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Viral Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166266/application-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assays-for-the-detection-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1
#1
W Socha, J Rola, R Urban-Chmiel, J F Żmudziński
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), a causative agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), is responsible for high economic losses in cattle farming industry. The use of testing methods that allow early detection of BoHV-1-infected animals is a key element of each program of IBR eradication. The aim of the study was to design and evaluate two variants of LAMP isothermal tests with SYBR Green fluorescence probes, specific to the genes encoding gD and gE glycoproteins of BoHV-1. LAMP gE BoHV-1 assay was able to distinguish between gE- and gE+ strains of the virus...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165231/sequence-optimized-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#2
Jeffrey W Koehler, Korey L Delp, Adrienne T Hall, Scott P Olschner, Brian J Kearney, Aura R Garrison, Louis A Altamura, Cynthia A Rossi, Timothy D Minogue
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae. Infection can result in general myalgia, fever, and headache with some patients developing hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 30%. CCHFV has a wide geographic range that includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe with nucleotide sequence variation approaching 20% across the three negative-sense RNA genome segments. While phylogenetic clustering generally aligns with geographic origin of individual strains, distribution can be wide due to tick/CCHFV dispersion via migrating birds...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164007/adult-onset-still-s-disease-is-this-truly-a-diagnosis-of-exclusion
#3
Caleb W Anderson, Phalgoon A Shah, Jefferson R Roberts
Adult-onset Still's Disease is a rare, idiopathic, inflammatory disorder characterized by arthralgia, evanescent, salmon-colored rash, and daily fevers as well as lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, myalgias, and serositis. The inciting etiology of this syndrome is unknown, though it has been hypothesized that infection triggers an autoimmune response. The Yamaguchi Criteria, the most sensitive and widely used diagnostic criteria, requires both a minimum set of criteria to be met as well other potential etiologies to be excluded...
November 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163998/multifocal-pulmonary-granular-cell-tumor-presenting-with-postobstructive-pneumonia
#4
Samid M Farooqui, Muhammad S Khan, Laura Adhikari, Viral Doshi
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm of Schwann cell origin. Its presence in the aerodigestive tract is uncommon and becomes a diagnostic challenge on initial presentation. Our case is of a 59-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a history of productive cough and dyspnea associated with fever and chest pain. An initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed a right middle lobe consolidation with follow-up Computed Tomography (CT) scan showing a mass in the right bronchus. Bronchoscopy revealed a polypoid, sessile granular mass in the right bronchus intermedius with multiple white lesions in trachea, left main bronchus, and right upper bronchi...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163915/field-deployable-quantitative-rapid-identification-of-active-ebola-virus-infection-in-unprocessed-blood
#5
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163643/persistent-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-infection-in-cattle-herds
#6
REVIEW
A Khodakaram-Tafti, G H Farjanikish
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a significant pathogen associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of cattle worldwide. It causes continuous economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to decreased reproductive performance. The ability of virus to cross the placenta during early pregnancy can result in the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Persistently infected animals are generally much more efficient transmitters of BVDV than transiently or acutely infected animals because they are capable of shedding large quantities of virus throughout their lives and are considered the primary reservoirs for BVDV...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163434/neglected-australian-arboviruses-and-undifferentiated-febrile-illness-addressing-public-health-challenges-arising-from-the-developing-northern-australia-government-policy
#7
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, John G Aaskov, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161110/biotechnological-applications-of-an-insect-specific-alphavirus
#8
Jesse H Erasmus, Scott C Weaver
The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process...
November 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158182/confirmation-of-specificity-of-reactivity-in-a-solid-phase-elisa-for-the-detection-of-hepatitis-e-viral-antigen-improves-utility-of-the-assay
#9
M J Ankcorn, S Ijaz, B Haywood, J Neuberger, A M ElSharkawy, J Maggs, R S Tedder
Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to persistent infections in immunocompromised hosts. A recently available commercial assay for the detection of HEV antigen (HEV-Ag ELISA, Wantai diagnostics) may enable the study of HEV-Ag dynamics in such persistent infections, however currently there is no confirmatory test available. We generated a putative neutralising reagent from a pool of four convalescent blood donor samples and explored neutralising activity against HEV antigens from clinical samples, HEV tissue-culture and virus-like particles...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155823/development-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-multiplexed-amplification-and-next-generation-sequencing-method-for-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-diagnostics
#10
Annika Brinkmann, Koray Ergünay, Aleksandar Radonić, Zeliha Kocak Tufan, Cristina Domingo, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics. METHODOLOGY: An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#11
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150462/comprehensive-analysis-of-vitreous-specimens-for-uveitis-classification-a-prospective-multicentre-observational-study
#12
Kazuichi Maruyama, Tohru Inaba, Sunao Sugita, Ryo Ichinohasama, Kenji Nagata, Shigeru Kinoshita, Manabu Mochizuki, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of vitreous biomarkers in patients with uveitis. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, observational study. SETTING: Uveitis outpatient clinics of two academic medical centres in Japan. PATIENT POPULATION: This study included 234 eyes of 191 patients with various uveitis aetiologies: definitive sarcoidosis (61 eyes of 46 patients), suspected sarcoidosis (60 eyes of 45 patients), intraocular tumour (34 eyes of 27 patients), viral infection (20 eyes of 18 patients), non-sarcoidosis (16 eyes of 16 patients) and unknown aetiology (43 eyes of 39 patients)...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#13
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#14
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143897/anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-testing-ihc-vs-fish-vs-ngs
#15
REVIEW
Xiaomin Niu, Jody C Chuang, Gerald J Berry, Heather A Wakelee
Personalized targeted therapy has emerged as a promising strategy in lung cancer treatment, with current attention focused on elucidation and detection of oncogenic drivers responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance and development of drug resistance. In lung cancer, several oncogenic drivers have been reported, triggering the application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to target these dysfunctional genes. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is responsible for about 4-7% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and perhaps as high as a third in specific patient populations such as younger, male, non-smokers with advanced stage, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) wild type, and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143672/diagnostic-accuracy-of-serological-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-and-b-using-dried-blood-spot-samples-dbs-two-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#17
Berit Lange, Jennifer Cohn, Teri Roberts, Johannes Camp, Jeanne Chauffour, Nina Gummadi, Azumi Ishizaki, Anupriya Nagarathnam, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe van de Perre, Christine Pichler, Philippa Easterbrook, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143611/one-or-two-serological-assay-testing-strategy-for-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-infection-the-use-of-predictive-modelling
#19
John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143145/duration-of-viral-shedding-and-factors-associated-with-prolonged-shedding-among-inpatients-with-influenza-treated-with-oseltamivir-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
J Khoury, M Szwarcwort, Z Kra-Oz, M Saffuri, K Seh, T Yahalomi, E Braun, Z S Azzam, M Paul, A Neuberger
The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of decline in the diagnostic yield of influenza PCR assay after oseltamivir administration, and to identify risk factors for prolonged shedding. This was a prospective observational study. We included adult inpatients with clinical signs of influenza during the influenza seasons 2015 and 2016, who had positive influenza PCR tests and who were treated with oseltamivir. Clinical follow-up and repeat PCR testing were performed on days 2, 4 and 6 after the first positive test...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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