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Evolutionary anatomy

Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Seung Joong Kim, Javier Fernandez-Martinez, Ilona Nudelman, Yi Shi, Wenzhu Zhang, Barak Raveh, Thurston Herricks, Brian D Slaughter, Joanna A Hogan, Paula Upla, Ilan E Chemmama, Riccardo Pellarin, Ignacia Echeverria, Manjunatha Shivaraju, Azraa S Chaudhury, Junjie Wang, Rosemary Williams, Jay R Unruh, Charles H Greenberg, Erica Y Jacobs, Zhiheng Yu, M Jason de la Cruz, Roxana Mironska, David L Stokes, John D Aitchison, Martin F Jarrold, Jennifer L Gerton, Steven J Ludtke, Christopher W Akey, Brian T Chait, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout
Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Richard Yoon, Frank Liporace
Today intramedullary nails (IMN) are the gold standard in the treatment of femur fractures. Since its inception, improved design and understanding of the surrounding anatomy has exponentially increased successful patient treatment and outcomes by promoting early mobilization and reliable union. In this review, we provide an in-depth look into the evolutionary process that has led IMN to becoming today's gold standard in femur fractures.
March 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Steven D Briscoe, Clifton W Ragsdale
The evolutionary relationships of the mammalian neocortex and avian dorsal telencephalon (DT) nuclei have been debated for more than a century. Despite their central importance to this debate, non-avian reptiles remain underexplored with modern molecular techniques. Reptile studies harbor great potential for understanding the changes in DT organization that occurred in the early evolution of amniotes. They may also help clarify the specializations in the avian DT, which comprises a massive, cell-dense dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and a nuclear dorsal-most structure, the Wulst...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Heather A Arnett, Michael T Kinnison
Phenotypic plasticity is often an adaptation of organisms to cope with temporally or spatially heterogenous landscapes. Like other adaptations, one would predict that different species, populations, or sexes might thus show some degree of parallel evolution of plasticity, in the form of parallel reaction norms, when exposed to analogous environmental gradients. Indeed, one might even expect parallelism of plasticity to repeatedly evolve in multiple traits responding to the same gradient, resulting in integrated parallelism of plasticity...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Fernando Omar Zuloaga, Diego Leonel Salariato, Amalia Scataglini
Panicum sensu stricto is a genus of grasses (Poaceae) with nearly, according to this study, 163 species distributed worldwide. This genus is included in the subtribe Panicinae together with Louisiella, the latter with 2 species. Panicum and subtribe Panicinae are characterized by including annual or perennial taxa with open and lax panicles, and spikelets with the lower glume reduced; all taxa also share a basic chromosome number of x = 9 and a Kranz leaf blade anatomy typical of the NAD-me subtype photosynthetic pathway...
2018: PloS One
Roland Frey, David Reby, Guido Fritsch, Benjamin D Charlton
Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Devin K Hoffman, Andrew B Heckert, Lindsay E Zanno
Aetosauria is a clade of heavily armored, quadrupedal omnivorous to herbivorous archosaurs known from the Late Triassic across what was the supercontinent of Pangea. Their abundance in many deposits relative to the paucity of other Triassic herbivores indicates that they were key components of Late Triassic ecosystems. However, their evolutionary relationships remain contentious due, in large part, to their extensive dermal armor, which often obstructs observation of internal skeletal anatomy and limits access to potentially informative characters...
2018: PeerJ
Stephan Scholz, Stefan Richter, Christian S Wirkner
We present a study of the hemolymph vascular system of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, the only crayfish species known to be parthenogenetic. To identify potential evolutionary patterns, we compared data from a total of 48 specimens of P. fallax with 22 specimens of Orconectes limosus. Visualizations (2D and 3D) were carried out using a combination of classical and modern morphological techniques. Our data were compared to the existing literature. Like all Decapoda, both P. fallax and O...
February 5, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Magdalena N Muchlinski, Holden W Hemingway, Juan Pastor, Kailey M Omstead, Anne M Burrows
Skeletal muscle fibers are often used to evaluate functional differences in locomotion. However, because there are energetic differences among muscle fiber cells, muscle fiber composition could be used to address evolutionary questions about energetics. Skeletal muscle is composed of two main types of fibers: Type I and II. The difference between the two can be reduced to how these muscle cells use oxygen and glucose. Type I fibers convert glucose to ATP using oxygen, while Type II fibers rely primarily on anaerobic metabolic processes...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Borja Esteve-Altava, Julia L Molnar, Peter Johnston, John R Hutchinson, Rui Diogo
Tetrapods evolved from within the lobe-finned fishes around 370 Ma. The evolution of limbs from lobe-fins entailed a major re-organization of the skeletal and muscular anatomy of appendages in early tetrapods. Concurrently, a degree of similarity between pectoral and pelvic appendages also evolved. Here, we compared the anatomy of appendages in extant lobe-finned fishes (Latimeria and Neoceratodus) and anatomically plesiomorphic amphibians (Ambystoma, Salamandra) and amniotes (Sphenodon) to trace and reconstruct the musculoskeletal changes that took place during the fins-to-limbs transition...
January 24, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Chris Manias
Palaeontology developed as a field dependent upon comparison. Not only did reconstructing the fragmentary records of fossil organisms and placing them within taxonomic systems and evolutionary lineages require detailed anatomical comparisons with living and fossil animals, but the field also required thinking in terms of behavioural, biological and ecological analogies with modern organisms to understand how prehistoric animals lived and behaved. Yet palaeontological material often worked against making easy linkages, bringing a sense of mystery and doubt...
January 23, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Sharlene E Santana
This issue of the Anatomical Record is the first of a two-volume set that focuses on new investigations into behavioral correlates of muscle functional morphology. Much of the research on functional morphology and adaptation to specific functional niches focuses on the shapes of hard-tissues-bones and teeth. Investigations into soft-tissue anatomy tend to be predominantly descriptive with only brief allusion to ontogenetic or evolutionary origins of structures. When muscles are included in analyses of functional systems, their function tends to be oversimplified-usually considered a simple force vector connecting two osteological points, with the force treated as a constant derived from some simple calculation of muscle size...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
R I M Dunbar
Friendship is the single most important factor influencing our health, well-being, and happiness. Creating and maintaining friendships is, however, extremely costly, in terms of both the time that has to be invested and the cognitive mechanisms that underpin them. Nonetheless, personal social networks exhibit many constancies, notably in their size and their hierarchical structuring. Understanding the processes that give rise to these patterns and their evolutionary origins requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines social and neuropsychology as well as evolutionary biology...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Alejandro Otero, Vivian Allen, Diego Pol, John R Hutchinson
Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni ) and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus ) modes of forelimb function...
2017: PeerJ
Jordi Altimiras, Isa Lindgren, Lina María Giraldo-Deck, Alberto Matthei, Álvaro Garitano-Zavala
Some biomechanical studies from fossil specimens suggest that sustained flapping flight of birds could have appeared in their Mesozoic ancestors. We challenge this idea because a suitable musculoskeletal anatomy is not the only requirement for sustained flapping flight. We propose the "heart to fly" hypothesis that states that sustained flapping flight in modern birds required an enlargement of the heart for the aerobic performance of the flight muscles and test it experimentally by studying tinamous, the living birds with the smallest hearts...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Natalia Siomava, Rui Diogo
In the last decades, Danio rerio became one of the most used model organisms in various evo-devo studies devoted to the fin skeletal anatomy and fin-limb transition. Surprisingly, there is not even a single paper about the detailed anatomy of the adult muscles of the five fin types of this species. To facilitate more integrative developmental, functional, genetic, and evolutionary studies of the appendicular musculoskeletal system of the zebrafish and to provide a basis for further comparisons with other fishes and tetrapods, we describe here the identity, overall configuration, and attachments of appendicular muscles in a way that can be easily understood and implemented by non-anatomist researchers...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Samuel S Dunlap, M Ashraf Aziz, Janine M Ziermann
Cruveilhier described in 1834 the human flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), a muscle of the thenar compartment, as having a superficial and a deep head, respectively, inserted onto the radial and ulnar sesamoids of the thumb. Since then, Cruveilhier's deep head has been controversially discussed. Often this deep head is confused with Henle's "interosseous palmaris volaris" or said to be a slip of the oblique adductor pollicis. In the 1960s, Day and Napier described anatomical variations of the insertions of Cruveilhier's deep head, including its absence, and hypothesized, that the shift of the deep head's insertion from ulnar to radial facilitated "true opposability" in anthropoids...
2017: PloS One
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