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Transfusion Transmissible Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096847/transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-iran-a-narrative-review-article
#1
REVIEW
Ahmad Mardani, Hossein Keshavarz, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah, Mahtab Maghsudlu
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the most important transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) in worldwide after viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The main objective of the present study was to review and evaluate the transmission of malaria via blood transfusion in Iran. METHODS: A literature search was done without time limitation in the electronic databases as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, scientific information database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex and Irandoc...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095288/cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-g-avidity-index-among-blood-donors-in-alexandria-egypt
#2
Aleya Abdel Gawad, Mona Hashish, Amani Abaza, Aisha El-Kayal
BACKGROUND: Transfusion transmitted diseases (TTD) are a major challenge to transfusion services all over the world. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is considered one of the main viruses associated with blood transfusion. As CMV screening is not included in routine screening tests done for donated blood in blood banks in Egypt, the detection of CMV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity needs to be tested for being a useful tool to diagnose recent infection among blood donors. The aim of this work was to study CMV IgG avidity index (AI) among blood donors...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081253/probability-of-transmission-of-malaria-from-mosquito-to-human-is-regulated-by-mosquito-parasite-density-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-vaccinated-hosts
#3
Thomas S Churcher, Robert E Sinden, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Thomas W Rampling, Patrick M Brock, Jamie T Griffin, Leanna M Upton, Sara E Zakutansky, Katarzyna A Sala, Fiona Angrisano, Adrian V S Hill, Andrew M Blagborough
Over a century since Ronald Ross discovered that malaria is caused by the bite of an infectious mosquito it is still unclear how the number of parasites injected influences disease transmission. Currently it is assumed that all mosquitoes with salivary gland sporozoites are equally infectious irrespective of the number of parasites they harbour, though this has never been rigorously tested. Here we analyse >1000 experimental infections of humans and mice and demonstrate a dose-dependency for probability of infection and the length of the host pre-patent period...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032327/emerging-zika-virus-infection-a-rapidly-evolving-situation
#4
Bordi Licia, Avsic-Zupanc Tatjana, Lalle Eleonora, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults...
December 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031550/bug-smash-bug-splash-a-case-report-of-an-unusual-transmission-of-american-trypanosomiasis-with-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#5
Rafael Hernán Navarrete-Sandoval, Maximiliano Servín-Rojas
BACKGROUND Chagas disease is a chronic parasitosis transmitted by the inoculation of infected triatomine feces into wounds or conjunctival sac, transfusion, congenitally, organ transplantation, and ingestion of contaminated food. The disease is classified into an acute and chronic phase; the latter is a life-long infection that can be asymptomatic or progress to cardiac or digestive complications. CASE REPORT We report a case of acute-phase Chagas disease, transmitted by the splash of gut content from an infected triatomine into the conjunctival mucosa...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012709/the-history-and-challenges-of-blood-donor-screening-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Ling Li, Ka Yi Li, Ke Yan, Guojin Ou, Wenhui Li, Jue Wang, Ning Song, Li Tian, Xin Ji, Yongjun Chen, Xiaohua Liang, Zhong Liu, Yanyun Wu
Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing...
November 12, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009328/seroprevalence-and-diagnosis-of-hiv-hbv-hcv-and-syphilis-infections-among-blood-donors
#7
Tadesse Bekele Tafesse, Addis Adera Gebru, Semgne Gobalee, Gosaye Degu Bely, Molla Teferi Belew, Demelash Arso, Belay Ali Ebrahim, Getachew Mekonnon Shebeshi, Yonas Yimam
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors...
December 16, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003548/detection-of-prions-in-blood-from-patients-with-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#8
Luis Concha-Marambio, Sandra Pritzkow, Fabio Moda, Fabrizio Tagliavini, James W Ironside, Paul E Schulz, Claudio Soto
Human prion diseases are infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases. They include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most common form, and variant CJD (vCJD), which is caused by interspecies transmission of prions from cattle infected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Development of a biochemical assay for the sensitive, specific, early, and noninvasive detection of prions (PrP(Sc)) in the blood of patients affected by prion disease is a top medical priority to increase the safety of the blood supply...
December 21, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994528/a-case-of-possible-chagas-transmission-by-blood-transfusion-in-switzerland
#9
Judith Ries, Adriana Komarek, Jochen Gottschalk, Birgit Brand, Lorenz Amsler, Markus Jutzi, Beat M Frey
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease has been reported from endemic countries in Latin America. Switzerland is a non-endemic country but high prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi was found among immigrants. Immigrants may participate in blood donation; therefore, risk-adapted anti-T. cruzi screening for blood donors was implemented in Switzerland in 2013. METHODS: Between January 2013 and July 2015, 1 out of 1,183 at-risk donors, tested at Blood Transfusion Service Zurich, was found anti-T...
November 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966802/zika-virus-a-new-threat-to-human-reproduction
#10
REVIEW
David Baud, Didier Musso, Manon Vouga, Marco P Alves, Nicolas Vulliemoz
Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in a rhesus monkey from the Zika forest of Uganda. Until 2007, only 14 human cases were reported. The first large human outbreak occurred in 2007 (Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) followed by French Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. The virus is mainly transmitted through Aedes mosquito bites, but sexual and post-transfusion transmissions have been reported. Symptoms include low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, and asthenia...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957384/mitigating-the-risk-of-transfusion-transmitted-dengue-in-australia
#11
Kelly Rooks, Clive R Seed, Jesse J Fryk, Catherine A Hyland, Robert J Harley, Jerry A Holmberg, Denese C Marks, Robert L P Flower, Helen M Faddy
Dengue viruses (DENV 1-4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT) cases reported globally. DENV 1-4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935065/high-risk-of-heterosexual-transmission-of-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-in-brazil
#12
Arthur Paiva, Jerusa Smid, Michel E J Haziot, Tatiane Assone, Samara Pinheiro, Luiz A M Fonseca, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, Jorge Casseb
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is transmitted primarily either through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. The current study investigated sexual transmission and compared the HTLV-1 proviral load between seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples by examining both men and women among the index partners without using subjective criteria to establish the direction of sexual transmission. Between January 2013 and May 2015, 178 HTLV-1-positive patients had spouses, 107 of which had tested partners, thus increasing the initial sample size (46 men and 61 women)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917495/usefulness-of-nucleic-acid-testing-to-reduce-risk-of-hepatitis-b-virus-transfusion-transmitted-infection-in-argentina-high-rate-of-recent-infections
#13
Sebastián Blanco, Marcos César Balangero, Mildre Cledy Valle, Oscar Luis Montini, Luis Horacio Carrizo, Sandra Verónica Gallego
BACKGROUND: Results from 10-year experience using nucleic acid test (NAT) screening in a blood bank of Córdoba are presented, showing the first data on prevalence of recent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and occult HBV infections (OBIs) in Argentina. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Molecular screening was performed by COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) test Version 1.5 and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) test Version 2.0 and COBAS TaqScreen MPX and MPX Version 2...
December 4, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902514/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-report-from-northern-spain
#14
Carlos Ordieres, Carmen A Navascués, María L González-Diéguez, Mercedes Rodríguez, Valle Cadahía, María Varela, Luis Rodrigo, Manuel Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection has decreased during the last decades. However, an increasing trend has been reported recently. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a case-control study to analyze changes in its prevalence in 1215 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients, diagnosed consecutively in a tertiary center, between 1983 and 2012. According to the year of diagnosis, patients were distributed into two groups: A [1983-1997 (n=786)] and B [1998-2012 (n=429)]...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902508/cabotegravir-long-acting-injection-protects-macaques-against-intravenous-challenge-with-sivmac251
#15
Chasity D Andrews, Leslie S T Bernard, Amanda Yee Poon, Hiroshi Mohri, Natanya Gettie, William R Spreen, Agegnehu Gettie, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Zhi Hong, David D Ho, Martin Markowitz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long-acting (LA) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous SIV challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. DESIGN: CAB LA is an InSTI formulated as a 200 mg/mL injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent against rectal and vaginal SHIV transmission in macaques...
November 29, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#16
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893347/asymptomatic-infections-in-blood-donors-harbouring-plasmodium-an-invisible-risk-detected-by-molecular-and-serological-tools
#17
Giselle F M C Lima, Maria C Arroyo Sanchez, José E Levi, Mahyumi Fujimori, Luiza Da Cruz Caramelo, Arianni Rondelli Sanchez, Eduardo M Ramos-Sanchez, Juliana Inoue, Maria De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Alfredo Mendrone Junior, Silvia M Di Santi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools...
November 7, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891337/high-seroprevalence-of-dengue-virus-infection-in-blood-donors-from-delhi-a-single-centre-study
#18
Pragya Ranjan, Vidhya Natarajan, Meenu Bajpai, Ekta Gupta
INTRODUCTION: The risk of transfusion transmitted dengue has been increasingly recognized. Blood donors in an endemic area like Delhi may serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of the infection. Moreover, prevalence of infection in them would be representative of the true picture of dengue in a population. AIM: To determine the prevalence of dengue virus infection in blood donors in a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 blood donors were recruited in the study after obtaining informed consent in the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi in July and August 2012...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891232/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-in-blood-donors-of-pakistan
#19
Aisha Arshad, Munira Borhany, Nida Anwar, Imran Naseer, Rehan Ansari, Samson Boota, Naveena Fatima, Mustansir Zaidi, Tahir Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients requiring blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in health care systems with limited resources. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors and to evaluate the demographic characteristics of reactive and non-reactive blood donors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at our institute in Karachi, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887586/hepatitis-e-virus-seroepidemiology-a-post-earthquake-study-among-blood-donors-in-nepal
#20
Ashish C Shrestha, Robert L P Flower, Clive R Seed, Manita Rajkarnikar, Shrawan K Shrestha, Uru Thapa, Veronica C Hoad, Helen M Faddy
BACKGROUND: As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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