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Transfusion Transmissible Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340908/preparing-the-united-states-for-zika-virus-pre-emptive-vector-control-and-personal-protection
#1
EDITORIAL
James H Diaz
Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. From the South Pacific, Zika invaded Brazil in 2015 and caused another severe neurological complication, fetal microcephaly...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#2
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316432/blood-transfusion-safety-current-status-and-challenges-in-nigeria
#3
REVIEW
John C Aneke, Chide E Okocha
The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303984/silent-killers-transfusion-transmissible-infections-tti-among-asymptomatic-population-of-pakistan
#4
Muhammad Saeed, Shahida Hussain, Farhan Rasheed, Maqsood Ahmad, Mizna Arif, Muhammad Tariq Hamid Rahmani
OBJECTIVE: To analyse transfusion transmissible infections in asymptomatic population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from December 2014 to November 2015, and comprised healthy asymptomatic blood donors.Every sample was screened for the presence of antibodies/antigens of hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, treponemapallidum, hepatitis B virus and malaria parasite through rapid immunochromatographic technique...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295355/frequency-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-parasitemia-among-infected-blood-donors-with-a-potential-association-between-parasite-lineage-and-transfusion-transmission
#5
David A Leiby, Megan L Nguyen, Melanie C Proctor, Rebecca L Townsend, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic to the Americas where it demonstrates multiple lineages over a vast geographic range (i.e., United States to Argentina). These lineages possess divergent geographic and biologic characteristics, including variations in disease manifestations. Herein, we report the frequency of parasitemia among seropositive US blood donors and the potential association between parasite lineage and transfusion transmission. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donors identified as T...
March 14, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292365/serum-neopterin-a-potential-marker-for-screening-blood-donors
#6
Ahsan Ashfaq, Ayesha Ejaz, Ghazanfar Abbas
OBJECTIVE: To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion transmitted infections. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Physiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College (LNHMC) in collaboration with Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI) and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Blood Bank, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015...
January 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287806/trends-in-sero-epidemiology-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-voluntary-blood-donations-in-iran-2008-2013
#7
Maryam Zadsar, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah, Mahboube Rasouli, Gharib Karimi
BACKGROUND: Various strategies are implemented to increase blood safety. However, there is always a small amount of residual risk. The amount of risk is associated with the incidence and prevalence of infection in the community. Since increases in the prevalence and changing the pattern of HIV transmission have been observed in the community, monitoring of HIV prevalence among general population and blood donors is necessary. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV in Iranian blood donations...
March 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263141/use-of-blood-donor-screening-data-to-estimate-zika-virus-incidence-puerto-rico-april-august-2016
#8
Michelle S Chevalier, Brad J Biggerstaff, Sridhar V Basavaraju, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Jose O Alsina, Consuelo Climent-Peris, Robin R Moseley, Koo-Whang Chung, Brenda Rivera-García, Melissa Bello-Pagán, Lisa L Pate, Susan A Galel, Phillip Williamson, Matthew J Kuehnert
Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available...
May 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259182/an-unexpected-diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-2-infection-in-an-overseas-visitor-a-case-report
#9
Asma Sohail, Lyndal Van Leer, Natasha Holmes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection is endemic in West Africa but is also found in parts of Europe, North and South America, and India where it is thought to have been introduced secondary to migration and commercial trade ties. It is less common than Human immunodeficiency virus 1, with differences in pathogenicity, lower rates of transmission, longer asymptomatic period and slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus 2 is also associated with diagnostic challenges given the lack of commercially available diagnostic tests, and management challenges given intrinsic resistance to many anti-retroviral therapies...
March 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249586/serum-lipid-profile-as-a-marker-of-liver-impairment-in-hepatitis-b-cirrhosis-patients
#10
Sadia Qamar Arain, Farah Naz Talpur, Naseem Aslam Channa, Muhammad Shahbaz Ali, Hassan Imran Afridi
BACKGROUND: Chronic HBV infection is a major cause of Cirrhosis and an important risk factor to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. The study is conducted to find out the changes in the lipid metabolism of HBV-cirrhosis patients. METHODS: In the present study, serum lipid profiles of patients with HBV-cirrhosis were assessed by utilizing micro-lab and gas chromatography, while risk factors for transmission of HBV-cirrhosis studied through the standard questionnaire...
March 1, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244600/a-mathematical-model-for-estimating-residual-transmission-risk-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-different-blood-safety-scenarios
#11
Jos Weusten, Harry van Drimmelen, Marion Vermeulen, Nico Lelie
BACKGROUND: If anti-hepatitis B core antibody testing is not mandated blood donors with occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) may transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) to a recipient in spite of the use of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) or pathogen inactivation (PI). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We developed a model to estimate OBI transmission risk based on three components: the probability distribution of the viral load (VL) in a randomly selected OBI donor, the probability that a given VL remains undetected, and the probability that this VL causes infection in the recipient...
February 28, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229475/first-cases-of-zika-virus-infected-us-blood-donors-outside-states-with-areas-of-active-transmission
#12
Phillip C Williamson, Jeffrey M Linnen, Debra A Kessler, Beth H Shaz, Hany Kamel, Ralph R Vassallo, Valerie Winkelman, Kui Gao, Rainer Ziermann, Juscilene Menezes, Stephen Thomas, Jerry A Holmberg, Sonia Bakkour, Mars Stone, Kai Lu, Graham Simmons, Michael P Busch
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and can result in severe congenital and adult neurologic abnormalities. ZIKV has rapidly spread northward through Central America and the Caribbean and autochthonous cases have been identified in the continental United States. High rates of ZIKA RNA positivity were detected in blood donors during previous epidemics. ZIKV transmission by transfused blood from healthy donor components has been a growing concern. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Individual-donation aliquots of plasma from volunteer blood donors were tested individually with an investigational Procleix ZIKV assay...
February 23, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#13
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202065/alternative-transmission-routes-in-the-malaria-elimination-era-an-overview-of-transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-the-americas
#14
Regina M Alho, Kim Vinícius Amaral Machado, Fernando F A Val, Nelson A Fraiji, Marcia A A Alexandre, Gisely C Melo, Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted (TT) malaria is an alternative infection route that has gained little attention from authorities, despite representing a life-threatening condition. There has been no systematic review of this health problem in American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TT malaria in the Americas and identify factors associated with lethality based on the studies published in the literature. METHODS: Potentially relevant papers in all languages were retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS...
February 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196298/human-to-human-transmission-of-brucella-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Felipe F Tuon, Regina B Gondolfo, Natacha Cerchiari
OBJECTIVE: The most common form of transmitting human brucellosis is through contaminated food or direct contact with infected animals. Human-to-human transmission (HHT) has been described as isolated case reports. The aim of this systematic review was to describe all cases of HHT of human brucellosis reported in the medical literature. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases using specific search terms published until March 2016...
February 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194857/hepatitis-e-risks-pigs-or-blood-that-is-the-question
#16
Richard S Tedder, Samreen Ijaz, Alan Kitchen, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Kate I Tettmar, Patricia Hewitt, Nick Andrews
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) Genotype 3 is recognized as a food-borne zoonosis in developed countries where it usually causes a mild self-limited acute hepatitis. It may cause a persistent infection in the immunosuppressed human that can progress to cirrhosis. To protect the patient from transfusion-acquired HEV infection, steps have been taken in the United Kingdom to provide for at-risk patients only components from donors screened for HEV viremia. This strategy does not protect from dietary exposure and calls into question estimation of relative risk between blood transfusion and diet...
February 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194856/the-association-of-elevated-alanine-aminotransferase-levels-with-hepatitis-e-virus-infections-among-blood-donors-in-china
#17
Meiyu Wang, Miao He, Binting Wu, Ling Ke, Tingting Han, Jingxing Wang, Hua Shan, Paul Ness, Nan Guo, Yu Liu, Kenrad E Nelson
BACKGROUND: Transfusion transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging health risk, yet blood donors are rarely screened for this pathogen. Many blood centers instituted screening of blood donors for elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent hepatitis C virus, which has continued in China. We evaluated whether elevated ALT levels were associated with HEV among blood donors in China. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 9069 qualified volunteer blood donors from four blood centers in China...
February 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164314/a-probable-case-of-west-nile-virus-transfusion-transmission
#18
Jamel A Groves, Hedyeh Shafi, Jim H Nomura, Ross M Herron, Devin Baez, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV) infection is infrequent as a result of minipool (MP) and individual-donation (ID) nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood donations. ID-NAT is triggered on the basis of local WNV activity identified by MP-NAT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 78-year-old male patient who was treated for cardiac disease received 14 blood components from 30 donors in August 2016. He was discharged 7 days after aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery, but was re-admitted on Day 12 with symptoms of viral infection, and eventually was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164310/first-zika-positive-donations-in-the-continental-united-states
#19
Susan A Galel, Phillip C Williamson, Michael P Busch, Danielle Stanek, Sonia Bakkour, Mars Stone, Kai Lu, Scott Jones, Susan N Rossmann, Lisa Lee Pate
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas, including parts of the southern United States, and infection can be associated with serious complications, including congenital brain abnormalities. Probable transfusion transmission of ZIKV has been documented in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Preemptive testing of blood donations for ZIKV RNA was implemented in southern US states at risk of local transmission using a test approved under a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational new drug application, cobas Zika...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164306/amustaline-s-303-treatment-inactivates-high-levels-of-zika-virus-in-red-blood-cell-components
#20
Andrew Laughhunn, Felicia Santa Maria, Julien Broult, Marion C Lanteri, Adonis Stassinopoulos, Didier Musso, Maite Aubry
BACKGROUND: The potential for Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion-transmission (TT) has been demonstrated in French Polynesia and Brazil. Pathogen inactivation (PI) of blood products is a proactive strategy to inactivate TT pathogens including arboviruses. Inactivation of West Nile, dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses was previously demonstrated by photochemical treatment with amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination. In this study, we evaluated ZIKV inactivation in red blood cell (RBC) components by a chemical approach that uses amustaline (S-303) and glutathione (GSH)...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
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