Eduardo de Santibanes, Mariano Eduardo Giménez, John A Windsor, James Garden, Dirk J Gouma, Daniel Cherqui, Giulio Belli, Christos Dervenis, Daniel J Deziel, Eduard C Jonas, Palepu Jagannath, Avinash Nivritti Supe, Harjit Singh, Kui-Hin Liau, Xiao-Ping Chen, Angus C W Chan, Wan Yee Lau, Sheung Tat Fan, Miin-Fu Chen, Myung-Hwan Kim, Goro Honda, Atsushi Sugioka, Koji Asai, Keita Wada, Yasuhisa Mori, Ryota Higuchi, Takeshi Misawa, Manabu Watanabe, Naoki Matsumura, Toshiki Rikiyama, Naohiro Sata, Nobuyasu Kano, Hiromi Tokumura, Taizo Kimura, Seigo Kitano, Masafumi Inomata, Koichi Hirata, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Kazuo Inui, Masakazu Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a serious iatrogenic surgical complication. BDI most often occurs as a result of misidentification of the anatomy; however, clinical evidence on its precise mechanism and surgeons' perceptions is scarce. METHODS: Surgeons from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the U.S., etc. (n = 614) participated in a questionnaire regarding their BDI experience and near-misses; and perceptions on landmarks, intraoperative findings, and surgical techniques...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866680/on-the-value-of-reptilian-brains-to-map-the-evolution-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#3
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865772/expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-mrna-transcripts-in-the-temporalis-muscle-of-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#4
Neus Ciurana, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Aroa Casado, Elisabeth Cuesta, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Josep Maria Potau
PURPOSE: The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). In order to shed light on the anatomy and function of the temporalis muscle in the chimpanzee, we have analyzed the expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in different parts of the muscle. BASIC PROCEDURES: We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865185/developmental-morphology-and-topography-of-the-components-of-the-cervical-sympathetic-trunk-in-sheep-ovis-aries-during-the-fetal-period
#5
Jamal Nourinezhad, Saleh Bamohabat, Yazdan Mazaheri
The objective of this study was to clarify the typical architecture and morphological variations of cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) in sheep during fetal period. Components of CST were examined on both sides of 40 male and female sheep fetuses aged from 60-140 days under a stereomicroscope. Skeletotopy and frequency of presence of cranial cervical ganglion (CCG), syntopy of cervical ganglia, and composition and topography of vagosympathetic trunk were consistent among specimens whereas the shape of cervical ganglia, the skeletotopy and number of three middle cervical ganglia (MG), and the frequency of communicating branches of CCG to the first cervical spinal nerve exhibited differences during fetal period...
September 2, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#6
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836268/sacral-anatomy-of-the-phytosaur-smilosuchus-adamanensis-with-implications-for-pelvic-girdle-evolution-among-archosauriformes
#7
Christopher T Griffin, Candice M Stefanic, William G Parker, Axel Hungerbühler, Michelle R Stocker
The sacrum - consisting of those vertebrae that articulate with the ilia - is the exclusive skeletal connection between the hindlimbs and axial skeleton in tetrapods. Therefore, the morphology of this portion of the vertebral column plays a major role in the evolution of terrestrial locomotion. Whereas most extant reptiles only possess the two plesiomorphic sacral vertebrae, additional vertebrae have been incorporated into the sacrum multiple times independently among early-diverging archosaurian (crocodylians + birds) clades...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827583/a-new-horned-and-long-necked-herbivorous-stem-archosaur-from-the-middle-triassic-of-india
#8
Saradee Sengupta, Martín D Ezcurra, Saswati Bandyopadhyay
The early evolution of archosauromorphs (bird- and crocodile-line archosaurs and stem-archosaurs) represents an important case of adaptive radiation that occurred in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Here we enrich the early archosauromorph record with the description of a moderately large (3-4 m in total length), herbivorous new allokotosaurian, Shringasaurus indicus, from the early Middle Triassic of India. The most striking feature of Shringasaurus indicus is the presence of a pair of large supraorbital horns that resemble those of some ceratopsid dinosaurs...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762509/vertebral-column-regionalisation-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#9
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, B Wybourne, N Ruff, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760682/the-bulbus-arteriosus-of-the-holocephalan-heart-gross-anatomy-histomorphology-pigmentation-and-evolutionary-significance
#10
Cristina Rodríguez, Miguel Lorenzale, Miguel A López-Unzu, Borja Fernández, Francisca Salmerón, Valentín Sans-Coma, Ana C Durán
This study was designed to determine whether the outflow tract of the holocephalan heart is composed of a myocardial conus arteriosus and a non-myocardial bulbus arteriosus, as is the case in elasmobranchs. This is a key issue to verify the hypothesis that these two anatomical components existed from the onset of the jawed vertebrate radiation. The Holocephali are the sister group of the elasmobranchs, sharing with them a common, still unknown Palaeozoic ancestor. The sample examined herein consisted of hearts from individuals of four species, two of them belonging to the Chimaeridae and the other two to the Rhinochimaeridae...
June 3, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756001/oestrogen-receptor-distribution-related-to-functional-thymus-anatomy-of-the-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#11
Matthieu Paiola, Thomas Knigge, Simona Picchietti, Aurélie Duflot, Laura Guerra, Patricia I S Pinto, Giuseppe Scapigliati, Tiphaine Monsinjon
In jawed vertebrates, the crosstalk between immune and endocrine system as well as many fundamental mechanisms of T cell development are evolutionary conserved. Oestrogens affect mammalian thymic function and plasticity, but the mechanisms of action and the oestrogen receptors involved remain unclear. To corroborate the oestrogenic regulation of thymic function in teleosts and to identify the implicated oestrogen receptor subtypes, we examined the distribution of nuclear and membrane oestrogen receptors within the thymus of the European Sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in relation to its morpho-functional organisation...
July 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#12
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713650/the-fossil-osmundales-royal-ferns-a-phylogenetic-network-analysis-revised-taxonomy-and-evolutionary-classification-of-anatomically-preserved-trunks-and-rhizomes
#13
Benjamin Bomfleur, Guido W Grimm, Stephen McLoughlin
The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#14
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690926/razanandrongobe-sakalavae-a-gigantic-mesoeucrocodylian-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-madagascar-is-the-oldest-known-notosuchian
#15
Cristiano Dal Sasso, Giovanni Pasini, Guillaume Fleury, Simone Maganuco
Razanandrongobe sakalavae Maganuco, Dal Sasso & Pasini, 2006 is a large predatory archosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of the Mahajanga Basin, NW Madagascar. It was diagnosed on the basis of teeth and a fragmentary maxilla, but its affinities were uncertain. Here we describe new cranial remains (above all, an almost complete right premaxilla and a caudally incomplete left dentary) that greatly improve our knowledge on this enigmatic species and reveal its anatomy to be crocodylomorph. The right premaxilla indicates that the rostrum was deep, wide, and not pointed; it bears five teeth that are sub-vertical and just slightly curved lingually; the mesial teeth are U-shaped in cross-section and have serrated carinae on the lingual side; the aperturae nasi osseae (external bony nares) are confluent and face rostrally; and there is no lateral groove at the premaxillomaxillary suture for reception of a hypertrophied lower caniniform tooth...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681530/clarification-of-the-terminology-of-the-olfactory-lamellae-in-chondrichthyes
#16
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Laura Ghigliotti, Andrea Amaroli, Ghulam Abbas, Marino Vacchi
Several papers regard the anatomy of the peripheral olfactory organ, the olfactory rosette, in the class of Chondrichtyes. The complex shape of this organ and the differences among species give clues to functional, evolutionary, and ecological observations; data on a larger number of species are needed in order to have a more complete insight. The rosette is made up of a central support and of numerous lamellae, which are lined by the sensory epithelium. The size, shape and number of these lamellae, which are highly variable among species, are noteworthy because they affect the sensory surface area, the water dynamic within the olfactory chamber, and the organization of the olfactory bulb...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678866/correlation-between-investment-in-sexual-traits-and-valve-sexual-dimorphism-in-cyprideis-species-ostracoda
#17
Maria João Fernandes Martins, Gene Hunt, Rowan Lockwood, John P Swaddle, David J Horne
Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626290/joint-optimization-of-fluence-field-modulation-and-regularization-in-task-driven-computed-tomography
#18
G J Gang, J H Siewerdsen, J W Stayman
PURPOSE: This work presents a task-driven joint optimization of fluence field modulation (FFM) and regularization in quadratic penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction. Conventional FFM strategies proposed for filtered-backprojection (FBP) are evaluated in the context of PL reconstruction for comparison. METHODS: We present a task-driven framework that leverages prior knowledge of the patient anatomy and imaging task to identify FFM and regularization. We adopted a maxi-min objective that ensures a minimum level of detectability index (d') across sample locations in the image volume...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#19
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596965/the-fibularis-peroneus-tertius-muscle-in-humans-a-meta-analysis-of-anatomical-studies-with-clinical-and-evolutionary-implications
#20
REVIEW
Kaissar Yammine, Mirela Erić
Being considered an exclusive human structure for a long time, fibularis tertius (FT) is believed to have a secondary function of foot dorsiflexion and eversion. This study is an attempt to approach the issue from an anatomical perspective. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies (7601 legs) which met the inclusion criteria. The weighted results of FT presence were as follows: an "adult cadaveric" frequency of 93.2% and a clinical frequency of 80%. The most common FT origin and insertion sites were the distal half of fibula and the base of the 5th metatarsal, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
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