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Intuitive decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914099/discrepancies-between-multicriteria-decision-analysis-based-ranking-and-intuitive-ranking-for-pharmaceutical-benefit-risk-profiles-in-a-hypothetical-setting
#1
K Hoshikawa, S Ono
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884254/troponin-testing-for-clinicians
#2
REVIEW
John E Brush, Sanjay Kaul, Harlan M Krumholz
The analytical performance of troponin assays has improved markedly in the last 2 decades. The variety of assays, their evolution over time, and their critical importance in influencing care, mandates the need for skills in their use. There are 3 critical elements necessary for optimal use of troponin testing in clinical care, as follows: 1) the analytical performance of the assay; 2) the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the test result; and 3) the clinical reasoning for ordering and the proper clinical context for interpreting the test result...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875176/weightlifter-visual-weight-space-exploration-for-multi-criteria-decision-making
#3
Stephan Pajer, Marc Streit, Thomas Torsney-Weir, Florian Spechtenhauser, Torsten Muller, Harald Piringer
A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875175/proact-iterative-design-of-a-patient-centered-visualization-for-effective-prostate-cancer-health-risk-communication
#4
Anzu Hakone, Lane Harrison, Alvitta Ottley, Nathan Winters, Caitlin Gutheil, Paul K J Han, Remco Chang
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862180/accuracy-of-intuition-in-clinical-decision-making-among-novice-clinicians
#5
Amanda Price, Kristen Zulkosky, Krista White, Jean Pretz
AIMS: To assess the reliance on intuitive and analytical approaches during clinical decision-making among novice clinicians and whether that reliance is associated with accurate decision-making. BACKGROUND: Nurse educators and managers tend to emphasize analysis over intuition during clinical decision-making though nurses typically report some reliance on intuition in their practice. We hypothesized that under certain conditions, reliance on intuition would support accurate decision-making, even among novices...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836031/surveillance-of-cattle-health-in-the-netherlands-monitoring-trends-and-developments-using-routinely-collected-cattle-census-data
#6
I M G A Santman-Berends, H Brouwer-Middelesch, L Van Wuijckhuise, A J G de Bont-Smolenaars, G Van Schaik
Since 2002, a national cattle health surveillance system (CHSS) is in place that consists of several surveillance components. The CHSS combines enhanced passive reporting, diagnostic and post-mortem examinations, random surveys for prevalence estimation of endemic diseases and quarterly data analysis. The aim of the data-analysis component, which is called the Trend Analysis Surveillance Component (TASC), is to monitor trends and developments in cattle health using routine census data. The challenges that were faced during the development of TASC and the merits of this surveillance component are discussed, which might be of help to those who want to develop a monitoring and surveillance system that includes data analysis...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835981/testing-a-videogame-intervention-to-recalibrate-physician-heuristics-in-trauma-triage-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Deepika Mohan, Matthew R Rosengart, Baruch Fischhoff, Derek C Angus, Coreen Farris, Donald M Yealy, David J Wallace, Amber E Barnato
BACKGROUND: Between 30 and 40 % of patients with severe injuries receive treatment at non-trauma centers (under-triage), largely because of physician decision making. Existing interventions to improve triage by physicians ignore the role that intuition (heuristics) plays in these decisions. One such heuristic is to form an initial impression based on representativeness (how typical does a patient appear of one with severe injuries). We created a video game (Night Shift) to recalibrate physician's representativeness heuristic in trauma triage...
November 11, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834281/factors-that-impact-on-emergency-nurses-ethical-decision-making-ability
#8
Barbara Alba
BACKGROUND: Reliance on moral principles and professional codes has given nurses direction for ethical decision-making. However, rational models do not capture the emotion and reality of human choice. Intuitive response must be considered. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Supporting intuition as an important ethical decision-making tool for nurses, the aim of this study was to determine relationships between intuition, years of worked nursing experience, and perceived ethical decision-making ability...
November 10, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828817/rational-vs-intuitive-judgment-in-surgical-decision-making
#9
Arden M Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825727/appropriateness-of-myocardial-revascularization-assessed-by-the-syntax-score-ii-in-a-country-without-cardiac-surgery-facilities-proust-study
#10
Bojan M Stanetic, Miodrag Ostojic, Carlos M Campos, Jelena Marinkovic, Vasim Farooq, Tamara Kovacevic-Preradovic, Kurt Huber, Patrick W Serruys
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The SYNTAX Score II (SSII) was proposed as a novel approach for objective individualized decision-making for optimal myocardial revascularization i.e. percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We sought to investigate how many lives may be saved by SSII use. METHODS: A total number of 651 consecutive SSII-naive-patients with complex coronary artery disease who were treated with PCI (n=409) or referred to other institutions for CABG (n=242) were included...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810727/a-neuro-cognitive-defense-of-the-unified-self
#11
REVIEW
Ryan Smith
The topic of the self remains one of considerable controversy, and many arguments have been put forth suggesting the intuitive concept of self must be in some way mistaken - in part based on results in the cognitive and neural sciences. In this article I offer the alternative positive proposal that "the self" may indeed refer to a physical/computational system within the brain. To do this, I draw on empirical work regarding the neural basis of consciousness and decision-making, and on philosophical work regarding ecological control, unified group perspectives, and functional/mechanistic explanation...
October 31, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783704/intuition-and-moral-decision-making-the-effect-of-time-pressure-and-cognitive-load-on-moral-judgment-and-altruistic-behavior
#12
Gustav Tinghög, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Michael Kirchler, Lina Koppel, Daniel Västfjäll
Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking-induced by time pressure and cognitive load-in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778303/will-the-conscious-subconscious-pacing-quagmire-help-elucidate-the-mechanisms-of-self-paced-exercise-new-opportunities-in-dual-process-theory-and-process-tracing-methods
#13
Dominic Micklewright, Sue Kegerreis, John Raglin, Florentina Hettinga
The extent to which athletic pacing decisions are made consciously or subconsciously is a prevailing issue. In this article we discuss why the one-dimensional conscious-subconscious debate that has reigned in the pacing literature has suppressed our understanding of the multidimensional processes that occur in pacing decisions. How do we make our decisions in real-life competitive situations? What information do we use and how do we respond to opponents? These are questions that need to be explored and better understood, using smartly designed experiments...
October 25, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768861/factors-impacting-upon-timely-and-adequate-allocation-of-prehospital-medical-assistance-and-resources-to-cardiac-arrest-patients
#14
Camilla Hardeland, Kjetil Sunde, Helge Ramsdal, Susan R Hebbert, Linda Soilammi, Fredrik Westmark, Fredrik Nordum, Andreas E Hansen, Jon E Steen-Hansen, Theresa M Olasveengen
AIM: Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Mixed-methods design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files...
December 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733693/core-signalling-motif-displaying-multistability-through-multi-state-enzymes
#15
Song Feng, Meritxell Sáez, Carsten Wiuf, Elisenda Feliu, Orkun S Soyer
Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their (re)engineering in synthetic biology. Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee the existence of multiple steady states...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721899/challenges-to-generating-evidence-informed-policy-and-the-role-of-systematic-reviews-and-perceived-conflicts-of-interest
#16
Dorie E Apollonio, Lisa A Bero
BACKGROUND: Multiple efforts to generate evidence-informed policy have attempted to teach policymakers how to understand and apply scientific research findings in their decision-making. These efforts have had limited success, because policymakers generally do not understand scientific methods. OBJECTIVE: We piloted efforts to teach policy intermediaries - specifically consumer advocacy groups - how to understand and apply health research, anticipating that they might offer such evidence to policymakers in more accessible forms...
2016: Journal of Communication in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720028/a-bayesian-micro-simulation-to-evaluate-the-cost-effectiveness-of-interventions-for-mastitis-control-during-the-dry-period-in-uk-dairy-herds
#17
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#18
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677234/-real-change-or-natural-fluctuation
#19
J M Hilderink, R P Koopmans, R J M W Rennenberg, M P van Dieijen-Visser, S J R Meex
When monitoring patients over time, it may be difficult to distinguish 'real changes' from so-called 'natural fluctuations' when interpreting consecutive laboratory results. Consider a patient whose cholesterol level has decreased from a baseline 6.6 mmol/L to 6.1 mmol/L six months after receiving lifestyle advice. How likely is it that this is a 'real change', reflecting a lifestyle change, rather than random fluctuation? Physicians mostly rely on their intuition and clinical experience when interpreting changes in consecutive laboratory results...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676588/risk-assessment-with-actuarial-and-clinical-methods-measurement-and-evidence-based-practice
#20
Natasha S Mendoza, Roderick A Rose, Jennifer M Geiger, Scottye J Cash
Child welfare agencies have adopted assessment tools and instruments to inform the level of risk and guide the agency's level of intervention with the family. Actuarial assessments may be more uniform but inflexible with respect to practice wisdom whereas clinical or consensus-based assessments are more comprehensive and intuitive but lack objectivity. The purpose of the current study is to compare clinical and actuarial methods of risk assessment used by child welfare workers to make decisions about substantiation and services...
September 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
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