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Intuitive decision making

Camilla Hardeland, Kjetil Sunde, Helge Ramsdal, Susan R Hebbert, Linda Soilammi, Fredrik Westmark, Fredrik Nordum, Andreas E Hansen, Jon E Steen-Hansen, Theresa M Olasveengen
AIM: Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Mixed-methods: design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files...
October 18, 2016: Resuscitation
Song Feng, Meritxell Sáez, Carsten Wiuf, Elisenda Feliu, Orkun S Soyer
Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their (re)engineering in synthetic biology. Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee the existence of multiple steady states...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Dorie E Apollonio, Lisa A Bero
BACKGROUND: Multiple efforts to generate evidence-informed policy have attempted to teach policymakers how to understand and apply scientific research findings in their decision-making. These efforts have had limited success, because policymakers generally do not understand scientific methods. OBJECTIVE: We piloted efforts to teach policy intermediaries - specifically consumer advocacy groups - how to understand and apply health research, anticipating that they might offer such evidence to policymakers in more accessible forms...
2016: Journal of Communication in Healthcare
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J M Hilderink, R P Koopmans, R J M W Rennenberg, M P van Dieijen-Visser, S J R Meex
When monitoring patients over time, it may be difficult to distinguish 'real changes' from so-called 'natural fluctuations' when interpreting consecutive laboratory results. Consider a patient whose cholesterol level has decreased from a baseline 6.6 mmol/L to 6.1 mmol/L six months after receiving lifestyle advice. How likely is it that this is a 'real change', reflecting a lifestyle change, rather than random fluctuation? Physicians mostly rely on their intuition and clinical experience when interpreting changes in consecutive laboratory results...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Natasha S Mendoza, Roderick A Rose, Jennifer M Geiger, Scottye J Cash
Child welfare agencies have adopted assessment tools and instruments to inform the level of risk and guide the agency's level of intervention with the family. Actuarial assessments may be more uniform but inflexible with respect to practice wisdom whereas clinical or consensus-based assessments are more comprehensive and intuitive but lack objectivity. The purpose of the current study is to compare clinical and actuarial methods of risk assessment used by child welfare workers to make decisions about substantiation and services...
September 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
R M D Smyth, W Taylor, A E Heazell, C Furber, M Whitworth, T Lavender
BACKGROUND: Worldwide maternal perception of fetal movements has been used for many years to evaluate fetal wellbeing. It is intuitively regarded as an expression of fetal well-being as pregnancies in which women consistently report regular fetal movements have very low morbidity and mortality. Conversely, maternal perception of reduced fetal movements is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to gain insight into pregnant women's and clinicians views and experiences of reduced movements...
September 26, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Marlène Tremblay, Tom Bennett, Dörte Döpfer
Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N M Foley, E P O'Connell, E A Lehane, V Livingstone, B Maher, S Kaimkhani, T Cil, N Relihan, M W Bennett, H P Redmond, M A Corrigan
OBJECTIVES: The information needs of cancer patients are highly variable. Literature suggests an improved ability to modulate personalised stress, increased patient involvement with decision making, greater satisfaction with treatment choices and reduced anxiety levels in cancer patients who have access to information. The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of a mobile information application on anxiety levels of patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An application was developed for use with Apple iPad containing information on basic breast cancer biology, different treatments used and surgical techniques...
September 6, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Laurence D Higgins
Although cost-effectiveness research has assumed a critical role in decision making in medicine, it, by definition, must be derived from solid, germane, reproducible data. The absence of such high-quality data tends to induce compromises in analysis that may degrade a scientific article's seemingly intuitive message.
September 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Wouter van Riel, Jeroen Langeveld, Paulien Herder, François Clemens
Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dongyu Liu, Di Weng, Yuhong Li, Jie Bao, Yu Zheng, Huamin Qu, Yingcai Wu
The problem of formulating solutions immediately and comparing them rapidly for billboard placements has plagued advertising planners for a long time, owing to the lack of efficient tools for in-depth analyses to make informed decisions. In this study, we attempt to employ visual analytics that combines the state-of-the-art mining and visualization techniques to tackle this problem using large-scale GPS trajectory data. In particular, we present SmartAdP, an interactive visual analytics system that deals with the two major challenges including finding good solutions in a huge solution space and comparing the solutions in a visual and intuitive manner...
August 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
G Michael Leffel, Ross A Oakes Mueller, Sandra A Ham, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
THEORY: In the Project on the Good Physician, the authors endeavor to advance medical character education by proposing and testing a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that may be applicable to physician training. This model proposes that the moral intuition to care/harm motivates students to extend care to those in need. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Medical students will report stronger preferences for the intuition to Care/harm over other moral intuitions in clinical decision making...
July 28, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Simon Waskow, Sebastian Markett, Christian Montag, Bernd Weber, Peter Trautner, Volkmar Kramarz, Martin Reuter
Pay-what-you-want (PWYW) is an alternative pricing mechanism for consumer goods. It describes an exchange situation in which the price for a given good is not set by the seller but freely chosen by the buyer. In recent years, many enterprises have made use of PWYW auctions. The somewhat contra-intuitive success of PWYW has sparked a great deal of behavioral work on economical decision making in PWYW contexts in the past. Empirical studies on the neural basis of PWYW decisions, however, are scarce. In the present paper, we present an experimental protocol to study PWYW decision making while simultaneously acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Noa Jacoby, Michal Lavidor, Marius Usher
The parietal cortex has been implicated in a variety of numerosity and numerical cognition tasks and was proposed to encompass dedicated neural populations that are tuned for analogue magnitudes as well as for symbolic numerals. Nonetheless, it remains unknown whether the parietal cortex plays a role in approximate numerical averaging (rapid, yet coarse computation of numbers' mean)-a process that is fundamental to preference formation and decision-making. To causally investigate the role of the parietal cortex in numerical averaging, we have conducted a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) study, in which participants were presented with rapid sequences of numbers and asked to convey their intuitive estimation of each sequence's average...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Andrés Catena, Joop van der Pligt
Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
David B Resnik
One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this paper, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process...
June 13, 2016: Accountability in Research
Femke S Ten Velden, Katie Daughters, Carsten K W De Dreu
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition In intergroup settings, individuals prefer cooperating with their in-group, and sometimes derogate and punish out-groups. Here we replicate earlier work showing that such in-group bounded cooperation is conditioned by oxytocin and extend it by showing that oxytocin-motivated in-group cooperation is intuitive rather than deliberated. Healthy males (N = 65) and females (N = 129) self-administered intranasal placebo or 24 IU oxytocin in a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects design, were assigned to a three-person in-group (that faced a 3-person out-group), and given an endowment from which they could contribute to a within-group pool (benefitting the in-group), and/or to a between-group pool (benefitting the in-group and punishing the out-group)...
June 8, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Daniel Allen
Nurses constantly make choices about the care they give - some decisions are quick and intuitive, others require evidence and analysis.
June 8, 2016: Nursing Standard
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