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Viral Diagnostics

Carlos E Catalano
Viral particles provide an attractive platform for the engineering of semisynthetic therapeutic nanoparticles. They can be modified both genetically and chemically in a defined manner to alter their surface characteristics, for targeting specific cell types, to improve their pharmacokinetic features and to attenuate (or enhance) their antigenicity. These advantages derive from a detailed understanding of virus biology, gleaned from decades of fundamental genetic, biochemical, and structural studies that have provided mechanistic insight into virus assembly pathways...
March 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Ikram Ul-Haq, Alessia Dalla Pria, Elisa Suardi, David J Pinato, Fieke Froeling, John Forni, Paul Randell, Mark Bower
In HIV-seronegative patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia at diagnosis predicts a worse progression-free survival (PFS), independent of the International Prognostic Score. However, its role in HIV-associated HL is uncharacterised. We collected clinico-pathologic and treatment data from a prospective series of 44 HIV-associated HLs from 2000 to 2016. We evaluated circulating EBV DNA as a prognostic factor on uni- and multivariable analyses in relationship to the International Prognostic Index criteria...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Husnain Ahmed, Jody Mays, Matti Kiupel, John R Dunn
A variety of techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek's disease virus (MDV) from those induced by avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). However, most current techniques are unreliable when used in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, which many times is the only sample type available for definitive diagnosis. A collection of tumours was generated by the inoculation of different strains of MDV, REV or ALV singularly or in combination...
March 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Belén Rebollo, Javier Sarraseca, Mª José Rodríguez, Antonio Sanz, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Ángel Venteo
West Nile virus is a globally spread zoonotic arbovirus. The laboratory diagnosis of WNV infection relies on virus identification by RT-PCR or on specific antibody detection by serological tests, such as ELISA or virus-neutralization. These methods usually require a preparation of the whole virus as antigen, entailing biosafety issues and therefore requiring BSL-3 facilities. For this reason, recombinant antigenic structures enabling effective antibody recognition comparable to that of the native virions, would be advantageous as diagnostic reagents...
February 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jan Miechowiecki, Waltraud Stainer, Gertraud Wallner, Herwig Tuppy, Walter Aichinger, Wolfgang Prammer, Andreas Kirchgatterer
INTRODUCTION:  Immunosuppressive therapy is today's standard treatment of patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk for opportunistic infections is increased due to this therapy and is a concern in the management of patient with IBD undergoing such a treatment. CASE REPORT:  In this paper, we describe a case of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 35-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease being in remission while receiving azathioprine therapy...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle mainly caused by viral infection. Due to the diverse clinical presentation of myocarditis, accurate diagnosis demands simultaneous histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular biological workup of endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) as defined by the position statement of the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology on myocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endomyocardial biopsy-based analysis of viral transcriptional activity, mRNA expression, epigenetics and region-specific protein expression analysis via imaging mass spectrometry have led to the identification of novel potential diagnostic criteria, markers with prognostic value and therapeutic targets for the treatment of viral myocarditis, opening new avenues for novel therapies, including cell therapies, as well as the use of established treatment options, be it from other indications...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Lipsa Dash, Saravanan Subramaniam, Sagar A Khulape, Bikash Ranjan Prusty, Kamal Pargai, Shirish D Narnaware, Niteen V Patil, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease of domestic and wildlife species. For effective implementation of FMD control program, there is an imperative need for developing a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostics which help in the identification of serotypes involved in the outbreaks. The humoral immune response of the Camelidae is unique since in these animals 75% of circulating antibodies are constituted by heavy-chain antibodies and 25% are conventional immunoglobulin with two identical heavy chains...
March 12, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Vladimir Alexei Morozov, Sylvie Lagaye
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 3% of the world population is infected with HCV. Thus, HCV infection is considered a public healthy challenge. It is worth mentioning, that the HCV prevalence is dependent on the countries with infection rates around 20% in high endemic countries. The review summarizes recent data on HCV molecular biology, the physiopathology of infection (immune-mediated liver damage, liver fibrosis and lipid metabolism), virus diagnostic and treatment...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Marcel Wiesweg, Henning Reis, Tobias Köster, Moritz Goetz, Karl Worm, Thomas Herold, Andreas Paul, Alexander Dechêne, Brigitte Schumacher, Peter Markus, Isabel Virchow, Karina Kostbade, Nathalie Wolf, Gregor Zaun, Martin Metzenmacher, Kurt W Schmid, Martin Schuler, Stefan Kasper
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of signal transduction pathways plays a critical role in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and directly affects sensitivity to targeted therapies. Against this background we developed a comprehensive biomarker profiling program including markers of downstream signaling to study their association with clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively studied cohort of 160 patients with metastatic CRC was included. Standard diagnostic workup included mutational analyses of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
G Theillet, A Rubens, F Foucault, P Dalbon, C Rozand, I Leparc-Goffart, F Bedin
The incidence of flavivirus infections has increased dramatically in recent decades in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people each year. Dengue viruses are typically transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause a wide range of symptoms from flu-like fever to organ impairment and death. Although conventional diagnostic tests can provide early diagnosis of acute dengue infections, access to these tests is often limited in developing countries. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop affordable, simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools that can be used at 'Point of Care' settings...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Nicolize O'Dell, Luke Arnot, Chris Eric Janisch, Johan Ca Steyl
African horse sickness (AHS) is a fatal vector transmitted viral disease of horses caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). This disease is characterised by circulatory and respiratory failure, resulting from vascular endothelial injury affecting many organs. The susceptibility of dogs to AHS has been demonstrated in the past following experimental infection through consumption of infected horse meat. clinical cases of AHS in dogs (cAHS) have been documented, without a history of ingesting infected horse meat, over a period of 12 years...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Record
Silke Amelung, Maria Hartmann, Ludwig Haas, Lothar Kreienbrock
In Germany, all calves are tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease virus (BVDV) virus since January 1, 2011. The basis for this compulsory investigation is the BVDV Federal Regulation (BVDVV), which demands testing of calves before the age of six months and according to the new regulation of June 2016 within four weeks or before entering another stock. In 2012, a questionnaire was sent to 7250 Lower Saxony cattle farmers to identify potential factors associated with the presence of BVDV...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Dong Ying, Congming Hong, Guiping Wen, Zimin Tang, Siling Wang, Xu Zhang, Chang Liu, Shengxiang Ge, Zizheng Zheng, Ningshao Xia
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-caused acute viral hepatitis is a major threat to public health worldwide. Recently, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit detecting the HEV antigen was reported to have good concordance with the HEV RNA load and showed good clinical performance. But the ELISA kits can barely satisfy the needs of community clinics. In this study, a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for detecting the HEV antigen was developed and evaluated. METHODS: A mouse anti-HEV monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated with fluorescent microbeads was used as capturing antibody and another mouse mAb was used as detection antibody...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Bo Wang, Dominik Harms, C Patrick Papp, Sandra Niendorf, Sonja Jacobsen, Marc Lütgehetmann, Sven Pischke, Heiner Wedermeyer, Jörg Hofmann, C-Thomas Bock
Autochthonous Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infections in industrialized countries are more frequent than previously assumed. HEV-3 is zoonotic and the causal pathogen of chronic hepatitis E. According to the latest classification of the family Hepeviridae , 10 HEV-3 designated subtypes (HEV-3a to HEV-3j) and 7 unassigned HEV-3 subtypes are proposed. In order to identify and characterize HEV-3 variants in circulation, we developed a molecular approach combining a sensitive HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR targeting HEV ORF2/3 region and two newly designed consensus nested RT-PCRs targeting HEV ORF1 and ORF2 genes, respectively...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Wei-Kung Wang, Duane J Gubler
The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) cause one of the most important and rapidly emerging mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans. Of the currently available diagnostic tests for dengue, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is the most sensitive and specific, and so it is commonly used as the gold standard test. However, the requirement of a sophisticated and expensive thermal cycler makes it very difficult to be a point-of-care diagnostic test in resource-limited regions where dengue is endemic...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
F Frenzen
Influenza is an acute viral disease with involvement of the respiratory tract. It can be life-threatening. New types of influenza viruses can spread globally and cause influenza pandemics with exalted case numbers. The knowledge about epidemiology, preventive hygiene and vaccination, diagnostic, therapy and clinics are essential for the general practitioner as well as the specialist. This article gives an overview with focus on seasonal influenza in adults. In addition, molecular pathological characteristics of influenza viruses are explained and current problems in influenza management are named...
March 2018: Pneumologie
N Y Mapoure, M N Budzi, S A F B Eloumou, A Malongue, C Okalla, H N Luma
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern, with a high burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is growing evidence that chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes neurological complications. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and factors associated with neurological manifestations in chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional design, a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from consecutive chronic HCV infected patients attending the outpatient gastroenterology unit of the Douala General Hospital (DGH)...
2018: PloS One
Edyta Zagórowicz, Agnieszka Przybysz, Jakub Szlak, Agnieszka Magdziak, Paulina Wieszczy, Andrzej Mróz
OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) often reactivates in ulcerative colitis (UC). In diagnostics, along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of colonic biopsies, blood CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is gaining increasing application. We aimed to assess agreement between the density of infected colonic cells by IHC and the viral load in the blood by PCR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with active UC or indeterminate colitis in whom blood CMV PCR had been performed while biopsies had been taken simultaneously...
March 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Nischay Mishra, Adrian Caciula, Adam Price, Riddhi Thakkar, James Ng, Lokendra V Chauhan, Komal Jain, Xiaoyu Che, Diego A Espinosa, Magelda Montoya Cruz, Angel Balmaseda, Eric H Sullivan, Jigar J Patel, Richard G Jarman, Jennifer L Rakeman, Christina T Egan, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Eva Harris, Rafal Tokarz, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Definitive diagnosis through detection of viral RNA is possible in serum or plasma within 10 days of disease onset, in whole blood within 3 weeks of onset, and in semen for up to 3 months...
March 6, 2018: MBio
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