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Brain death EEG

Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Y-D Yu, S-J Kim, Y-S Jang, S-W Jung, J-H Han, H Jun, C-W Jung, D-S Kim
BACKGROUND: Organ donation after brain death is a major source for obtaining transplantable organs for patients with end-stage organ disease. However, the time from declaring brain death to organ procurement is often longer than expected. Analyzing factors that delay organ procurement may help to prevent damage to organs from marginal and unstable donors and aid in preparation for recipient operation. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the interval between the time of declaring brain death and organ procurement...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Iwona Mańka-Gaca, Beata Łabuz-Roszak, Agnieszka Machowska-Majchrzak, Zbigniew Kalarus, Beata Średniawa, Krystyna Pierzchała
INTRODUCTION: Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with epilepsy are related to the presence of discharges in central autonomic structures and the effect of antiepileptic drugs. These patients are at risk for sudden unexpected death, and cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most probable causes related to it. THE AIM: The heart rate (HR) assessment recorded on electrocardiography (ECG) in the interictal period in patients with newly diagnosed and previously treated epilepsy, depending on the type of changes in electroencephalography (EEG) and the treatment option...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ling-Lin Chen, Mei-Ling Wu, Feng Zhu, Jie-Jing Kai, Jing-Yin Dong, Xi-Mei Wu, Ling-Hui Zeng
AIMS: Previous study suggests that mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in epileptogenesis. The present work was designed to explore the contribution of raptor protein to the development of epilepsy and comorbidities. METHODS: Mice with conditional knockout of raptor protein were generated by cross-bred Rptor(flox/flox) mice with nestin-CRE mice. The expression of raptor protein was analyzed by Western blotting in brain tissue samples. Neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting were detected by FJB staining and Timm staining, respectively...
September 28, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ali Al Balushi, Marshall W Meeks, Ghazala Hayat, Jafar Kafaie
BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease that almost always results in death in under a year from onset of symptoms. Here, we report four cases of CJD with different clinical presentations diagnosed at our institution over a 2-year period. CASES: The first patient is an 82-year-old woman who presented with depression, cognitive decline, and word-finding difficulty over 4 weeks. The patient deteriorated neurologically to akinetic mutism and death within 6 weeks of presentation...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Snigdha Dagar, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Raju Surampudi Bapi, Anirban Dutta, Dipanjan Roy
Stroke is the leading cause of severe chronic disability and the second cause of death worldwide with 15 million new cases and 50 million stroke survivors. The poststroke chronic disability may be ameliorated with early neuro rehabilitation where non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can be used as an adjuvant treatment to hasten the effects. However, the heterogeneity in the lesioned brain will require individualized NIBS intervention where innovative neuroimaging technologies of portable electroencephalography (EEG) and functional-near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can be leveraged for Brain State Dependent Electrotherapy (BSDE)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Brandi C Fink, Vaughn R Steele, Michael J Maurer, Samantha J Fede, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
INTRODUCTION: National estimates suggest that up to 80% of prison inmates meet diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Because more substance abuse treatment while incarcerated is associated with better post-release outcomes, including a reduced risk of accidental overdose death, the stakes are high in developing novel predictors of substance abuse treatment completion in inmate populations. METHODS: Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated stimulus-locked ERP components elicited by distractor stimuli in three tasks (VO-Distinct, VO-Repeated, Go/NoGo) as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in a sample of male and female prison inmates...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges
OBJECTIVES: Postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) frequently occurs after generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) and may be involved in the pathophysiology of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). It is usually determined using conventional scalp EEG which is likely to miss cerebral activity in deeper brain structures. Here, we examined intracranial EEG activity after GCS to unravel the pattern and extent of local brain activity during apparent PGES on scalp EEG (s-PGES)...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mark M Stecker, Dragos Sabau, Lucy Sullivan, Rohit R Das, Olga Selioutski, Frank W Drislane, Tammy N Tsuchida, William O Tatum
This revision to the EEG Guidelines is an update incorporating current EEG technology and practice. The role of the EEG in making the determination of brain death is discussed as are suggested technical criteria for making the diagnosis of electrocerebral inactivity.
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Charles W Sauer, Krishelle L Marc-Aurele
BACKGROUND This is a case of a neonate with susceptibility to long QT syndrome (LQTS) who presented with a sudden unexpected infant death. Experts continue to debate whether universal electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of all newborns is feasible, practical, and cost-effective. CASE REPORT A 19-day-old neonate was found unresponsive by her mother. ECG showed ventricular fibrillation and a combination of a lidocaine drip plus multiple defibrillations converted the rhythm to normal sinus. Unfortunately, MRI brain imaging showed multiple infarcts and EEG showed burst suppression pattern with frequent seizures; life supportive treatment was stopped and the infant died...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Lykke Blaabjerg, Claus B Juhl
Hypoglycemia is defined by an abnormally low blood glucose level. The condition develops when rates of glucose entry into the systematic circulation are reduced relative to the glucose uptake by the tissues. A cardinal manifestation of hypoglycemia arises from inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, where glucose is the primary metabolic fuel. The brain is one of the first organs to be affected by hypoglycemia. Shortage of glucose in the brain, or neuroglycopenia, results in a gradual loss of cognitive functions causing slower reaction time, blurred speech, loss of consciousness, seizures, and ultimately death, as the hypoglycemia progresses...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Danny Eytan, Elizabeth W Pang, Sam M Doesburg, Vera Nenadovic, Bojan Gavrilovic, Peter Laussen, Anne-Marie Guerguerian
Acute brain injury is a common cause of death and critical illness in children and young adults. Fundamental management focuses on early characterization of the extent of injury and optimizing recovery by preventing secondary damage during the days following the primary injury. Currently, bedside technology for measuring neurological function is mainly limited to using electroencephalography (EEG) for detection of seizures and encephalopathic features, and evoked potentials. We present a proof of concept study in patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care setting, featuring a bedside functional imaging set-up designed to map cortical brain activation patterns by combining high density EEG recordings, multi-modal sensory stimulation (auditory, visual, and somatosensory), and EEG source modeling...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
A Dulamea, E Solomon
OBJECTIVE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a human prion disease, rapidly progressive and fatal, characterized by spongiform encephalopathy. The characteristic triad of signs - rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus and periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC) on electroencephalography (EEG) - usually appear in the late stages of the disease. The clinical diagnosis of CJD ante-mortem involves the exclusion of the rapidly progressive non-prionic dementias, the definitive diagnosis requiring brain tissue confirmation...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
I I Berisavac, V V Padjen, M D Ercegovac, Lj G Beslać-Bumbaširević, P Dj Stanarčević, M S Stefanović-Budimkić, M M Radović, D R Jovanović
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) represents a diffuse and/or multifactorial cerebral dysfunction during response to systemic infection. Study aim was to compare clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics and intrahospital survival rate among SAE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study, during 42 months' period, included 39 SAE patients assigned in two groups according the outcome (survival: 19, and death: 20 patients). All the patients' features were registered: demography, neurological status, infection type, seizure appearance, brain computerized tomography (CT), EEG, EEG reactivity, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
C Roth, A Ferbert
BACKGROUND: Worldwide there are differences in the procedure of determining brain death. An irreversible loss of all brain functions, including cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem is mandatory for the diagnosis of brain death in Germany. On the basis of a case report some important aspects of the new recommendations of the German guidelines are discussed. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 41-year old patient who was admitted to our clinic due to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
June 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Jonathan M Dunne, David Wertheim, Paul Clarke, Olga Kapellou, Philippa Chisholm, James P Boardman, Divyen K Shah
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Prolonged electroencephalographic (EEG) discontinuity has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes after perinatal asphyxia but its predictive value in the era of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is unknown. In infants undergoing TH for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) prolonged EEG discontinuity is associated with cerebral tissue injury on MRI and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. METHOD: Retrospective study of term neonates from three UK centres who received TH for perinatal asphyxia, had continuous two channel amplitude-integrated EEG with EEG for a minimum of 48 h, brain MRI within 6 weeks of birth and neurodevelopmental outcome data at a median age of 24 months...
April 21, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
G F Cittolin-Santos, A M de Assis, P A Guazzelli, L G Paniz, J S da Silva, M E Calcagnotto, G Hansel, K C Zenki, E Kalinine, M M Duarte, D O Souza
The nucleoside guanosine (GUO) increases glutamate uptake by astrocytes and acts as antioxidant, thereby providing neuroprotection against glutamatergic excitotoxicity, as we have recently demonstrated in an animal model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of GUO in an acute ammonia intoxication model. Adult male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of vehicle or GUO 60 mg/kg, followed 20 min later by an i.p. injection of vehicle or 550 mg/kg of ammonium acetate...
April 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yaqub Jonmohamadi, Govinda R Poudel, Carrie C R H Innes, Richard D Jones
Behavioral microsleeps are associated with complete disruption of responsiveness for [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s to 15[Formula: see text]s. They can result in injury or death, especially in transport and military sectors. In this study, EEGs were obtained from five nonsleep-deprived healthy male subjects performing a 1[Formula: see text]h 2D tracking task. Microsleeps were detected in all subjects. Microsleep-related activities in the EEG were detected, characterized, separated from eye closure-related activity, and, via source-space-independent component analysis and power analysis, the associated sources were localized in the brain...
June 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Danielle K Sandsmark, Monisha A Kumar, Catherine S Woodward, Sarah E Schmitt, Soojin Park, Miranda M Lim
OBJECTIVE: Sleep characteristics detected by electroencephalography (EEG) may be predictive of neurological recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to determine whether sleep features were associated with greater access to rehabilitation therapies and better functional outcomes after severe TBI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients admitted with severe TBI who underwent 24 or more hours of continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring within 14 days of injury for sleep elements and ictal activity...
March 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Patrícia Gabbi, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Iuri Domingues Della-Pace, Fernanda Silva Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Oliveira Ferreira, Mauro Eduardo Porto da Silveira Junior, Luís Roberto Hart da Silva, Alan Barroso Araújo Grisólia, Danielle Valente Braga, Fernando Dobrachinski, Anderson Manoel Herculano Oliveira da Silva, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Sara Marchesan, Ana Flavia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Michele Rechia Fighera
Hyperammonemia is a common finding in children with methylmalonic acidemia. However, its contribution to methylmalonate-induced excitotoxicty is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms by which ammonia influences in the neurotoxicity induced by methylmalonate (MMA) in mice. The effects of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl 3, 6, and 12 mmol/kg; s.c.) on electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral convulsions induced by MMA (0.3, 0.66, and 1 µmol/2 µL, i.c.v.) were observed in mice...
June 2016: Amino Acids
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