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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242901/designed-host-defense-peptides-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-keratitis
#1
L Edward Clemens, Jesse Jaynes, Edward Lim, Satya S Kolar, Rose Y Reins, Hasna Baidouri, Samuel Hanlon, Alison M McDermott, Kathryn W Woodburn
Purpose: To limit corneal damage and potential loss of vision, bacterial keratitis must be treated aggressively. Innovation in antimicrobials is required due to the need for empirical treatment and the rapid emergence of bacterial resistance. Designed host defense peptides (dHDPs) are synthetic analogues of naturally occurring HDPs, which provide defense against invading pathogens. This study investigates the use of novel dHDPs for the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for dHDPs on both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236588/topical-glycyrrhizin-is-therapeutic-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#2
Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Sharon A McClellan, Ronald P Barrett, Linda D Hazlett
PURPOSE: Glycyrrhizin (GLY), an inhibitor of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protects prophylactically against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. However, the therapeutic potential of GLY to enhance an antibiotic has not been tested and is our purpose. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (B6) were infected with a clinical isolate (KEI 1025) of P. aeruginosa and treated topically at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) with GLY or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Clinical scores, photography with a slit lamp, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, myeloperoxidase assay, bacterial plate counts, histopathology, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) assays, and in vitro macrophage (Mφ) stimulation assays were used to assess effects of GLY treatment...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234586/aspergillus-tamarii-keratitis-in-a-contact-lens-wearer
#3
Juan Cuadros, Juan Gros-Otero, Patricia Gallego-Angui, Ann Karolin Scheu, Ángeles Montes-Mollón, Cinta Pérez-Rico, Javier Paz Moreno, Peña Gómez-Herruz, Juan Soliveri, Miguel Teus
Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234549/bilateral-mycobacterium-chelonae-keratitis-after-phacoemulsification-cataract-surgery
#4
Jaime D Martinez, Guillermo Amescua, Jesus Lozano-Cárdenas, Leejee H Suh
The purpose of this manuscript is to report the case of an 81-year-old patient who presented with bilateral keratitis after phacoemulsification surgery. Cultures came back positive for Mycobacterium chelonae. Despite aggressive topical and systemic antimicrobial treatment, the patient developed a corneal perforation in both eyes, treated with corneal glue in the right eye and corneoscleral patch in the left eye. After two years of follow-up, patient was free of infection in the right eye with visual acuity of 20/200 and the left eye progressed to phthisis bulbi...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233457/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-a-novel-povidone-iodine-contact-lens-disinfection-system
#5
Katsuhide Yamasaki, Fumio Saito, Ritsue Ota, Simon Kilvington
PURPOSE: Contact lens (CL) wear is a risk factor for the acquisition of microbial keratitis. Accordingly, compliance to manufacturers' recommended hygiene and disinfection procedures are vital to safe (CL) use. In this study we evaluated a novel povidone-iodine (PI) (CL) disinfection system (cleadew, Ophtecs Corporation, Japan) against a range of bacterial, fungal and Acanthamoeba. METHODS: Antimicrobial assays were conducted according to ISO 14729 using the recommended strains of bacteria and fungi, with and without the presence of organic soil...
December 7, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230977/scleral-buckling-using-a-non-contact-wide-angle-viewing-system-with-a-25-gauge-chandelier-endoilluminator
#6
Jaehyuck Jo, Byung Gil Moon, Joo Yong Lee
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of scleral buckling using a non-contact wide-angle viewing system with a 25-gauge chandelier endoilluminator. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of medical records were performed for 17 eyes of 16 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without proliferative vitreoretinopathy who had undergone conventional scleral buckling with cryoretinopexy using the combination of a non-contact wide-angle viewing system and chandelier endoillumination...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228372/a-novel-tomographic-imaging-probe-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-fungal-keratitis
#7
Min Hee Lee, Gregory Wiedman, Steven Park, Arkady Mustaev, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Fungal keratitis is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in developing countries. Diagnosing fungal keratitis currently relies on a comparative evaluation of corneal biopsy or scraping using a direct microscopy and culture results. These methods not only carry the risk of developing complications due to the invasive tissue sampling but also are largely limited by diagnostic speed and accuracy, making it difficult to initiate timely appropriate antifungal therapy. Therefore, rapid and noninvasive diagnostic tools are a pressing need for improved outcomes for fungal keratitis...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227340/corneal-transplantation-in-new-zealand-2000-to-2009
#8
Alexandra Z Crawford, Thiyagaraj Krishnan, Susan E Ormonde, Dipika V Patel, Charles N McGhee
PURPOSE: To quantify all minor/major adverse events in a large cohort of consecutive corneal transplants, particularly in respect to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). METHODS: All corneal transplants in the Auckland region over a 10-year period (2000-2009) were identified through the New Zealand National Eye Bank. Relevant clinical records were assessed for this period and 2 years after. All intraoperative or postoperative adverse events/complications, visual acuity, and graft outcomes were recorded...
December 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226254/empirical-treatment-of-bacterial-keratitis-an-international-survey-of-corneal-specialists
#9
Ariana Austin, Julie Schallhorn, Mike Geske, Mark Mannis, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Background/aims: New antibiotic agents and changing susceptibility patterns may have changed the empirical treatment of bacterial keratitis. Our objective in this study was to survey cornea specialists' practice patterns in the initial treatment of bacterial ulcers. Methods: This study consisted of a short online survey emailed to members of the Cornea Society listserv for an international sample of cornea specialists. Data collection began July 2014 and ended October 2014...
August 2017: BMJ open ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221710/acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-patients-wearing-scleral-contact-lenses
#10
Matheus Porto Sticca, Linda C Carrijo-Carvalho, Isa M B Silva, Luiz A Vieira, Luciene B Souza, Rubens Belfort Junior, Fábio Ramos S Carvalho, Denise Freitas
PURPOSE: To report a series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in scleral lens wearers with keratoconus to determine whether this type of contact lens presents a greater risk for development of infection. METHODS: This study reports three patients who wore scleral contact lenses to correct keratoconus and developed AK. The diagnoses of AK were established based on cultures of the cornea, scleral contact lenses, and contact lens paraphernalia. This study investigated the risk factors for infections...
December 5, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219900/diagnostic-challenges-in-nocardia-keratitis
#11
Joséphine Behaegel, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Carina Koppen
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of diagnostic confusion in Nocardia keratitis in a contact lens wearer and to illustrate the characteristic clinical findings of this rare entity. METHODS: Case report of Nocardia keratitis that was mistaken for acanthamoeba, herpetic, and fungal keratitis in three tertiary corneal referral centers before the correct diagnosis of Nocardia infection was made. RESULTS: A 29-year-old contact lens wearer was referred to our hospital for a contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis, not improving under standard bacterial treatment...
December 5, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216872/late-onset-diffuse-lamellar-keratitis-4%C3%A2-years-after-femtosecond-laser-assisted-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-a-case-report
#12
Meiyan Li, Dong Yang, Yingjun Chen, Meng Li, Tian Han, Xingtao Zhou, Katherine Ni
BACKGROUND: To report a first case of late-onset diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) occurring 4 years after femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old man who underwent SMILE 4 years prior developed DLK in the right eye 1 day after he was struck in the eye by a finger while playing with his son. Slim-lamp microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were used to evaluate the cornea of the right eye...
December 8, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212473/case-report-bilateral-mooren-ulcer-in-association-with-hepatitis-c
#13
Vesa Aaltonen, Mari Alavesa, Laura Pirilä, Eija Vesti, Mohammad Al-Juhaish
BACKGROUND: Mooren ulcer has been considered as an idiopathic autoimmune keratitis. However, it has been in some cases suggested to be associated with hepatitis C, although the evidence is very vague. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a man who was diagnosed with a primary Mooren ulcer in his right eye. The eye became blind despite of intensive treatment with local medications and extensive surgical procedures. After 10 years, the patient was diagnosed with the same disease, now in his left, previously healthy eye...
December 6, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211700/effect-of-histocompatibility-y-antigen-matching-on-graft-survival-in-primary-penetrating-keratoplasty
#14
Mi Jin Kim, Joo Hyun Kim, Hyun Sun Jeon, Won Ryang Wee, Joon Young Hyon
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of histocompatibility Y (H-Y) antigen matching on corneal graft survival in primary penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent primary PK at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2005 and October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The eyes were classified into 2 groups: H-Y-compatible (115 eyes) and H-Y-incompatible (23 eyes). The H-Y-compatible group included donor/recipient combinations of male/male (57 eyes), female/male (44 eyes), and female/female (14 eyes)...
January 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211242/potentially-pathogenic-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-isolated-from-dental-units-and-emergency-combination-showers
#15
Esteban Castro-Artavia, Lissette Retana-Moreira, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Elizabeth Abrahams-Sandí
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210317/enhanced-ocular-bioavailability-of-fluconazole-from-niosomal-gels-and-microemulsions-formulation-optimization-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Osama Abd El-Aazeem Soliman, Elham Abdel Monem Mohamed, Nabil Abdullah Ali Khatera
Fungal keratitis may cause vision loss if it is not treated. Methods other than ocular delivery exhibited several limitations. No previous studies investigated and compared ocular bioavailability of fluconazole (FLZ) from niosomal gels and microemulsions. Niosomal gels of FLZ (0.3% w/w) based on Span® 60 and cholesterol (CH) using 1% w/w carbopol® 934 (CP) were evaluated. FLZ microemulsions (0.3% w/v) containing isopropyl myristate (IPM, as oil phase) and a 3:1 mixture of Tween® 80 (as surfactant) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400, as cosurfactant) were characterized...
December 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207710/a-case-of-keratomycosis-caused-by-fusarium-solani-at-rural-tertiary-care-center
#17
Vishal Laxmikant Kulkarni, Anagha Govind Kinikar, Deepika Shivaji Bhalerao, S Roushani
Keratomycosis is defined as invasive infection of corneal stroma caused by variety of fungi. Most of these cases occur in agricultural workers with history of corneal trauma with vegetative matter contaminated by fungi. Fusarium species which causes keratomycosis receives occasional mention in literature. We report a case of a 27-year-old male, farmer by occupation presented with complains of foreign body sensation, itching and discharge from the right eye and developed white patch on cornea which was progressed gradually to size of diameter of pea which was later diagnosed as keratitis caused by Fusarium species...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203378/occurrence-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-central-west-malaysian-environments
#18
Mohamad Hafiz Abdul Basher, Init Ithoi, Rohela Mahmud, Awatif Mohamed Abdulsalam, Agus Iwan Foead, Salwa Dawaki, Wahib Mohammed Mohsen Atroosh, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Wan Omar Abdullah
Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa that can be found worldwide. Occasionally, it can become parasitic and the causative agent of acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) in man. A total of 160 environmental samples and 225 naturally-infected animal corneal swabs were collected for Acanthamoeba cultivation. Acanthamoeba was found to be high in samples collected from environments (85%, 136/160) compared to infected animal corneas (24.89%, 56/225) by microscopic examination...
December 1, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195497/bilateral-uveitis-and-macular-edema-induced-by-nivolumab-a-case-report
#19
Claire Theillac, Morgane Straub, Anne-Laure Breton, Luc Thomas, Stéphane Dalle
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is a fully human antibody which is routinely used at first therapy for metastatic melanoma. Usually, side effects are immune-related adverse events. We report a case of a man who developed bilateral anterior uveitis and macular serous retinal detachment during nivolumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A man on nivolumab treatment for a leg melanoma with duodenal and lymph nodes metastases developed a sudden bilateral visual acuity impairment and bilateral non-painfull redness eyes several days after the third infusion...
December 1, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193858/exophiala-phaeomuriformis-keratitis-in-a-subarctic-climate-region-a-case-report
#20
André Vicente, Fátima Pedrosa Domellöf, Berit Byström
PURPOSE: To report a case of Exophiala phaeomuriformis mycotic keratitis in a patient from a subarctic climate region. Dematiaceous fungi (black yeasts) have been gaining importance as corneal keratitis and ulcer causative agents in certain regions, but no cases have been described in Scandinavia. METHODS: Case report of a patient with a persistent corneal erosion that eventually presented a brown-pigmented infiltrate. The patient had a history of several months of topical therapy comprising medication for glaucoma, corticosteroids and antibiotics...
November 29, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
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