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Intuitive decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332130/if-you-re-a-rawlsian-how-come-you-re-so-close-to-utilitarianism-and-intuitionism-a-critique-of-daniels-s-accountability-for-reasonableness
#1
Gabriele Badano
Norman Daniels's theory of 'accountability for reasonableness' is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls's general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls's argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques...
March 22, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330915/co-evolution-of-cooperation-and-cognition-the-impact-of-imperfect-deliberation-and-context-sensitive-intuition
#2
Adam Bear, Ari Kagan, David G Rand
How does cognitive sophistication impact cooperation? We explore this question using a model of the co-evolution of cooperation and cognition. In our model, agents confront social dilemmas and coordination games, and make decisions using intuition or deliberation. Intuition is automatic and effortless, but relatively (although not necessarily completely) insensitive to context. Deliberation, conversely, is costly but relatively (although not necessarily perfectly) sensitive to context. We find that regardless of the sensitivity of intuition and imperfection of deliberation, deliberating undermines cooperation in social dilemmas, whereas deliberating can increase cooperation in coordination games if intuition is sufficiently sensitive...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329439/clinical-intuition-in-the-nursing-process-and-decision-making-a-mixed-studies-review
#3
REVIEW
Christina Melin-Johansson, Rebecca Palmqvist, Linda Rönnberg
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To review what is characteristic of registered nurses' intuition in clinical settings, in relationships, and in the nursing process. BACKGROUND: Intuition is a controversial concept and nurses believe that there are difficulties in how they should explain their nursing actions or decisions based on intuition. Much of the evidence from the body of research indicates that nurses value their intuition in a variety of clinical settings. More information on how nurses integrate intuition as a core element in daily clinical work would contribute to an improved understanding on how they go about this...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303317/evaluation-of-the-applicability-of-territorial-arterial-spin-labeling-in-meningiomas-for-presurgical-assessments-compared-with-3-dimensional-time-of-flight-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#4
Yiping Lu, Shihai Luan, Li Liu, Ji Xiong, Jianbo Wen, Jianxun Qu, Daoying Geng, Bo Yin
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the application of territorial arterial spin labelling (t-ASL) in comparison with unenhanced three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) in the identification of the feeding vasculature of meningiomas. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with suspected meningiomas underwent conventional MR imaging, unenhanced 3D-TOF-MRA and t-ASL scanning. Four experienced neuro-radiologists assessed the feeding vessels with different techniques separately...
March 16, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301693/the-clue
#5
Tyler Tate
As I stood outside of Carlos's room, I felt caught on the horns of a dilemma. It seemed impossible to truly "be there" for Carlos without sacrificing my other intern duties. This tension pervaded much of my residency training, as I often found myself spending more time completing chart notes, answering pages, and giving sign out than I did at the bedside with my patients. I knew I had a duty to "do my job"-I could not let my team down. But what about my duty to Carlos, a duty to act on my intuition and try to "get to the bottom" of his illness, if that was even possible? And what about my thirteen other patients? Wasn't I was their doctor as well? I have spent countless hours studying the ethical frameworks for medical rationing...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291766/sepsis-3-on-the-block-what-does-it-mean-for-pre-clinical-sepsis-modeling
#6
Marcin F Osuchowski, Christoph Thiemermann, Daniel G Remick
To effectively improve outcomes of septic patients, we first need to elucidate the multifaceted pathogenesis of sepsis syndromes and related inflammatory conditions. In fulfillment of such needs, in February 2016, new definitions for sepsis and septic shock were published under the acronym Sepsis-3. Although aimed at the clinical area, Sepsis-3 will have an inevitable influence upon the field of translational research as well. Sepsis-3 brings a considerable shift regarding the experimental focal point: from inflammatory states (SIRS/CARS) to organ failure (single and multiple) as the decisive factor...
October 25, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290946/medical-redeployment-in-soldiers-with-and-without-medical-deployment-waivers
#7
Corey M Cronrath, Joseph Venezia, Titus J Rund, Timothy H Cho, Nicole M Solana, Jennifer A Benincasa
BACKGROUND: Historically, disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI) have caused more casualties during military operations than enemy combatants. Recent deployments to U.S. Central Commands (USCENTCOM) area of operation (AOR) have demonstrated similar outcomes. Intuitively, appropriate medical standards for our deploying Soldiers should result in no greater redeployments rates for those Soldiers who are waived for various medical conditions. However, no formal study has been published on redeployment rates of Soldiers with medical deployment waivers...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#8
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270240/-how-does-a-surgeon-decide-that-surgery-is-the-best-option-assessing-whether-or-not-to-operate
#9
J F Hamming, P J Marang-van de Mheen
All abdominal surgical procedures have a certain risk/benefit ratio. Recently, the way surgeons come to a decision whether to operate, or not, was discussed in the Annals of Surgery. First, the assessment of the decision for an operative versus a non-operative strategy was addressed on the basis of clinical vignettes. The perceptions concerning risk/benefit balance varied considerably between surgeons and these perceptions predicted the decision to operate. In a second paper, surgeons were randomized to either an arm in which they were exposed to a risk calculator or to a control arm...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251754/clinicians-guide-for-cue-based-transition-to-oral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-an-easy-to-use-clinical-guide
#10
Welma Lubbe
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This article aims to provide evidence to guide multidisciplinary clinical practitioners towards successful initiation and long-term maintenance of oral feeding in preterm infants, directed by the individual infant maturity. METHOD: A comprehensive review of primary research, explorative work, existing guidelines, and evidence-based opinions regarding the transition to oral feeding in preterm infants was studied to compile this document...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203636/i-want-to-media-multitask-and-i-want-to-do-it-now-individual-differences-in-media-multitasking-predict-delay-of-gratification-and-system-1-thinking
#11
Dan Schutten, Kirk A Stokes, Karen M Arnell
Media multitasking, the concurrent use of multiple media forms, has been shown to be related to greater self-reported impulsivity and less self-control. These measures are both hallmarks of the need for immediate gratification which has been associated with fast, intuitive 'system-1' decision making, as opposed to more deliberate and effortful 'system-2' decision making. In Study 1, we used the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) to examine whether individuals who engage heavily in media multitasking differ from those who are light media multitaskers in their degree of system-1 versus system-2 thinking...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169908/review-of-rational-vs-intuitive-judgment-in-surgical-decision-making-by-morris-am-in-ann-surg-264-887-888-2016
#12
Yunfeng Xue, Larry H Hollier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146682/intuitive-cognition-and-models-of-human-automation-interaction
#13
Robert Earl Patterson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of the implications of the dominance of intuitive cognition in human reasoning and decision making for conceptualizing models and taxonomies of human-automation interaction, focusing on the Parasuraman et al. model and taxonomy. BACKGROUND: Knowledge about how humans reason and make decisions, which has been shown to be largely intuitive, has implications for the design of future human-machine systems. METHOD: One hundred twenty articles and books cited in other works as well as those obtained from an Internet search were reviewed...
February 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122614/clinical-decision-making-in-the-recognition-of-dying-a-qualitative-interview-study
#14
Paul Taylor, Dawn Dowding, Miriam Johnson
BACKGROUND: Recognising dying is an essential clinical skill for general and palliative care professionals alike. Despite the high importance, both identification and good clinical care of the dying patient remains extremely difficult and often controversial in clinical practice. This study aimed to answer the question: "What factors influence medical and nursing staff when recognising dying in end-stage cancer and heart failure patients?" METHODS: This study used a descriptive approach to decision-making theory...
January 25, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113528/a-shared-decision-making-system-for-diabetes-medication-choice-utilizing-electronic-health-record-data
#15
Yu Wang, Pengfei Li, Yu Tian, Jing-Jing Ren, Jing-Song Li
The use of a shared decision making (SDM) process in antihyperglycemic medication strategy decisions is necessary due to the complexity of the conditions of diabetes patients. Knowledge of guidelines is used as decision aids in clinical situations, and during this process, no patient health conditions are considered. In this manuscript, we propose a SDM system framework for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that not only contains knowledge abstracted from guidelines but also employs a multi-label classification model that uses class-imbalanced electronic health record (EHR) data and that aims to provide a recommended list of available antihyperglycemic medications to help physicians and patients have a SDM conversation...
October 4, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098410/juror-decision-making-in-death-penalty-sentencing-when-presented-with-defendant-s-history-of-child-abuse-or-neglect
#16
Lisa L Bell Holleran, Tyler J Vaughan, Donna M Vandiver
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#17
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057832/modification-of-feeding-circuits-in-the-evolution-of-social-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Eva K Fischer, Lauren A O'Connell
Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981996/clinical-decision-making-choosing-between-intuition-experience-and-scientific-evidence
#19
R P Nalliah
Intuition usually results in poorer decisions than an evidence-based decision-making process. However, research has shown there are certain circumstances when intuition is equivalent or superior to evidence based decision-making. The first pre-requisite is domain expertise and being a dentist is insufficient - a minimum of five years additional practicing experience is needed. Intuition allows the expert to store information in subconscious frameworks and extract that data without conscious thought at a rapid rate...
December 16, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981181/stress-potentiates-decision-biases-a-stress-induced-deliberation-to-intuition-sidi-model
#20
REVIEW
Rongjun Yu
Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
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