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Brain death EEG

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713995/full-protection-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-brain-damage-by-ly293558-and-caramiphen-combination-treatment-in-adult-rats
#1
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Marcio De Araujo Furtado, Maria F M Braga
Acute exposure to nerve agents induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. LY293558, an antagonist of AMPA and GluK1 kainate receptors is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant against soman; however, some neuronal damage is still present after treatment of soman-exposed rats with LY293558. Here, we have tested whether combining LY293558 with an NMDA receptor antagonist can eliminate the residual damage. For this purpose, we chose caramiphen (CRM), an antimuscarinic compound with NMDA receptor antagonistic properties...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702712/development-of-a-neuronicu-with-a-broader-focus-on-all-newborns-at-risk-of-brain-injury-the-first-2-years
#2
Krisa P Van Meurs, Elisabeth S Yan, Kathi S Randall, Valerie Y Chock, Alexis S Davis, Cecelia S Glennon, Catherine L Clark, Courtney J Wusthoff, Sonia L Bonifacio
OBJECTIVE:  Many critically ill neonates have an existing brain injury or are at risk of neurologic injury. We developed a "NeuroNICU" (neurologic neonatal intensive care unit) to better provide neurologically focused intensive care. STUDY DESIGN:  Demographic and clinical variables, services delivered, and patient outcomes were recorded in a prospective database for all neonates admitted to the NeuroNICU between April 23, 2013, and June 25, 2015. RESULTS:  In total, 546 neonates were admitted to the NeuroNICU representing 32% of all NICU admissions...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679698/neurophysiological-and-neuroradiological-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#3
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
INTRODUCTION: Prognosticating outcome after cardiac arrest(CA) requires a multimodal approach. However, evidence regarding combinations of methods is limited. We evaluated whether the combination of electroencephalography(EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs) and brain computed tomography(CT) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: We screened our database regarding patients successfully resuscitated after CA, for whom EEG, SEPs and brain CT were available within 24 hours...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669562/comfort-in-palliative-sedation-compas-a-transdisciplinary-mixed-method-study-protocol-for-linking-objective-assessments-to-subjective-experiences
#4
Stefaan Six, Steven Laureys, Jan Poelaert, Johan Bilsen, Peter Theuns, Reginald Deschepper
BACKGROUND: In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods...
April 18, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588974/seizures-electroencephalographic-abnormalities-and-outcome-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#5
Carla Bentes, Ana Rita Peralta, Hugo Martins, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Pedro Viana, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with unfavorable stroke functional outcome. However, this association may depend on clinical and imaging stroke severity. We set out to analyze whether epileptic seizures and early EEG abnormalities are predictors of stroke outcome after adjustment for age and clinical/imaging infarct severity. Methods: A prospective study was made on consecutive and previously independent acute stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 on admission and an acute anterior circulation ischemic lesion on brain imaging...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564192/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-atypical-presentation-as-a-right-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#6
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510399/contralesional-brain-activity-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#7
Ruud C Van Kaam, Michel J A M van Putten, Sarah E Vermeer, Jeannette Hofmeijer
BACKGROUND: The noninjured, contralateral hemisphere is increasingly acknowledged in the process of recovery from acute ischemic stroke. We estimated the value of conventional electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for identifying contralateral hemisphere involvement in relation to functional recovery. METHODS: We analyzed 2-min epochs from 21 electrode EEG registrations of 18 patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke and compared with 18 age-matched controls...
2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487541/adrenergic-blockade-bi-directionally-and-asymmetrically-alters-functional-brain-heart-communication-and-prolongs-electrical-activities-of-the-brain-and-heart-during-asphyxic-cardiac-arrest
#8
Fangyun Tian, Tiecheng Liu, Gang Xu, Duan Li, Talha Ghazi, Trevor Shick, Azeem Sajjad, Michael M Wang, Peter Farrehi, Jimo Borjigin
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2 -mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443088/simultaneous-video-eeg-ecg-monitoring-to-identify-neurocardiac-dysfunction-in-mouse-models-of-epilepsy
#9
Vikas Mishra, Nicole M Gautier, Edward Glasscock
In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226520/a-novel-homozygous-slc25a1-mutation-with-impaired-mitochondrial-complex-v-possible-phenotypic-expansion
#10
Idan Cohen, Orna Staretz-Chacham, Ohad Wormser, Yonatan Perez, Ann Saada, Rotem Kadir, Ohad S Birk
SLC25A1 mutations are associated with combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (DL- 2HGA; OMIM #615182), characterized by muscular hypotonia, severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction and intractable seizures. SLC25A1 encodes the mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC), which mediates efflux of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate and isocitrate in exchange for cytosolic malate. Only a single family with an SLC25A1 mutation has been described in which mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction was documented, specifically in complex IV...
February 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129151/false-positive-diagnosis-of-brain-death-following-the-pediatric-guidelines-case-report-and-discussion
#11
D Alan Shewmon
A 2-year-old boy with severe head trauma was diagnosed brain dead according to the 2011 Pediatric Guidelines. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed massive cerebral edema with herniation. Intracranial pressures were extremely high, with cerebral perfusion pressures around 0 for several hours. An apnea test was initially contraindicated; later, one had to be terminated due to oxygen desaturation when the Pco2 had risen to 57.9 mm Hg. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was probably isoelectric but formally interpreted as equivocal...
December 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980020/-digital-electroencephalography-in-brain-death-diagnostics-technical-requirements-and-results-of-a-survey-on-the-compatibility-with-medical-guidelines-of-digital-eeg-systems-from-providers-in-germany
#12
U Walter, S Noachtar, H Hinrichs
BACKGROUND: The guidelines of the German Medical Association and the German Society for Clinical Neurophysiology and Functional Imaging (DGKN) require a high procedural and technical standard for electroencephalography (EEG) as an ancillary method for diagnosing the irreversible cessation of brain function (brain death). Nowadays, digital EEG systems are increasingly being applied in hospitals. So far it is unclear to what extent the digital EEG systems currently marketed in Germany meet the guidelines for diagnosing brain death...
February 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961316/reduced-infancy-and-childhood-epilepsy-following-hypothermia-treated-neonatal-encephalopathy
#13
Xun Liu, Sally Jary, Frances Cowan, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what proportion of a regional cohort of cooled infants with neonatal encephalopathy develop epilepsy (determined by the International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] definition and the number of antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) up to 8 years of age. METHODS: From 2006-2013, 151 infants with perinatal asphyxia underwent 72 h cooling. Clinical and amplitude-integrated electroencepalography (aEEG) with single-channel EEG-verified neonatal seizures were treated with AEDs...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944130/brain-computed-tomography-angiography-as-an-ancillary-test-in-the-confirmation-of-brain-death
#14
Homa Sadeghian, Mohammad Ali Raeisi, Parviz Dolati, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi
Introduction Brain death (BD) is the irreversible termination of the functioning of the brain. The diagnosis should be first made by clinical criteria and confirmed by using paraclinical confirmatory techniques (ancillary tests). While conventional brain angiography remains the standard method of choice, computed tomography angiography (CTA) has emerged as an alternative method. In this study, we tried to evaluate the accuracy of CTA for the diagnosis of BD. Methods In this study, we included nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, confirmed by electroencephalography (EEG)...
July 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873072/amplitude-integrated-eeg-and-brain-sparing-in-preterm-small-for-gestational-age-infants
#15
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Simón P Lubián-López, Pamela Zafra-Rodríguez, Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, Antonio Segado-Arenas, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho
PURPOSE: Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at risk for a high mortality rate and impaired cognitive development. Only a few studies have focused on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) in preterm SGA infants. They have been shown to have a slower rate of brain maturation, but these findings have not consistently been related to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate early aEEG monitoring in SGA compared with adequate-for-gestational-age preterms...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871712/some-quantitative-eeg-features-in-default-mode-resting-state-network-under-general-anaesthesia
#16
Peter Jombík, Michal Drobny, Beata Saniova, Martin Fischer, Petra Kaderjaková, Marianna Lajčiaková, Erika Bakosova, Eva Drobna, Petr Bob, Vladimír Nosáľ
OBJECTIVES: The default mode resting state network (DMRSN) constitutes a circuit which is active in conditions when the subject is at rest. We tested the hypothesis that its function will be altered during unconsciousness. METHODS: Changes in the mean squared coherences in five conventional frequency bands (delta to gamma) in DMRSN during general anaesthesia (GA) were investigated in 39 patients. They were compared with the normal EEG of 86 alert subjects, severely abnormal EEG of 112 patients with dementia and/or encephalopathy, and the mathematical model of brain death...
August 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863321/the-role-of-necroptosis-in-status-epilepticus-induced-brain-injury-in-juvenile-rats
#17
Qianyun Cai, Jing Gan, Rong Luo, Yi Qu, Shiping Li, Chaomin Wan, Dezhi Mu
PURPOSE: To study the role of necroptosis in status epilepticus (SE)-induced injury in the developing brain and the possible associations of necroptosis with epileptogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: The lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model was reproduced in male rats at postnatal day 25. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to detect cell death after SE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to observe morphological changes in injured neurons...
October 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844933/early-detection-of-brain-death-using-the-bispectral-index-bis-in-patients-treated-by-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-e-cpr-for-refractory-cardiac-arrest
#18
Romain Jouffroy, Lionel Lamhaut, Alexandra Guyard, Pascal Philippe, Kim An, Christian Spaulding, Frédéric Baud, Pierre Carli, Benoît Vivien
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for treatment of refractory cardiac arrest patients, prognosis remains dismal, often resulting in brain-death. However, clinical assessment of brain-death occurence is difficult in post-cardiac arrest patients, sedated, paralyzed, under mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). Our objective was to assess the usefulness of Bispectral-Index (BIS) monitoring at bedside for an early detection of brain-death occurrence in refractory cardiac arrest patients treated by E-CPR...
November 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619501/irreversible-total-loss-of-brain-function-and-organ-donation-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Malte Mohme, Thomas Sauvigny, Jörn Grensemann, Gerold Söffker, Stefan Kluge, Manfred Westphal, Patrick Czorlich
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening disease with an often fatal clinical course leading to irreversible loss of brain function (ILBF) (i.e., brain death). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with aSAH who became organ donors after diagnosis of ILBF. METHODS: Anonymized clinical data sets of 395 patients treated for aSAH at a university medical center from January 2011 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
September 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596083/organ-donation-in-cardiac-arrest-patients-treated-with-extracorporeal-cpr-a-single-centre-observational-study
#20
Maria Chiara Casadio, Anna Coppo, Alessia Vargiolu, Jacopo Villa, Matteo Rota, Leonello Avalli, Giuseppe Citerio
AIM OF THE STUDY: In a consecutive cohort of cardiac arrest (CA) treated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), we describe the incidence of brain death (BD), the eligibility for organ donation and the short-term follow-up of the transplanted organs. METHODS: All refractory in- and out-of-hospital CA admitted to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit between January 2011 and September 2016 treated with eCPR were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: 112 CA patients received eCPR...
September 2017: Resuscitation
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