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Transfusion Transmissible Infections

Calleb George Onyango, Lilian Ogonda, Bernard Guyah, Peter Okoth, Clement Shiluli, Felix Humwa, Vallarie Opollo
OBJECTIVE: Since the implementation of a series of blood donation safety improvements in Kenya, information about seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors especially in high HIV burden regions of Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties remain scanty. A cross-sectional study examining HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C virus sero-markers and associated determinants was conducted among voluntary blood donors. Their demographic characteristics and previous risk exposure were recorded in a pre-donation questionnaire, while blood samples collected were screened for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses by ELISA and RPR (syphilis), then confirmed using CMIA...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Victoria Hall, William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Jonathan Kolsin, Kimberly Landry, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Carolyn V Gould, Stacey W Martin
Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1)...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Daniel Candotti, Syria Laperche
Over the past decades, the risk of HBV transfusion-transmission has been steadily reduced through the recruitment of volunteer donors, the selection of donors based on risk-behavior evaluation, the development of increasingly more sensitive hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) assays, the use of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) screening in some low-endemic countries, and the recent implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT). Despite this accumulation of blood safety measures, the desirable zero risk goal has yet to be achieved...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Hanne Thang Vestergaard, Lene Holm Harritshøj, Sofie Elisabeth Midgley, Henrik Ullum, Peter Kampmann
We describe a rare case of hepatitis A virus (HAV) replication in feces despite presence of hepatitis A antibodies in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient after transfusion with HAV contaminated platelets. The patient has been vaccinated against HAV years before the AML diagnosis. Transient infection and reshedding should thus be considered in antibody-positive hematological patients. Transfusion associated HAV transmission is rare, and little evidence exists on the clinical consequences and possible effect of treatment with immunoglobulin...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Timothy A Kellogg, Andrea A Kim, Anne Mwangi, Mary Mwangi, Joyce Wamicwe, George W Rutherford
Understanding how HIV is acquired can inform interventions to prevent infection. We constructed a risk profile of 10-24 year olds participating in the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey and classified them as perinatally infected if their biological mother was infected with HIV or had died, or if their father was infected with HIV or had died (for those lacking mother's data). The remaining were classified as sexually infected if they had sex, and the remaining as parenterally infected if they had a blood transfusion...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Amin F Majdalawieh, Areej G Mesleh, Omnya M Abdalla, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is an important cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis worldwide. To date, there are eight HEV genotypes that can infect mammals. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect exclusively humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals, mainly pigs and deer. Additionally, two new genotypes (HEV-5 and HEV-6) infect mainly wild boar. Recently, newly discovered genotypes HEV-7 and HEV-8 were found to infect camels and possibly humans. Nevertheless, the epidemiological distribution of HEV-7 is not well established...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Séverine Tasker, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Sándor Belák, Tadeusz Frymus, Diane D Addie, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Katrin Hartmann, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Fulvio Marsilio, Alan D Radford, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Karin Möstl
OVERVIEW: Haemoplasmas are haemotropic bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide range of mammalian species. Infection in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the three main feline haemoplasma species known to infect cats. ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and ' Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' are less pathogenic but can result in disease in immunocompromised cats. Male, non-pedigree cats with outdoor access are more likely to be haemoplasma infected, and ' Candidatus M haemominutum' is more common in older cats...
March 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Alejandro G Schijman
Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people, most of them neglected populations. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite determine that molecular detection methods display different degree of success. Molecular diagnostic tests may be employed during epidemiological surveys of transmission, for early diagnosis of congenital transmission and acute infections due to oral transmission, transfusion or transplantation routes, reactivation due to immunosuppression and monitoring of treatment response in chronically infected patients receiving trypanocidal chemotherapy...
February 21, 2018: Acta Tropica
Angelo Andriulli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Andrea Mariano, Maria Rosa Valvano, Ignazio Grattagliano, Antonio Massimo Ippolito, Adriano Grossi, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Christian Coco, Maurizio Russello, Antonina Smedile, Elisa Petrini, Silvia Martini, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Mario Rizzetto
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Italy are outdated and usually derived from studying residents in small towns. METHODS: To assess prevalence of and risk factors for HCV infection among Italian residents in 5 metropolitan areas, subjects ≥20 years of age were randomly selected from the list of the general practitioners' registers in 2015. Anti-HCV was tested by a salivary test; HCV-RNA, HCV genotypes, and ALT were determined in positive individuals...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Raj K Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Yashpal S Malik, Rubén Bueno-Marí
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jan A Graw, Katja Eymann, Felix Kork, Martin Zoremba, Rene Burchard
BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing demand in health care services plans to substitute selective physician-conducted medical activities have become attractive. Because administration of a blood transfusion is a highly standardized procedure, it might be evaluated if obtaining a patient's consent for a blood transfusion can be delegated to allied healthcare professionals. Physicians and patients perceive risks of transfusions differently. However, it is unknown how allied healthcare professionals perceive risks of transfusion-associated adverse events...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mitchell L Shiffman
The epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) began in the 1960s when transmission was primarily the result of blood transfusions. By 1990, when HCV was identified and a serologic test for screening donated blood was implemented, 123 million persons had already become infected worldwide and HCV was the most common cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and the most common indication for liver transplantation. Approximately 75% of persons with HCV are "baby boomers" born between the years 1945 and 1965...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Elissa K Butler, Jeffrey McCullough
BACKGROUND: Blood safety and transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are a major concern in low-resource areas. Laboratory screening of donors, a key contributor to blood safety, is usually done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, which use expensive reagents and necessitate complex instruments and sophisticated laboratory staff. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are less expensive and easier to perform but have less sensitivity. Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) reduces transfusion transmission of malaria and may be effective in decreasing other TTIs...
February 5, 2018: Transfusion
Satish Ramchandrra Patil, Kailash D Datkhile, M V Ghorpade, Supriya Satish Patil, Satish V Kakade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C is global health problem affecting a significant portion of the world's population. Available data in Western Maharashtra on seroprevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution are very limited. OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence, factors influencing transmission and distribution of genotype of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a hospital-based population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
J Izopet
HEV infections are mainly food- and water-borne but transfusion-transmission has occurred in both developing and developed countries. The infection is usually asymptomatic but it can lead to fulminant hepatitis in patients with underlying liver disease and pregnant women living in developing countries. It also causes chronic hepatitis E, with progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, in approximately 60 % of immunocompromised patients infected with HEV genotype 3. Extra-hepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal manifestations have been reported...
January 29, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Joanne Hewitt, David Harte, Michelle Sutherland, Dawn Croucher, Lindsey Fouche, Peter Flanagan, Deborah Williamson
AIM: Blood transfusion is one route of transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The aim of this study was to assess both the prevalence of HEV antibodies and HEV infection in New Zealand blood donors. METHOD: To determine HEV seroprevalence, donor plasma samples (n=1,013) were tested for HEV antibodies using two commercially available ELISA kits, the Wantai HEV IgG ELISA and the MP Diagnostics HEV ELISA 4.0. To assess the prevalence of HEV infection, pooled plasma samples from individual plasma donors (n=5,000) were tested for HEV RNA using RT-qPCR...
February 2, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Jeanne V Linden, Melissa A Prusinski, Lauren A Crowder, Laura Tonnetti, Susan L Stramer, Debra A Kessler, Jennifer White, Beth Shaz, Danuta Olkowska
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic infection most frequently caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The pathogen is usually tickborne, but may also be transfusion or vertically transmitted. Healthy persons, including blood donors, may be asymptomatic and unaware they are infected. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for symptomatic disease. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All reported community-acquired babesiosis cases in New York from 2004 to 2015 were evaluated, enumerated, and characterized...
January 31, 2018: Transfusion
Graham P Taylor
HTLV infection appears to be more common among renal transplant candidates than in the related general population. HTLV-1-associated diseases may occur in carriers who are transplanted but there is insufficient evidence to confirm whether these occur more frequently as a result of the associated immunosuppression. Consequently, pre-existing HTLV-1 infection should not be considered a contra-indication to transplantation. The risk of transmission of HTLV-1 through solid organ transplantation from a confirmed infected donor is unknown...
January 29, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Said A Al-Busafi, Halima Al-Shuaili, Heba Omar, Haifa Al-Zuhaibi, L Jeyaseelan, Khalid Al-Naamani
Objectives: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding the epidemiology of CHC in Oman. This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of CHC-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: This retrospective descriptive hospital-based study included all CHC-infected patients who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman, between January 2010 and December 2015...
November 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Louise I Ainley, Patricia E Hewitt
A 2014 study by NHS Blood and Transplant indicated that over one quarter of red cells were transfused to patients with haematological conditions. For platelet components, the figure is higher. Certain diagnostic groups, such as haemoglobinopathies, myelodysplastic syndromes and some haemato-oncology patients, receive multiple transfusion episodes, either over long periods, or more intensively over shorter periods. Haematology patients account for the majority of the multi-transfused population. The risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) increases with number of donor exposures, and the consequences of TTI are often more significant in immunosuppressed individuals...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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