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Transfusion Transmissible Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788937/seroprevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-hbv-hcv-syphilis-and-hiv-among-prospective-blood-donors-in-a-tertiary-health-care-facility-in-calabar-nigeria-an-eleven-years-evaluation
#1
Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu, Ifeyinwa Maryann Okafor, Enosakhare Aiyudubie Asemota, Dorathy Chioma Okpokam
BACKGROUND: Provision of constant and safe blood has been a public health challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). This study was aimed at determining the trend and seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV across the years within study among prospective blood donors at blood bank in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donor data from January 2005 to December 2016 was conducted in Blood Bank/Donor Clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria...
May 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783767/direct-detection-of-t-and-b-memory-lymphocytes-by-immunospot%C3%A2-assays-reveals-hcmv-exposure-that-serum-antibodies-fail-to-identify
#2
Fredrik Terlutter, Richard Caspell, Tobias M Nowacki, Alexander Lehmann, Ruliang Li, Ting Zhang, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
It is essential to identify donors who have not been infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in order to avoid transmission of HCMV to recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants. In the present study, we tested the reliability of seronegativity as an indicator for the lack of HCMV exposure in healthy human blood donors. Eighty-two HCMV seronegative individuals were identified, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in ImmunoSpot® assays for the presence of HCMV-specific T- and B-memory lymphocytes...
May 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768691/detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-among-chronic-and-potential-occult-hbv-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#3
Arifa Akram, S M Rashedul Islam, Saif Ullah Munshi, Shahina Tabassum
Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) usually occurs due to the transfusion of blood or blood products from chronic HBV (CHB) or occult HBV infected (OBI) patients. Besides serological tests e.g. HBsAg and anti-HBc (total), detection of HBV-DNA is necessary for the diagnosis of OBI patients. Different nucleic acid tests (NATs) including real-time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) are used for the detect HBV-DNA. The NATs are expensive and require technical expertise which are barriers to introducing them in resource-limited settings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767761/significance-of-hbv-nat-among-hbs-antigen-negative-blood-donors-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Nessrin Ghazi Alabdallat, Abdul Aziz A Bin Dukhyil
Background: Bloodborne hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from asymptomatic donors with acute HBV infections who have undetectable surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg), or from donors with chronic infections in whom serological markers were not detected, could cause residual infections leading to relevant transfusion-transmitted infections (RTTIs). HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) can detect HBV DNA in the HBsAg-negative and total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-negative window period of infection and in chronic cases...
May 15, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765294/which-infectious-blood-donors-could-be-identified-by-the-donor-history-questionnaire-comparison-of-blood-donors-infected-with-hiv-or-hcv-with-notified-cases-from-general-population-in-germany
#5
Karina Preußel, Ruth Offergeld
Background: Potential risks for transfusion-transmissible infections are identified by donor history questionnaires (DHQs), and donors with higher risks are deferred from donation. We assessed to which extent the currently used DHQs support the identification of infections among blood donors. Methods: Between 2006 and 2013, we analyzed data from notified HIV and HCV cases in the general population and positive blood donors in Germany. Logistic regressions were used to identify relevant infection risks...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762364/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-pediatric-population-implications-for-transfusion-transmissible-toxoplasmosis
#6
Nora El-Tantawy, Ahmad Darwish, Eman Eissa
BACKGROUND: Children with β-thalassemia major who regularly receive blood transfusion are at risk of developing transfusion-transmitted infection. Toxoplasmosis is a common and a serious parasitic disease with high prevalence and could be transmitted through blood transfusion from healthy asymptomatic donors. However, screening Toxoplasma gondii before blood donation has not been considered. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies among thalassemia children undergoing blood transfusion...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747680/first-report-of-cytauxzoon-sp-infection-in-domestic-cats-in-switzerland-natural-and-transfusion-transmitted-infections
#7
Alice Nentwig, Marina L Meli, Johanna Schrack, Iris M Reichler, Barbara Riond, Corinne Gloor, Judith Howard, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
BACKGROUND: Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of domestic and wild felids. Cytauxzoon felis induces severe and often fatal disease in domestic cats. In Europe, clinical and subclinical infections caused by Cytauxzoon sp. are described. We report the first cases of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats in Switzerland. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and results of PCR analyses were collected from Cytauxzoon sp. PCR-positive cats and the cats followed for up to 851 days...
May 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742375/investigational-testing-for-zika-virus-among-u-s-blood-donors
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Paula Saá, Melanie Proctor, Gregory Foster, David Krysztof, Colleen Winton, Jeffrey M Linnen, Kui Gao, Jaye P Brodsky, Ronald J Limberger, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Because of the potential severe clinical consequences of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, the large numbers of asymptomatic travelers returning from ZIKV-active areas, the detection of ZIKV nucleic acid in blood, and reports of transmission of ZIKV through transfusion, in 2016 the Food and Drug Administration released recommendations for individual-unit nucleic acid testing to minimize the risk of transmission of ZIKV through blood transfusions. METHODS: The American Red Cross implemented investigational screening of donated blood for ZIKV RNA by means of transcription-mediated amplification (TMA)...
May 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739357/serological-evaluation-for-chagas-disease-in-migrants-from-latin-american-countries-resident-in-rome-italy
#9
Stefania Pane, Maria Letizia Giancola, Pierluca Piselli, Angela Corpolongo, Ernestina Repetto, Rita Bellagamba, Claudia Cimaglia, Stefania Carrara, Piero Ghirga, Alessandra Oliva, Nazario Bevilacqua, Ahmad Al Rousan, Carla Nisii, Giuseppe Ippolito, Emanuele Nicastri
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, whose chronic phase may lead to cardiac and intestinal disorders. Endemic in Latin America where it is transmitted mainly by vectors, large-scale migrations to other countries have turned CD into a global health problem because of its alternative transmission routes through blood transfusion, tissue transplantation, or congenital. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available tests for serological diagnosis of CD in a group of Latin American migrants living in a non-endemic setting (Rome, Italy)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714163/congenital-chagas-disease-in-the-united-states-cost-savings-through-maternal-screening
#10
Eileen Stillwaggon, Victoria Perez-Zetune, Stephanie R Bialek, Susan P Montgomery
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi , is transmitted by insect vectors through transfusions, transplants, insect feces in food, and from mother to child during gestation. Congenital infection could perpetuate Chagas disease indefinitely, even in countries without vector transmission. An estimated 30% of infected persons will develop lifelong, potentially fatal, cardiac or digestive complications. Treatment of infants with benznidazole is highly efficacious in eliminating infection. This work evaluates the costs of maternal screening and infant testing and treatment of Chagas disease in the United States...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698814/ocular-abnormalities-in-congenital-zika-syndrome-are-the-ophthalmoscopic-findings-the-top-of-the-iceberg
#11
REVIEW
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila V Ventura, Bruno de Paula Freitas, Juliana Prazeres, Liana O Ventura, Vasco Bravo-Filho, Tomas Aleman, Albert Icksang Ko, Andréa Zin, Rubens Belfort, Mauricio Maia
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus mainly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes from Aedes genus. Other ways of transmission include the perinatal and sexual routes, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. Although the first human cases were registered in 1952 in African countries, outbreaks were only reported since 2007, when entire Pacific islands were affected. In March 2015, the first cases of ZIKV acute infection were notified in Brazil and, to date, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed local mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698488/hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections-in-the-central-african-republic-twenty-five-years-after-a-fulminant-hepatitis-outbreak-indicate-continuing-spread-in-asymptomatic-young-adults
#12
Narcisse Patrice Komas, Sumantra Ghosh, Mariama Abdou-Chekaraou, Pierre Pradat, Nasser Al Hawajri, Alexandre Manirakiza, Gina Laure Laghoe, Claudine Bekondi, Ségolène Brichler, Jean-Omer Ouavéné, Abdoulaye Sépou, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Valentin Fikouma, Athénais Gerber, Natali Abeywickrama Samarakoon, Dulce Alfaiate, Caroline Scholtès, Nora Martel, Frédéric Le Gal, Hugo Lo Pinto, Ikram Amri, Olivier Hantz, David Durantel, Jean-Louis Lesbordes, Emmanuel Gordien, Philippe Merle, Tudor Drugan, Christian Trépo, Fabien Zoulim, Jean-Claude Cortay, Alan Campbell Kay, Paul Dény
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH) in the Central African Republic (CAR) killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH) outbreak to determine (i) the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii) the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii) to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685393/notification-and-counselling-of-hepatitis-positive-blood-donors-their-immediate-emotional-response-contact-testing-and-their-follow-up-study-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Aseem K Tiwari, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Ravi C Dara, Dinesh Arora, Geet Aggarwal, Richa Bhargava, Kaushal Madan
INTRODUCTION: Post-donation counselling informs donors of unusual test results. Timely notification and counselling regarding their Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) status is necessary for early clinical intervention in the donor and reducing risk of transmission. We share our experience with respect to Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) positive donors who were counselled and followed-up for clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was prospective 2-year study in TTI positive blood donors...
April 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669381/prevalence-of-congenital-cmv-infection-and-antiviral-therapy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-observations-of-the-german-neonatal-network
#14
Alexander Humberg, Viola Leienbach, Mats I Fortmann, Tanja K Rausch, Horst Buxmann, Andreas Müller, Egbert Herting, Christoph Härtel, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of congenital CMV infection (cCMV) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) and to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of VLBWI with antiviral therapy (AT). METHODS: CMV-specific PCR in umbilical cord tissue was performed (n=3330). Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to identify associations with outcome. RESULTS: 22/3330 VLBWI received AT (0.66%). 4 of these (0.12%) were PCR positive, with 2 VLBWI showing pathological screening for hearing loss...
April 18, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668134/-anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-antibodies-in-latin-american-migrants-in-transit-through-the-m%C3%A3-xico-usa-border
#15
Laura Mayela Montes-Rincón, Lucio Galaviz-Silva, Zinnia Judith Molina-Garza
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, American trypanosomiasis has become an emergent public health problem in countries receiving migrant populations such as México, USA, Canada or those in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in Latin American migrants on their way to USA and Canada by means of serological techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ELISA and IHA were performed to detect anti-T. cruzi antibodies...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667206/surveillance-of-donated-blood-during-the-2016-arbovirus-outbreak-in-brazil
#16
Rohit Sharma, Larissa Costa Santos, Robson Amaro da Silva, Caroline Vieira Gonçalves, Stéfano de Melo Calado, Denisar P Santos, Josana Passos de Andrade de Melo, Rita de Cássia Pontello Rampazzo, Luciana Requião, Marco Aurélio Krieger, Manoel Barral-Netto, Camila I de Oliveira
Reports of arboviral transmission via blood transfusion may be a cause of concern among asymptomatic infected donors. This study evaluated the presence of arboviruses in donated blood products during the 2016 outbreak in Vitória da Conquista (Bahia-Brazil). Serum samples (n = 676) were screened for ZIKV, CHIKV and the four DENV serotypes using a one-step reverse transcriptase-based Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). No samples tested positive for any of the targets, whereas positive controls performed as expected...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665324/rapid-amplification-of-prions-from-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid
#17
Marcelo A Barria, Andrew Lee, Alison Je Green, Richard Knight, Mark W Head
Human prion diseases constitute a group of infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with misfolding of the prion protein. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a zoonotic prion disease linked to oral exposure to the infectious agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. The most recent case of definite vCJD was heterozygous (MV) at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene PRNP while all of the previous 177 definite or probable vCJD cases who underwent genetic analysis were methionine homozygous (MM)...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623595/hiding-in-plain-sight-it-s-time-to-investigate-other-possible-transmission-routes-for-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-in-developed-countries
#18
REVIEW
Nicola J King, Joanne Hewitt, Anne-Marie Perchec-Merien
Historically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ("autochthonous") cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus...
April 5, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619435/seroprevalence-and-risk-factor-of-toxoplasmosis-in-schizophrenia-patients-referred-to-grhasia-psychiatric-hospital-yogyakarta-indonesia
#19
Nina Difla Muflikhah, Supargiyono, Wayan Tunas Artama
Background: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii . Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite belong to phylum Apicomplexa, is an obligate parasite in mammals. The active proliferating trophozoites or tachyzoites are usually seen in the acute stage of infection, while the resting bradyzoites formed tissue cysts are primary found in muscle and brain. Human infection occurs mainly by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocyst or eating an undercook meat containing tissue cyst...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606088/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-treponema-pallidum-infections-in-hospitalized-patients-before-transfusion-in-xiangya-hospital-central-south-university-china-from-2011-to-2016
#20
Wei-Wei Cao, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xinghua Ou, Ling-Xi Shi, Chao-Qi Xiao, Ting-Yin Chen, Hua Tan, Xue-Gong Fan, Bi-Juan Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Treponema pallidum (TP) infections are considered classic transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Few data are available about the prevalence of TTIs in patients before blood transfusion in China. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of four TTIs among patients before blood transfusion in Xiangya Hospital Central South University, China. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, 442,121 hospitalized patients before possible blood transfusion were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, syphilis antibody (anti-TP) and anti-HIV...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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