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Evolutionary anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#1
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713650/the-fossil-osmundales-royal-ferns-a-phylogenetic-network-analysis-revised-taxonomy-and-evolutionary-classification-of-anatomically-preserved-trunks-and-rhizomes
#2
Benjamin Bomfleur, Guido W Grimm, Stephen McLoughlin
The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#3
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690926/razanandrongobe-sakalavae-a-gigantic-mesoeucrocodylian-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-madagascar-is-the-oldest-known-notosuchian
#4
Cristiano Dal Sasso, Giovanni Pasini, Guillaume Fleury, Simone Maganuco
Razanandrongobe sakalavae Maganuco, Dal Sasso & Pasini, 2006 is a large predatory archosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of the Mahajanga Basin, NW Madagascar. It was diagnosed on the basis of teeth and a fragmentary maxilla, but its affinities were uncertain. Here we describe new cranial remains (above all, an almost complete right premaxilla and a caudally incomplete left dentary) that greatly improve our knowledge on this enigmatic species and reveal its anatomy to be crocodylomorph. The right premaxilla indicates that the rostrum was deep, wide, and not pointed; it bears five teeth that are sub-vertical and just slightly curved lingually; the mesial teeth are U-shaped in cross-section and have serrated carinae on the lingual side; the aperturae nasi osseae (external bony nares) are confluent and face rostrally; and there is no lateral groove at the premaxillomaxillary suture for reception of a hypertrophied lower caniniform tooth...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681530/clarification-of-the-terminology-of-the-olfactory-lamellae-in-chondrichthyes
#5
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Laura Ghigliotti, Andrea Amaroli, Ghulam Abbas, Marino Vacchi
Several papers regard the anatomy of the peripheral olfactory organ, the olfactory rosette, in the class of Chondrichtyes. The complex shape of this organ and the differences among species give clues to functional, evolutionary, and ecological observations; data on a larger number of species are needed in order to have a more complete insight. The rosette is made up of a central support and of numerous lamellae, which are lined by the sensory epithelium. The size, shape and number of these lamellae, which are highly variable among species, are noteworthy because they affect the sensory surface area, the water dynamic within the olfactory chamber, and the organization of the olfactory bulb...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678866/correlation-between-investment-in-sexual-traits-and-valve-sexual-dimorphism-in-cyprideis-species-ostracoda
#6
Maria João Fernandes Martins, Gene Hunt, Rowan Lockwood, John P Swaddle, David J Horne
Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626290/joint-optimization-of-fluence-field-modulation-and-regularization-in-task-driven-computed-tomography
#7
G J Gang, J H Siewerdsen, J W Stayman
PURPOSE: This work presents a task-driven joint optimization of fluence field modulation (FFM) and regularization in quadratic penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction. Conventional FFM strategies proposed for filtered-backprojection (FBP) are evaluated in the context of PL reconstruction for comparison. METHODS: We present a task-driven framework that leverages prior knowledge of the patient anatomy and imaging task to identify FFM and regularization. We adopted a maxi-min objective that ensures a minimum level of detectability index (d') across sample locations in the image volume...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#8
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596965/the-fibularis-peroneus-tertius-muscle-in-humans-a-meta-analysis-of-anatomical-studies-with-clinical-and-evolutionary-implications
#9
REVIEW
Kaissar Yammine, Mirela Erić
Being considered an exclusive human structure for a long time, fibularis tertius (FT) is believed to have a secondary function of foot dorsiflexion and eversion. This study is an attempt to approach the issue from an anatomical perspective. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies (7601 legs) which met the inclusion criteria. The weighted results of FT presence were as follows: an "adult cadaveric" frequency of 93.2% and a clinical frequency of 80%. The most common FT origin and insertion sites were the distal half of fibula and the base of the 5th metatarsal, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570929/patterning-of-the-turtle-shell
#10
REVIEW
Jacqueline E Moustakas-Verho, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Scott F Gilbert
Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534833/coagulating-colubrids-evolutionary-pathophysiological-and-biodiscovery-implications-of-venom-variations-between-boomslang-dispholidus-typus-and-twig-snake-thelotornis-mossambicanus
#11
Jordan Debono, James Dobson, Nicholas R Casewell, Anthony Romilio, Bin Li, Nyoman Kurniawan, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker, Amanda Nouwens, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species) are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530617/-principles-of-urinary-tract-reconstructive-surgery
#12
Juan Gomez Rivas, Jesús Cisneros Ledo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 15 years, the role of laparoscopic surgery has progressively increased to include reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty and management of ureteral stricture, in addition to being a field in continuous development, this refers to the improvement of ergonomics, new instruments and new techniques. We present a review on basic features of laparoscopic reconstructive surgery in urology. ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: For this review, an exhaustive literature search was performed in PUBMED, MEDILNE, BioMed central and others, with the keywords: reconstructive surgery, urology, laparoscopy...
May 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511087/optional-use-of-cam-photosynthesis-in-two-c4-species-portulaca-cyclophylla-and-portulaca-digyna
#13
Joseph A M Holtum, Lillian P Hancock, Erika J Edwards, Klaus Winter
Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO2 during the dark, whereas in P...
July 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500228/a-liana-from-the-lower-miocene-of-panama-and-the-fossil-record-of-connaraceae
#14
Nathan A Jud, Chris W Nelson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Permineralized wood is common in the Miocene beds exposed during the expansion of the Panama Canal. We describe a stem with the distinctive anatomy of a liana and evaluate the evolutionary, biogeographic, and ecological significance of this discovery. METHODS: The object of the study was obtained from a collection of fossil woods and fruits from a locality in the lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation, where the formation is exposed by the Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467417/anatomy-of-adult-megaphragma-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-one-of-the-smallest-insects-and-new-insight-into-insect-miniaturization
#15
Alexey A Polilov
The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462034/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-endocranial-anatomy-of-the-early-jurassic-marine-crocodylomorph-pelagosaurus-typus-thalattosuchia
#16
Stephanie E Pierce, Megan Williams, Roger B J Benson
Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1) thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2) as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444223/gene-organizer-linking-genes-to-the-organs-they-affect
#17
David Gokhman, Guy Kelman, Adir Amartely, Guy Gershon, Shira Tsur, Liran Carmel
One of the biggest challenges in studying how genes work is understanding their effect on the physiology and anatomy of the body. Existing tools try to address this using indirect features, such as expression levels and biochemical pathways. Here, we present Gene ORGANizer (geneorganizer.huji.ac.il), a phenotype-based tool that directly links human genes to the body parts they affect. It is built upon an exhaustive curated database that links >7000 genes to ∼150 anatomical parts using >150 000 gene-organ associations...
April 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434539/evolutionary-anatomy-of-the-neandertal-ulna-and-radius-in-the-light-of-the-new-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-sample
#18
Laura Pérez-Criado, Antonio Rosas
This paper aims to improve our understanding of the phylogenetic trait polarity related to hominin forearm evolution, in particular those traits traditionally defined as "Neandertal features." To this aim, twelve adult and adolescent fragmented forelimb elements (including ulnae and radii) of Homo neanderthalensis recovered from the site of El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) were examined comparatively using three-dimensional geometric and traditional morphometrics. Mean centroid size and shape comparisons, principal components analysis, and phylogenetic signal analysis were undertaken...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422426/dinosaurs-chameleons-humans-and-evo-devo-path-linking-%C3%A3-tienne-geoffroy-s-teratology-waddington-s-homeorhesis-alberch-s-logic-of-monsters-and-goldschmidt-hopeful-monsters
#19
REVIEW
Rui Diogo, Geoffrey Guinard, Raul E Diaz
Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407636/neuronal-regression-of-internal-leg-vibroreceptor-organs-in-a-cave-dwelling-insect-orthoptera-rhaphidophoridae-dolichopoda-araneiformis
#20
Johannes Strauß, Nataša Stritih
Animals' adaptations to cave habitats generally include elaboration of extraoptic senses, and in insects the receptor structures located on the legs are supposed to become more prominent in response to constant darkness. The receptors for detecting substrate vibrations are often highly sensitive scolopidial sensilla localized within the legs or the body. For troglobitic insects the evolutionary changes in vibroreceptor organs have not been studied. Since rock is an extremely unfavorable medium for vibration transmission, selection on vibration receptors may be weakened in caves, and these sensory organs may undergo regressive evolution...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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