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Christian Foth, María Victoria Fernandez Blanco, Paula Bona, Torsten M Scheyer
Melanosuchus niger (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) is one of the six living caimanine species widely distributed throughout the Amazon River basin today. Although there is only one extant species of Melanosuchus, fossil material assigned to this genus, represented by M. fisheri, has been reported from the late Miocene in South America. However, the validity of this taxon has been questioned and a recent investigation indicates that the referred specimen of M. fisheri (MCZ 4336) actually belongs to Globidentosuchus brachyrostris, while those diagnostic characters present in the holotype (MCNC 243) fall into the spectrum of intraspecific variation of M...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
N Anders, A Fernö, O-B Humborstad, S Løkkeborg, G Rieucau, A C Utne-Palm
The present study tested whether the presence of already retained fishes inside baited fish pots acted as a social attraction and affected the entrance probability of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in a fjord in northern Norway. Video analysis revealed that the probability of an entrance initially increased with the presence of low numbers of fishes inside the pot, but subsequently decreased at a critical number of caught fishes. The critical number was dependent on the size of the G. morhua attempting to enter...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Daniel P Drinan, Timothy Loher, Lorenz Hauser
Understanding and identifying the genetic mechanisms responsible for sex-determination are important for species management, particularly in exploited fishes where sex biased harvest could have implications on population dynamics and long-term persistence. The Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) supports important fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. The proportion of each sex in the annual harvest is currently estimated using growth curves, but genetic techniques may provide a more accurate method. We used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify RAD-tags that were linked to genetic sex, based on differentiation (FST) between the sexes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Katrien Vanthomme, Laura Van den Borre, Hadewijch Vandenheede, Paulien Hagedoorn, Sylvie Gadeyne
OBJECTIVE: This study probes into site-specific cancer mortality inequalities by employment and occupational group among Belgians, adjusted for other indicators of socioeconomic (SE) position. DESIGN: This cohort study is based on record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on emigration and mortality for 01/10/2001 to 31/12/2011. SETTING: Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: The study population contains all Belgians within the economically active age (25-65 years) at the census of 1991...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
Kiran Liversage, Kristiina Nurkse, Jonne Kotta, Leili Järv
Spatiotemporal environmental variation affects fish feeding behaviour and capacity for piscivorous control of prey populations, which is important for management when prey include invasive species causing ecosystem impacts. We assessed gut-contents of an important piscivore (European perch Perca fluviatilis) over two years, and analysed variables affecting initiation and amounts of feeding, focusing on an important invasive prey species, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). We show that predation is primarily controlled by variation of physical and habitat characteristics surrounding perch...
November 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Jan Horbowy, Maciej T Tomczak
Biomass reconstructions to pre-assessment periods for commercially important and exploitable fish species are important tools for understanding long-term processes and fluctuation on stock and ecosystem level. For some stocks only fisheries statistics and fishery dependent data are available, for periods before surveys were conducted. The methods for the backward extension of the analytical assessment of biomass for years for which only total catch volumes are available were developed and tested in this paper...
2017: PloS One
Cibele Rodrigues Costa, Monica Ferreira da Costa, Mário Barletta, Luís Henrique Bezerra Alves
Waters entering the small estuaries of the Brazilian north-east originate from drainage basins that cross semi-arid and tropical rainforest areas at various levels of use and conservation. Such rivers are often under heavy demand for water supply and other services, such as effluent dilution. The present study examines four consecutive years (2006-2009) of water quality-monitoring data divided by season (rainy and dry) just before the Goiana River enters its estuary. The environmental variables are largely controlled by rainfall patterns...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jonathan B Butcher, Tan Zi, Michelle Schmidt, Thomas E Johnson, Daniel M Nover, Christopher M Clark
A warming climate increases thermal inputs to lakes with potential implications for water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In a previous study, we used a dynamic water column temperature and mixing simulation model to simulate chronic (7-day average) maximum temperatures under a range of potential future climate projections at selected sites representative of different U.S. regions. Here, to extend results to lakes where dynamic models have not been developed, we apply a novel machine learning approach that uses Gaussian Process regression to describe the model response surface as a function of simplified lake characteristics (depth, surface area, water clarity) and climate forcing (winter and summer air temperatures and potential evapotranspiration)...
2017: PloS One
Rodrigo Oyanedel, Andres Keim, Juan Carlos Castilla, Stefan Gelcich
Illegal fishing poses a major threat for the conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. This study uses the Randomized Response Technique to estimate the proportion of divers, and the quantities extracted of illegal "loco" (Concholepas concholepas), a gastropod managed for the past 17 years through a Territorial User Rights for Fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Results show that illegal fishing is widespread along the TURFs system, with official reported landings accounting for only 14- 30% of the total loco extraction...
November 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata, taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Nicolas Longépé, Guillaume Hajduch, Romy Ardianto, Romain de Joux, Béatrice Nhunfat, Marza I Marzuki, Ronan Fablet, Indra Hermawan, Olivier Germain, Berny A Subki, Riza Farhan, Ahmad Deni Muttaqin, Philippe Gaspar
The Indonesian fisheries management system is now equipped with the state-of-the-art technologies to deter and combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. Since October 2014, non-cooperative fishing vessels can be detected from spaceborne Vessel Detection System (VDS) based on high resolution radar imagery, which directly benefits to coordinated patrol vessels in operation context. This study attempts to monitor the amount of illegal fishing in the Arafura Sea based on this new source of information...
October 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Roxana Sühring, Andy Smith, Heather Emerson, Denise Doran, Phil Mellor, Mark F Kirby, Bernard Christie
The UK Marine Management Organisation (MMO) tasked the Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas) with reviewing the current UK dispersant efficacy testing procedures. The aim was to identify possibilities to increase standardisation, improve health and safety performance and explore harmonisation possibilities with international dispersant efficacy testing procedures. The US EPA 'Baffled Flask Test' (BFT) was adopted, implemented and validated as a new standard method in the UK. The outputs from this study suggest that dispersant efficacy results from the adopted BFT test and the currently used protocol are in a similar range and results presented by the US EPA...
October 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Richard C Ready, Gregory L Poe, T Bruce Lauber, Nancy A Connelly, Richard C Stedman, Lars G Rudstam
Concern over the potential transfer of aquatic nuisance species (ANS) between the Great Lakes basin and the Upper Mississippi River basin has motivated calls to re-establish hydrologic separation between the two basins. Accomplishing that goal would require significant expenditures to re-engineer waterways in the Chicago, IL area. These costs should be compared to the potential costs resulting from ANS transfer between the basin, a significant portion of which would be costs to recreational fisheries. In this study, a recreational behavior model is developed for sport anglers in an eight-state region...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Chien-Hui Yang, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar, Tin-Yam Chan
The commercial deep-sea caridean shrimp Heterocarpus gibbosus Spence Bate, 1888 has long been recorded from India and constitutes an important part of the catches in the context of the further development of deep-sea fisheries in India. A recent survey in some deep-sea fishing ports in southern India, however, revealed that all material previously reported as "H. gibbosus" is actually a misidentification of its closely related species H. chani Li, 2006, which has only recently been reported from India. More detailed comparisons allowed the discovery of more distinctive characters between H...
2017: ZooKeys
Max Troell, Arne Eide, John Isaksen, Øystein Hermansen, Anne-Sophie Crépin
We review current knowledge about climate change impacts on Arctic seafood production. Large-scale changes in the Arctic marine food web can be expected for the next 40-100 years. Possible future trajectories under climate change for Arctic capture fisheries anticipate the movement of aquatic species into new waters and changed the dynamics of existing species. Negative consequences are expected for some fish stocks but others like the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) may instead increase. Arctic aquaculture that constitutes about 2% of global farming is mainly made up of Norwegian salmon (Salmo salar) farming...
October 27, 2017: Ambio
Susan L Williams, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Christine Sur, Jessica M Abbott, Steven R Limbong
Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
John M Fryxell, Ray Hilborn, Carling Bieg, Katrine Turgeon, Amanda Caskenette, Kevin S McCann
There is growing awareness of the need for fishery management policies that are robust to changing environmental, social, and economic pressures. Here we use conventional bioeconomic theory to demonstrate that inherent biological constraints combined with nonlinear supply-demand relationships can generate threshold effects due to harvesting. As a result, increases in overall demand due to human population growth or improvement in real income would be expected to induce critical transitions from high-yield/low-price fisheries to low-yield/high-price fisheries, generating severe strains on social and economic systems as well as compromising resource conservation goals...
October 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stefan Meyer, Bruce C Robertson, B Louise Chilvers, Martin Krkošek
Declines of marine megafauna due to fisheries by-catch are thought to be mitigated by exclusion devices that release nontarget species. However, exclusion devices may instead conceal negative effects associated with by-catch caused by fisheries (i.e., unobserved or discarded by-catch with low postrelease survival or reproduction). We show that the decline of the endangered New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) is linked to latent levels of by-catch occurring in sub-Antarctic trawl fisheries. Exclusion devices have been used since 2001 but have not slowed or reversed population decline...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrew T Fields, Gunter A Fischer, Stanley K H Shea, Huarong Zhang, Debra L Abercrombie, Kevin A Feldheim, Elizabeth A Babcock, Demian D Chapman
The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4,800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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