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Trans fats

Nina Zupanič, Maša Hribar, Urška Pivk Kupirovič, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Consumption of industrially produced trans -fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J P M Eussen, Simone J S Sep, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ilja C W Arts, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin resistance. In the etiology of T2DM, BCF basically determines whether a person with a certain degree of insulin resistance develops T2DM, as β-cells are able to compensatorily increase insulin secretion. The effects of dietary intake on BCF are largely unknown. Our study aim was to investigate whether dietary macronutrient intake predicts BCF. METHODS: Prospective data (median follow-up 7 years) of 303 individuals recruited from the CODAM study population (aged 40-70 years, 39% women) were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
T Y Zhang, J T Huang, H B Tian, Y Ma, Z Chen, J J Wang, H P Shi, J Luo
The trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is a biohydrogenation intermediate in the rumen and has been shown to cause milk fat depression in dairy goats. However, few studies have focused on the in vitro molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the goat mammary gland to t10c12-CLA. In the present study, RNA sequencing technology was used to investigate the effects of t10c12-CLA on goat mammary epithelial cells. From the data, 25,153 annotated transcripts were obtained, and differentially expressed genes were selected based on a false discovery rate <0...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M T Harper, A Melgar, J Oh, K Nedelkov, G Sanchez, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shengxin Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Ivonne Sluijs
PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jiaxin Chen, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Wenyi Dong
Utilization of microbial oil for biodiesel production has gained growing interest due to the increase in prices and the shortage of the oils and fats traditionally used in biodiesel production. However, it is still in the laboratory study stage due to the high cost of production. Employing organic wastes as raw materials to grow heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms for further lipid production to produce biodiesel has been predicted to be a promising method for reducing costs. However, there are many obstacles including the low biodegradability of organic wastes, low lipid accumulation capacity of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms while using organic wastes, a great dependence on a high-energy consumption approach for biomass harvesting, utilization of toxic organic solvents for lipid extraction, and large amount of methanol required in trans-esterification and in-situ trans-esterifications...
March 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail, Siti Khuzaimah Maarof, Syazwani Siedar Ali, Azizan Ali
BACKGROUND: The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language...
2018: PloS One
Yan Wu, Xiaobian Wang, Qing Zhou, Yi Wang, Jiali Zhou, Qiaoling Jiang, Yuan Wang, Huaqing Zhu
The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effects and possible mechanisms of all‑trans‑retinoic acid (ATRA) against atherosclerosis (AS). Rabbits were randomly allocated for standard or high‑fat diet with or without ATRA. After 12 weeks, the aortic rings of the rabbits were removed. Endothelium‑dependent relaxation (EDR) induced by acetylcholine and non‑endothelium‑dependent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside in the thoracic aorta were evaluated. NO level and eNOS activity were measured according to the protocol of NO and eNOS ELISA kits...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Karina Martins Barbosa, Lisandro Pavie Cardoso, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro, Theo Guenter Kieckbusch, Monise Helen Masuchi Buscato
Several scientific investigations have focused on providing new strategies for supporting the development of low saturated and zero trans lipid materials, as healthier fat alternatives for food application. This work evaluated the consistency, crystallization behavior, microstructure and polymorphism of six blends composed of palm and canola oils at different concentrations (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100, in w/w%) added with 5.0% of fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO) or with a mixture of 2.5% of FHPO and 2...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tatiana Andreyeva, Erica L Kenney, Meghan O'Connell, Xiaohan Sun, Kathryn E Henderson
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the dietary quality of lunches and feeding practices (family-style service, teacher role modeling) in Connecticut child care centers and made comparisons by center participation in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). DESIGN: Plate waste methods and visual observation of lunches served and consumed. SETTING: A total of 97 randomly selected licensed Connecticut child care centers (53 CACFP and 44 non-CACFP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
M Tran, R Roberts, T L Felix, F M Harte
The processing of milk using high-pressure technologies has been shown to dissociate casein micelles, denature whey proteins, and change the appearance and rheological properties of milk. A novel high-pressure processing technology called high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing is currently being investigated for use in the food industry. Few studies have evaluated the effects of HPJ technology on dairy foods. The present study investigated the physicochemical and foaming properties of homogenized pasteurized whole milk processed at pressures from 0 to 500 MPa using HPJ processing...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Juhee Lee, Roberta Claro da Silva, Veronique Gibon, Silvana Martini
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supercooling and degree of saturation on lipid sonocrystallization under similar driving force of crystallization. Samples consisting of 100%, 50%, and 20% interesterified soybean oil (IESBO) diluted in high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO) were crystallized with and without high-intensity ultrasound (HIU). Two power levels were used by changing the amplitude of vibration of the tip (24 μm and 108 μm of tip amplitude). HIU operating at a frequency of 20 kHz was applied for 10 s...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Irene Di Lecce, Chiara Bazzocchi, Jacopo G Cecere, Sara Epis, Davide Sassera, Barbara M Villani, Gaia Bazzi, Agata Negri, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Claudio Bandi, Diego Rubolini
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and frequently parasitize avian species that can carry them across continents during their long-distance migrations. Ticks may have detrimental effects on the health state of their avian hosts, which can be either directly caused by blood-draining or mediated by microbial pathogens transmitted during the blood meal. Indeed, ticks host complex microbial communities, including bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Midichloria bacteria (Rickettsiales) are widespread tick endosymbionts that can be transmitted to vertebrate hosts during the tick bite, inducing an antibody response...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Giovanna Calixto Andrade, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Catarina Machado Azeredo, Camila Zancheta Ricardo, Ana Paula Bortolleto Martins, Renata Bertazzi Levy
Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008-2009, conducted with 34,003 individuals aged 10 and up. We used factor analysis by principal component to identify out-of-home eating patterns and linear regression to explore the association between patterns scores and dietary quality. We identified three food patterns...
February 16, 2018: Nutrients
Cynthia Lebeaupin, Déborah Vallée, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Patouraux, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Gilbert Adam, Frederic Luciano, Carmelo Luci, Rodolphe Anty, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Marchetti, Guido Kroemer, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent metabolic dysfunction, inflammation and cell death underlie the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a negative regulator of the ER stress sensor IRE1α, has yet to be explored in NAFLD as a hepatoprotective agent. We hypothesized that the genetic ablation of BI-1 would render the liver vulnerable to NASH due to unrestrained IRE1α signaling...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Kamila Ferreira Chaves, Daniel Barrera-Arellano, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro
Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population...
March 2018: Food Research International
M M McCarthy, T R Overton, G D Mechor, D E Bauman, T C Jenkins, D V Nydam
Fat is the most variable milk component, and maintaining milk fat continues to be a challenge on commercial dairy farms. Our objectives were to establish associations between herd-level risk factors for milk fat depression and bulk tank milk fat content in commercial dairy herds feeding monensin. Seventy-nine Holstein commercial dairy herds in the northeast and upper Midwestern United States were enrolled in an observational study. Data were collected on herd characteristics, total mixed ration (TMR) samples, all component silage samples, and bulk tank milk samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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