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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773233/replace-a-roadmap-to-make-the-world-trans-fat-free-by-2023
#1
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Thomas R Frieden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772023/prepartum-supplementation-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-cla-increased-milk-energy-output-and-decreased-serum-fatty-acids-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-early-lactation-dairy-cows
#2
Rafael Caputo Oliveira, Ryan S Pralle, Lucas C de Resende, Carlos Henrique P C Nova, Valentina Caprarulo, Joshua A Jendza, Arnulf Troescher, Heather M White
Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764815/eliminate-toxic-trans-fats-from-food-by-2023-who-urges
#3
Jacqui Thornton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751436/prenatal-dioxin-exposure-estimated-from-dioxins-in-breast-milk-and-sex-hormone-levels-in-umbilical-cord-blood-in-vietnamese-newborn-infants
#4
Hitomi Boda, Tran Ngoc Nghi, Muneko Nishijo, Pham Ngoc Thao, Pham The Tai, Hoang Van Luong, Tran Hai Anh, Yuko Morikawa, Yoshikazu Nishino, Hisao Nishijo
Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and humans residing near the former US Air Force base in Bien Hoa city, South Vietnam. We recruited 210 mother-infant pairs for whom breast milk dioxin levels were reported in our previous study. Cord blood samples were collected from 162 mother-infant pairs. We selected 16 cord blood samples with a volume over 20mL and fat content of ≥0.03g. Toxic equivalent levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (TEQ-PCDD/Fs) and concentrations of 17 congeners, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), in cord blood were measured and compared with levels in breast milk (Study 1)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750886/co-administration-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-rosiglitazone-increases-atherogenic-co-efficicient-and-alters-isoprenaline-induced-vasodilatation-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet
#5
B K Chai, Y S Lau, B J Loong, M M Rais, K N Ting, D M Dharmani, M S Kumar
The cis(c)-9, trans(t)-11 (c9,t11) and t10,c12 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have been reported as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and beneficial in lipidemia and glycaemia. However, it is unclear whether CLA isomers enhance or antagonize effects of conventional drugs targeting PPAR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and treated without or with CLA, rosiglitazone or both for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and surrogate markers of insulin resistance were not significantly different for all treatments compared to untreated normal diet (ND) or HFD group, except lipoprotein levels...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747473/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-with-photodiode-array-detection-in-the-determination-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-hemp-seed-oil-and-waste-fish-oil
#6
Katarzyna Tyśkiewicz, Roman Gieysztor, Izabela Maziarczyk, Paweł Hodurek, Edward Rój, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak
In the presented study for the first time a new, optimized, fast SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) method was applied to separate in one run fat-soluble vitamins from waste fish oil, including cis -and tran s-retinyl palmitate, cis - and trans -retinyl acetate, retinol, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ‑tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol (D₂), cholecalciferol (D₃), cis - and trans -phylloquinone (K₁) and menaquinone-4 (K₂-MK4). Vitamins were baseline separated on an Acquity UPC² (ultra performance convergence chromatography) HSS C18 SB (highly strength chemically modified silica) column within 13 min...
May 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734711/the-role-of-lipids-in-human-milk-and-infant-formulae
#7
Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Valentina De Cosmi, Silvia Bettocchi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Marco Silano, Carlo Agostoni
The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease) or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g., atopy). The lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the different fat sources used, and the potential biological effects are related to the variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For example, since lipids are the main source of energy when the normal absorptive capacity of the digestive tract is compromised, medium-chain saturated fatty acids might cover this requirement...
May 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729104/the-impact-of-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Kim H H Liss, Kyle S McCommis, Kari T Chambers, Terri A Pietka, George G Schweitzer, Sara L Park, ILKe Nalbantoglu, Carla J Weinheimer, Angela M Hall, Brian N Finck
The prevalence of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has significantly increased over the past decade and end stage liver disease secondary to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has become one of the most common indications for liver transplantation. This both increases the demand for organs and decreases the availability of donor livers deemed suitable for transplantation. While in the past many steatotic livers were discarded due to concerns over enhanced susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury and organ failure, the discrepancy between supply and demand has resulted in increasing use of expanded criteria donor organs including steatotic livers...
May 5, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721693/nutritional-intervention-in-patients-with-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-protective-effect-against-the-increase-in-fat-mass
#9
Thais Ortiz Abad, Roseli Oselka Sarni, Simone Guerra da Silva, Daniele Machado, Fabíola I Suano-Souza, Claudio Arnaldo Len, Maria Teresa Terreri
Patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) usually have an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean body mass. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a nutritional intervention on changes in body composition and food consumption of adolescents with JSLE compared with a control group and its variation over time and to assess the association of total fat mass with clinical parameters. This randomized controlled study evaluated 31 girls. Body composition and food intake were evaluated at baseline...
May 2, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713129/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-severity-is-defined-by-a-failure-in-compensatory-antioxidant-capacity-in-the-setting-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Michelle L Boland, Stephanie Oldham, Brandon B Boland, Sarah Will, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Silvia Guionaud, Christopher J Rhodes, James L Trevaskis
AIM: To comprehensively evaluate mitochondrial (dys) function in preclinical models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We utilized two readily available mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without progressive fibrosis: Lepob /Lepob ( ob/ob ) and FATZO mice on high trans -fat, high fructose and high cholesterol (AMLN) diet. Presence of NASH was assessed using immunohistochemical and pathological techniques, and gene expression profiling...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705425/in-vitro-ruminal-biohydrogenation-of-eicosapentaenoic-epa-docosapentaenoic-dpa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-in-cows-and-ewes-intermediate-metabolites-and-pathways
#11
P G Toral, G Hervás, H Leskinen, K J Shingfield, P Frutos
A great deal of uncertainty still exists about intermediate metabolites and pathways explaining the biohydrogenation (BH) of 20- and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Therefore, this study was conducted to provide further insight into the ruminal metabolism of 20:5 n-3 (EPA), 22:5 n-3 (DPA), and 22:6 n-3 (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA present in the marine lipids used in dairy ruminant feeding, and to examine potential differences between bovine and ovine. To meet this aim, we investigated the 20- and 22-carbon metabolites accumulated during in vitro incubation of EPA, DPA, and DHA with rumen inocula from cows and ewes...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705417/milk-fat-depression-in-dairy-ewes-fed-fish-oil-might-differences-in-rumen-biohydrogenation-fermentation-or-bacterial-community-explain-the-individual-variation
#12
P Frutos, P G Toral, A Belenguer, G Hervás
Dairy ewes show large individual variation in the extent of diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) but reasons behind this variability remain uncertain. Previous results offered no convincing support for these differences being related to relevant changes in the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, including potentially antilipogenic FA, or in the transcript abundance of candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that alterations in the processes of rumen biohydrogenation and fermentation, as well as in the bacterial community structure, might account for individual variation in fish oil-induced MFD severity...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704577/food-drug-interaction-anabolic-steroids-aggravate-hepatic-lipotoxicity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-trans-fatty-acids
#13
Jamili D B Santos, Andrea A S Mendonça, Rafaela C Sousa, Thaiany G S Silva, Solange M Bigonha, Eliziária C Santos, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Romulo D Novaes
Remains unknown if dietary lipids and anabolic steroids (AS) can interact to modify energy metabolism, hepatic structure and function. We investigated the impact of AS on gene expression, lipid profile, redox status and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice treated with a diet rich in trans fatty acids. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were equally randomized into six groups and treated with a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) alone or combined with testosterone cypionate (10 or 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks...
April 25, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694491/multidisciplinary-and-motivational-intervention-for-the-treatment-of-low-income-brazilian-obese-adolescents-pilot-study
#14
Andrea Rocha Filgueiras, Ana Lydia Sawaya
OBJECTIVE: To test a multidisciplinary and motivational intervention for the treatment of Brazilian obese and low-income adolescents (Z score>2 BMI-for-age) that used nutritional counseling without dietary control. METHODS: An intervention protocol was developed including periodical nutritional education workshops, individual nutritional counseling guided by the stages of eating behavior of the Trans Theoretical Model of Behavior Change, physical exercise, psychological counseling, recreational activities, and clinical follow-up for 13 months in a sample of 21 adolescents (11-17 years old)...
April 23, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693731/genetic-and-epigenetic-defects-at-the-gnas-locus-lead-to-distinct-patterns-of-skeletal-growth-but-similar-early-onset-obesity
#15
Patrick Hanna, Virginie Grybek, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, Léa C Tran, Luisa de Sanctis, Francesca Elli, Javier Errea, Bruno Francou, Peter Kamenicky, Léa Linglart, Arrate Pereda, Anya Rothenbuhler, Daniele Tessaris, Susanne Thiele, Alessia Usardi, Ashley H Shoemaker, Marie-Laure Kottler, Harald Jüppner, Giovanna Mantovani, Agnès Linglart
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A), pseudoPHP (PPHP), and PHP type 1B (PHP1B) are caused by maternal and paternal GNAS mutations, and abnormal methylation at maternal GNAS promoter(s), respectively. Adult PHP1A patients are reportedly obese and short, whereas most PPHP patients are born small. In addition to PTH resistance, PHP1A and PHP1B patients may display early-onset obesity. As early-onset and severe obesity and short stature are daily burdens for PHP1A patients, we aimed at improving knowledge on the contribution of the GNAS transcripts to fetal and postnatal growth and fat storage...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672753/pro-and-anti-androgenic-progestins-in-transgender-youth-differential-effects-on-body-composition-and-bone-metabolism
#16
Lloyd J W Tack, Margarita Craen, Bruno Lapauw, Stefan Goemaere, Kaatje Toye, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Sara Vandewalle, Guy T'Sjoen, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Martine Cools
Context: Pro- and anti-androgenic progestins can be used to attenuate endogenous hormonal effects in late-pubertal transgender adolescents (Tanner stage B4/5 and G4/5). Currently, no data are available on the effects of progestins on the development of bone mass or body composition in trans youth. Objective: To study prospectively the evolution of body composition and bone mass in late-pubertal transgender adolescents using the pro- or anti-androgenic progestins lynestrenol (L) and cyproterone acetate (CA) respectively...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662045/macronutrient-and-major-food-group-intake-in-a-cohort-of-southern-italian-adults
#17
Serena Mulè, Mariagiovanna Falla, Alessandra Conti, Dora Castiglione, Isabella Blanco, Armando Platania, Maurizio D'Urso, Marina Marranzano
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. RESULTS: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones...
April 15, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659960/obese-mice-losing-weight-due-to-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-or-food-restriction-harbor-distinct-gut-microbiota
#18
Laura J den Hartigh, Zhan Gao, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Arun K Das, Charles F Burant, Alan Chait, Martin J Blaser
Background: trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective: Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#19
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652436/quick-changes-of-milk-fatty-acids-after-inclusion-or-suppression-of-linseed-oil-in-the-diet-of-goats
#20
Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Alfonso Cívico, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Nieves Núñez Sánchez, Manuela Juárez, Francisco Peña Blanco, Andrés L Martínez Marín
BACKGROUND: Lipid supplementation of ruminant diet is an excellent tool to improve the nutritional quality of dairy fat. The purpose of this research was to monitor in detail the goat milk fatty acid (FA) profile during the first 24 h after linseed oil (LO) supplementation or suppression in the diet. Particular emphasis was placed in the changes of FA with bioactive properties. Milk fat was analysed by gas chromatography from milkings at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after diet shift. RESULTS: The α-linolenic acid levels increased 12 h after LO incorporation in the diet and decreased 3 h after oil suppression...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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