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Viral Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345964/immune-response-to-dengue-and-zika
#1
Annie Elong Ngono, Sujan Shresta
Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344208/serum-levels-of-anti-sperm-associated-antigen-9-antibody-are-elevated-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Biqiong Ren, Guoying Zou, Fei Xu, Yiran Huang, Guofeng Xu, Junyu He, Yong Li, Haowen Zhu, Ping Yu
At present, there is a high incidence of viral hepatitis and high mortality rates due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. In the current study, the quantification of antibodies against the cancer-testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9), alone and combined with α-fetoprotein (AFP), were evaluated as biomarkers for the diagnosis of HCC. The levels of anti-SPAG9 antibody and AFP were quantified in serum samples from patients with HCC and hepatitis or cirrhosis, as well as healthy volunteers...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343583/structural-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-from-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#3
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339753/efficient-isolation-on-vero-dogslamtag-cells-and-full-genome-characterization-of-dolphin-morbillivirus-dmv-by-next-generation-sequencing
#4
Simone Peletto, Claudio Caruso, Francesco Cerutti, Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Alessandra Pautasso, Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Sandro Mazzariol, Walter Mignone, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Casalone, Pier Luigi Acutis
The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339271/early-increase-in-complement-terminal-pathway-activation-marker-sc5b-9-is-predictive-for-the-development-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Orsolya Horváth, Krisztián Kállay, Dorottya Csuka, Blanka Mező, György Sinkovits, Csaba Kassa, Anita Stréhn, Katalin Csordás, János Sinkó, Zoltán Prohászka, Gergely Kriván
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation- (HSCT-) associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a multifactorial complication, and its prediction is largely unresolved.Our aim was to analyze changes of complement profile after HSCT in order to identify potential markers of TA-TMA development. Thirty- three consecutive pediatric patients (9.6 ± 4.4 years old) were included in this study who underwent allogeneic HSCT due to malignant (n=17) or non malignant (n=16) indications. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) was diagnosed using Glucksberg criteria, viral reactivation was monitored, five different TA-TMA diagnostic criteria were applied and all important clinical and laboratory parameters of TA-TMA activity were registered...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337622/isolation-of-avipoxvirus-from-tongue-of-canaries-serinus-canaria-show-severe-localized-proliferative-glossitis
#6
Salvatore Catania, Silvia Carnaccini, Marta Mainenti, Maria Luisa Moronato, Federica Gobbo, Terregino Calogero
Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. The two breeder flocks had both attended the same bird exposition held at the beginning of October and started experiencing an onset of high mortality 3 wk after the show...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334981/production-of-highly-and-broad-range-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-of-h5-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-and-their-differentiation-by-mass-spectrometry
#7
Violetta Sączyńska, Anna Bierczyńska-Krzysik, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Piotr Baran, Anna Porębska, Katarzyna Florys, Marcin Zieliński, Grażyna Płucienniczak
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype, such as the H5N1 viral strains or the novel H5N8 and H5N2 reassortants, are of both veterinary and public health concern worldwide. To combat these viruses, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against H5 hemagglutinin (HA) play a significant role. These mAbs are effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents and powerful tools in vaccine development and basic scientific research. The aim of this study was to obtain diagnostically valuable mAbs with broad strain specificity against H5-subtype AIVs...
January 15, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#8
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331589/the-iridocorneal-endothelial-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Luis Silva, Ahmad Najafi, Yanin Suwan, Chaiwat Teekhasaenee, Robert Ritch
The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE) represents a unique group of ocular pathologies (Chandler syndrome, progressive iris atrophy, and Cogan-Reese syndrome) characterized by the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells that migrate toward the iridocorneal angle and iris surface causing, to a degree varying according to the subtype, corneal edema and decompensation, and secondary glaucoma, whether by obstructing the angle or producing peripheral anterior synechiae by contraction of the basement membrane of the migrating cells over the surface of the iris...
January 10, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328964/a-european-multicenter-study-on-the-analytical-performance-of-the-veris-hbv-assay
#11
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jacques Izopet, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Maria Angeles Marcos, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B viral load monitoring is an essential part of managing patients with chronic Hepatits B infection. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay for use on the fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the VERIS HBV Assay at multiple European virology laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Precision, analytical sensitivity, negative sample performance, linearity and performance with major HBV genotypes/subtypes for the VERIS HBV Assay was evaluated...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328473/detection-of-high-grade-neoplasia-in-air-dried-cervical-pap-smears-by-a-microrna-based-classifier
#12
Mikhail K Ivanov, Sergei E Titov, Sergei A Glushkov, Victoria V Dzyubenko, Anastasia V Malek, Polina A Arkhangelskaya, Roman B Samsonov, Andrey A Mikhetko, Elena V Bakhidze, Igor V Berlev, Nikolay N Kolesnikov
Recent studies have shown that changes in the expression levels of certain microRNAs correlate with the degree of severity of cervical lesions. The aim of the present study was to develop a microRNA-based classifier for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN ≥2) in cytological samples from patients with different high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral loads. For this purpose, raw RT-qPCR data for 25 candidate microRNAs, U6 snRNA and human DNA in air-dried PAP smears from 174 women with different cervical cytological diagnoses, 144 of which were HR-HPV-positive [40 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 34 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (L-SIL), 57 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (H-SIL), 43 invasive cancers], were statistically processed...
January 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327521/cerebrospinal-fluid-a-clinicopathologic-analysis
#13
Asha Shenoy, Heena Desai, Aparna Mandvekar
Context and Objective: This study aims to emphasize the importance of an appropriate CSF examination in patients of suspected CNS disease and the necessity of correlating it with the clinico-radiologic findings which will help in early diagnosis of CNS diseases and guide the further management of the disease. Design: In this 2 year study, 215 CSF samples from patients with clinically suspected diseases of the CNS were studied. The CSF samples were analyzed for gross examination, protein, sugar, adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, microscopic examination and microbiologic examination...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318378/mac-2-binding-protein-glycan-isomer-m2bpgi-is-a-new-serum-biomarker-for-assessing-liver-fibrosis-more-than-a-biomarker-of-liver-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Ken Shirabe, Yuki Bekki, Dolgormaa Gantumur, Kenichiro Araki, Norihiro Ishii, Atsushi Kuno, Hisashi Narimatsu, Masashi Mizokami
Assessing liver fibrosis is important for predicting the efficacy of antiviral therapy and patient prognosis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing liver fibrosis, despite its invasiveness and problematic diagnostic accuracy. Although noninvasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis are becoming important, reliable serum surrogate markers are not available. A glycoproteomics study aimed at identifying such markers discovered Mac 2-Binding Protein Gylcan Isomer (M2BPGi), which is a reliable marker for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis and other fibrotic liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis, biliary atresia, autoimmune hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316958/molecular-subtyping-of-european-swine-influenza-viruses-and-scaling-to-high-throughput-analysis
#15
Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Cédric Woudstra, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Timm C Harder, Patrick Fach, Séverine Hervé, Gaëlle Simon
BACKGROUND: Swine influenza is a respiratory infection of pigs that may have a significant economic impact in affected herds and pose a threat to the human population since swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are zoonotic pathogens. Due to the increasing genetic diversity of swIAVs and because novel reassortants or variants may become enzootic or have zoonotic implications, surveillance is strongly encouraged. Therefore, diagnostic tests and advanced technologies able to identify the circulating strains rapidly are critically important...
January 10, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312716/new-insights-into-stage-and-prognosis-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-analysis-of-968-cases
#16
Charles Dayen, Didier Debieuvre, Olivier Molinier, Olivier Raffy, Fabrice Paganin, Jérôme Virally, Sébastien Larive, Béatrice Desurmont-Salasc, Marielle Perrichon, Francis Martin, Michel Grivaux
Background: The French College of General Hospital Respiratory Physicians conducted two studies that consecutively included all patients followed in participating general hospitals for primary small cell (SCLC) or non-small cell (NSCLC) lung cancer diagnosed in 2000 and 2010. These studies allow descriptive statistics and outcome assessment for SCLC and NSCLC separately and comparison over a 10-year period. Methods: A standardised form was completed for each patient at inclusion...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306770/development-of-a-new-enzyme-immunoassay-for-improved-detection-of-rotavirus-in-fecal-specimens-of-vaccinated-infants
#17
Houping Wang, Merry Liu, Ken Sugata, Yuhuan Wang, Jennifer Hull, Kimberly Foytich, Baoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. A simple and rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been commonly used to detect rotavirus infection and evaluate rotavirus vaccines. Currently licensed commercial EIA kits have low sensitivity. A more sensitive detection of rotavirus can improve rotavirus diagnostics and vaccine efficacy studies. OBJECTIVE: A biotin-avidin based sandwich EIA was developed and compared with commercial EIA kits for improved detection of viral shedding in fecal samples from infants who received human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix in Mexico...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305549/the-drift-in-molecular-testing-for-influenza-mutations-affecting-assay-performance
#18
Kathleen A Stellrecht
Influenza is associated with rapid evolution due to lack of RNA polymerase proofreading, immunogenic selection and frequent rearrangement of gene segments. Evolutionary changes affecting the performance of diagnostic testing have long been recognized. Hence, it is not surprising that such challenges apply to nucleic acid amplification tests, even though they are designed to target highly conserved regions. Initially, case reports involved single isolates of A(H1N1)pdm09. Over the past four years, subtype H3N2 viruses evolved to viral clades with mutations in the WHO recommended target region, such that almost all isolates worldwide have significantly reduced sensitivities with many commercial PCR tests...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302515/chasing-viruses-feverishly
#19
Chandrakant Lahariya
A number of viral diseases have emerged and re-emerged in India and globally, in the last few years. Effective prevention and control of these diseases require, in addition to a functioning disease surveillance system, interventions both before and after disease occurrence, and a combination of personal and population services. However, the current efforts to control emerging viral diseases in India has major therapeutic focus (and attention on diagnostic and curative services) and there is limited attention on preventive and promotive components...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300893/virus-and-antibody-dynamics-in-travelers-with-acute-zika-virus-infection
#20
Luisa Barzon, Elena Percivalle, Monia Pacenti, Francesca Rovida, Maurizio Zavattoni, Paola Del Bravo, Anna Maria Cattelan, Giorgio Palù, Fausto Baldanti
Background: To improve our understanding of the natural history of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in humans, we described the dynamics of ZIKV RNA shedding in different body fluids and antibody responses in patients with acute infection. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with travel-associated infection and 1 case of sexual transmission were enrolled and followed up with weekly ZIKV RNA testing in blood, urine, saliva, and semen samples and antibody testing. Results: ZIKV RNA was detected in plasma, urine, and saliva of 57%, 93...
December 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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