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Viral Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526812/soluble-axl-is-an-accurate-biomarker-of-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-results-from-a-large-scale-multicenter-analysis
#1
Mirko Dengler, Katharina Staufer, Heidemarie Huber, Rudolf Stauber, Heike Bantel, Karl Heinz Weiss, Patrick Starlinger, Hannelore Pock, Petra Klöters-Plachky, Daniel N Gotthardt, Peter Rauch, Carolin Lackner, Judith Stift, Christine Brostjan, Thomas Gruenberger, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Toshifumi Tada, Thomas S Weiss, Michael Trauner, Wolfgang Mikulits
Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current diagnostic tools for HCC detection include imaging techniques and serum biomarkers such as α-fetoprotein (AFP). Yet, these methods are limited in sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect early HCC. Here we focused on the potential of soluble Axl (sAxl) as a biomarker in CLD patients by analyzing serum samples of 1067 patients and healthy controls from centers in Europe and Asia. We show that serum concentrations of sAxl were significantly increased at early (82...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523438/reversible-splenial-lesions-presenting-in-conjunction-with-febrile-illness-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#2
David Lin, Matthew Rheinboldt
Transient restricted diffusion and increased T2 signal intensity within the splenium of the corpus callosum is an increasingly recognized albeit uncommon imaging feature in the setting of acute encephalitis and antecedent viral illness. This review will discuss three index cases obtained from an institutional databank. Additionally, the current understanding of the underlying neurophysiologic pathogenesis will be discussed together with differential clinical and imaging diagnostic considerations, treatment options, and outcome metrics...
May 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521717/analysis-of-site-heterogeneity-and-hiv-outcomes-across-rural-and-urban-study-sites-in-phidisa-ii-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-antiretroviral-treatment-trial-in-a-south-african-military-cohort
#3
John Steytler, Pamela A Shaw, Alice K Pau, Paul Khabo, Gyan Joshi, Pieter Oelofse
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials frequently enroll subjects from different study sites. Few such studies provide analysis by individual site. Between 2004-2007, the South African Military Health System (SAMHS) established 6 research sites (3 urban, 3 rural) to build capacity for clinical research and HIV care. We explore differences in clinical, virologic and CD4 outcomes by site in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Phidisa-II is the first randomised controlled trial conducted in the South African military setting, which compared 4 antiretroviral regimens in treatment-naïve advanced HIV subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521211/hepatitis-c-virus-core-antigen-a-simplified-treatment-monitoring-tool-including-for-post-treatment-relapse
#4
François M J Lamoury, Angelica Soker, Danica Martinez, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Philip Cunningham, Philip Bruggmann, Graham R Foster, Olav Dalgard, Markus Backmund, Brian Conway, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Gavin Cloherty, Pip Marks, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Simple, affordable diagnostic tools are essential to facilitate global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination efforts. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical performance of core antigen (HCVcAg) assay from plasma samples to monitor HCV treatment efficacy and HCV viral recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples from a study of response-guided pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for people who inject drugs with chronic HCV genotype 2/3 infection were assessed for HCV RNA (AmpliPrep/COBAS Taqman assay, Roche) and HCVcAg (ARCHITECT HCV Ag, Abbott Diagnostics) during and after therapy...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515761/oligonucleotide-aptamers-potential-novel-molecules-against-viral-hepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Mina Mirian, Hossein Khanahmad, Leila Darzi, Mansour Salehi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi
Viral hepatitis, as an international public health concern, seriously affects communities and health system. In recent years, great strides have been taken for development of new potential tools against viral hepatitis. Among these efforts, a valuable strategy introduced new molecules called "aptamers". Aptamers as potential alternatives for antibodies could be directed against any protein in infected cells and any components of viral particles. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis based on aptamer technology...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515602/respiratory-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-an-important-diagnostic-tool-in-immunocompromised-patients
#6
Amarjeet Kaur, Navin Kumar, Sharmila Sengupta, Yatin Mehta
BACKGROUND: Viruses and atypical pathogens can cause significant respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) has improved the diagnostic yield of pathogens, and it is easier to identify the co-infections also. The present study was done to evaluate the performance of MPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Atotal of 177 BAL specimens collected over a 19 months period from immunocompromised patients with respiratory illness were analyzed with the MPCR and aerobic culture...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513490/coexistence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-associated-with-granulomatous-inflammation
#7
Ruchi Mittal, Praveen K Balne, Srikant Sahu, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#8
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510335/proteoforms-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-as-novel-rejection-biomarkers-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#9
T K Toby, M Abecassis, K Kim, P M Thomas, R T Fellers, R D LeDuc, N L Kelleher, J Demetris, J Levitsky
Biomarker profiles of acute rejection in liver transplant recipients could enhance the diagnosis and management of recipients. Our aim was to identify diagnostic proteoform signatures of acute rejection in circulating immune cells, using an emergent "top down" proteomics methodology. We prepared differentially processed and cryopreserved cell lysates from 26 non-viral liver transplant recipients by molecular weight-based fractionation and analyzed them by mass spectrometry of whole proteins in three steps: 1) Nanocapillary liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry; 2) database searching to identify and characterize intact proteoforms; 3) data processing through a hierarchical linear model matching the study design to quantify proteoform fold changes in patients with rejection vs...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502209/-detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-human-samples-follow-up-studies-during-the-2015-seasonal-period
#10
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Enikő Bán, Eszter Molnár, Zsófia Müller, Márton Orbán, Borbála Kecskés, Emese Henriett Harsányi, Levente Kővágó, Lajos Jobbágy, Zoltán Németh, Zsuzsanna Várnai, Mária Takács
INTRODUCTION: West Nile virus, a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis is responsible for human infections in Hungary. Laboratory diagnosis is based on serological tests, however the application of molecular methods has been appreciated. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate blood, cerebrospinal-fluid and urine samples of acutely ill patients and to follow-up PCR positive cases to ascertain the length of virus excretion. METHOD: Clinical specimens were examined by indirect-immunofluorescent, haemagglutination-inhibition, two PCR tests and Sanger-sequencing...
May 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502057/microrna-125b-in-peripheral-blood-a-potential-biomarker-for-severity-and-prognosis-of-children-with-viral-encephalitis
#11
Qin-Ling Gao, Yun-Xia Ma, Da-Wei Yuan, Qing-Cai Zhang, Jun Zeng, Hao Li
This study aims to evaluate the effect of peripheral blood miR-125b expression on severity and prognosis in children with viral encephalitis (VE). Children with VE (severe and mild groups) were grouped into VE group, and 40 healthy children as control group. Plasma RNA was extracted, and real-time quantitative PCR was conducted to detect miR-125b relative expression. Associations of miR-125b expression with clinical characteristics and prognosis of VE children were analyzed. Area under ROC curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the prognostic value of miR-125b...
May 13, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501626/a-method-for-the-detection-of-virus-infectivity-in-single-cells-and-real-time-towards-an-automated-fluorescence-neutralization-test
#12
Marylene Maistriau, Tea Carletti, Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Luca Braga, Valentina Faoro, Vasileios Vasileiadis, Alessandro Marcello
Virus neutralizing antibodies are critical correlates of protection in vaccine development and are discriminatory in the plaque reduction neutralization test when used for the diagnosis of viral infections. However, neutralization assays are time consuming, labor intensive and highly variable, thus limiting their use. Advances in automated live imaging of cells opened new possibilities for standard virus diagnostic techniques such as neutralization assays. To this end, a reporter cell line based on the translocation of the transcription factor IRF3 in response to infection is proposed...
May 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501474/a-case-of-mumps-related-acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion
#13
Kyoko Hazama, Takashi Shiihara, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Shunji Hasegawa, Yuri Dowa, Mio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a common childhood viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid gland. The prognosis is generally good, although some complications, such as encephalitis (0.1%), exist. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion is the most common type of acute encephalopathy. However, this type of encephalopathy has not been reported in association with mumps infection. PATIENT: A previously healthy 3-year-old Japanese boy had a brief convulsion after fever for 3days, and then had conscious disturbance and parotitis...
May 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500814/fta-cards-facilitate-storage-shipment-and-detection-of-arboviruses-in-infected-aedes-aegypti-collected-in-adult-mosquito-traps
#14
Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Glen R Hewitson, Doris Genge, Peter J Burtonclay, Amanda J De Jong, Alyssa T Pyke, Andrew F van den Hurk
AbstractThe utility of applying infected Aedes aegypti to Flinders Technology Associates (FTA(®)) cards for storage, transport, and detection of dengue, Zika, and Barmah Forest viruses was assessed in laboratory-based experiments. The mosquitoes had been removed from Gravid Aedes Traps maintained under conditions of high temperature and humidity. RNA of all viruses could be detected in infected mosquitoes on FTA cards either individually or in pools with uninfected mosquitoes, and stored for up to 28 days...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499086/a-rapid-diagnostic-assay-for-intact-influenza-virus-using-a-high-affinity-hemagglutinin-binding-protein
#15
Caitlin E Anderson, Carly A Holstein, Eva-Maria Strauch, Steven Bennett, Aaron Chevalier, Jorgen W Nelson, Elain Fu, David Baker, Paul Yager
Influenza is a ubiquitous and recurring infection that results in approximately 500,000 deaths globally each year. Commercially available rapid diagnostic tests are based upon detection of the influenza nucleoprotein, which are limited in that they are unable to differentiate by species and require an additional viral lysis step. Sample pre-processing can be minimized or eliminated by targeting the intact influenza virus, thereby reducing assay complexity and leveraging the large number of hemagglutinin proteins on the surface of each virus...
May 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497710/the-complex-diagnostic-challenge-in-children-with-non-central-nervous-system-cancer-and-cerebellar-mutism
#16
Kathleen Helton, Amy L Patterson, Raja B Khan, Zsila Sadighi
Multiple etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with non-central nervous system cancer and viral infections who develop mutism. Acute cerebellitis, caused by infections or by neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may all cause mutism in such patients. This condition warrants prompt recognition and may require treatment with immunotherapy, as it may be an immune-mediated process...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494352/il-33-protects-murine-viral-fulminant-hepatitis-by-targeting-coagulation-hallmark-protein-fgl2-fibroleukin-expression
#17
Haijing Yu, Yang Liu, Jiaquan Huang, Hongwu Wang, Weiming Yan, Dong Xi, Guanxin Shen, Xiaoping Luo, Qin Ning
Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is characterized by rapid liver failure and high mortality. The pathogenesis of viral FH includes virus-induced immune activation, inflammation, and subsequent hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie FH progression are unclear. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1-related cytokines, considered to be an "alarmin" that participates in various diseases, but its precise role in the coagulation of FH is not very clear. In our study, we found that IL-33 is significantly elevated in mice infected with murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491433/evaluation-of-rapid-diagnostic-test-kits-for-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-using-samples-from-naturally-infected-cats
#18
Jiayou Liu, Thomas O'Connor, Melissa Beall, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Michael Lappin
OBJECTIVES: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis)...
July 2016: JFMS Open Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490584/a-naturally-occurring-recombinant-enterovirus-expresses-a-torovirus-deubiquitinase
#19
Pengcheng Shang, Saurav Misra, Ben Hause, Ying Fang
Enteroviruses are implicated in a wide range of diseases in human and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (species G; EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample of neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic EVG strain (PEV9 UKG/410/73). Remarkably, a 582 nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3C(pro) cleavage sites at 5' - and 3' - ends, was found in the 2C/3A junction region of the viral genome...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487558/full-genetic-characterization-and-epidemiology-of-a-novel-amdoparvovirus-in-striped-skunk-mephitis-mephitis
#20
Marta Canuti, Hillary E Doyle, Ann P Britton, Andrew S Lang
Amdoparvovirus is a newly defined parvoviral genus that contains four species (Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1-4), including the well-known Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Amdoparvoviruses cause an immune-associated and often lethal wasting syndrome in Mustelidae and Caninae hosts. In this study, we molecularly investigated amdoparvoviruses detected in 44 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) found dead in and around Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Some of the animals exhibited pathological changes compatible with amdoparvovirus-associated disease...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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